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1^^^^ ft^ilw i^^lUBM^'K^ 



f/d^' 



/ 




REMINISCENCES 



OF 



MANCHESTER 



, PIFIY YEAES AGO. 



BY 



J. T. SLUGG, RR.A.S., 

AUTHOR OF "the STARS AND THE TELESCOPE," 
AND " INTRODUCTION TO OBSERVATIONAL ASTRONOMY.' 




MANCHESTER: 
J. E. CORNISH, 33, PICCADILLY, and x(>, ST. ANN'S SQUARE. 

LONDON; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & Co. 

J 8 8 I . 



DEDICATED TO 

J. H. NODAL, Esq., 

EDITOR OF THE ** MANCHESTER CITY NEWS," 

THROUGH WHOSE KINDNESS 

THESE REMINISCENCES 

FIRST APPEARED 

IN THE COLUMNS OF THAT JOURNAL. 



PREFACE. 



'T^HE present volume of Reminiscences is intended to 
convey an approximate idea of the Manchester of 
Fifty Years Ago — of its outward aspect, its trade, customs, 
manners, and society, and its form of government some 
years before it obtained its Charter of Incorporation, and 
long before it attained to the dignity of a city. 

If justification were needed for its publication, it will be 
found in the wide interest which its contents excited as 
they appeared in the columns of the Manchester City News, 
Such a step as their appearance in book form was the 
farthest thing imaginable from the mind of the author when 
he sent his first chapter to the editor of that journal, his 
expectation then being that all he had to say would be 
completed in some half-dozen or dozen chapters. As he 
proceeded, however, his work grew under his hand, a 
result which was fostered by a classification of the subjects. 

The area covered by the numerous topics handled 
being large, it was impossible to avoid an occasional 



vi. PREFACE. 



mistake. These errors were pointed out in most cases by 
correspondents of the City News, and also privately. In 
the present volume such corrections have been adopted, 
and a most careful revision has been made of the contents. 
The author wishes to draw attention to the fact that the 
period to which these Reminiscences refers is that which is 
indicated in the title. Many aged persons who remember 
well-known characters living in Manchester fifty-five or 
sixty years ago have been disappointed at not finding their 
names mentioned, and have erroneously spoken of the 
absence of such names as omissions. 

Many portions have been re-written, and a considerable 
quantity of new matter has been added. To those gentle- 
men who have kindly furnished information and corrections, 
the author tenders his sincere thanks. Their names are 
too' numerous to mention, and to single any out would 
be invidious. 

J. T. S. 



Ckorlion»cum^ Hardy i 
January^ 1881, 



Chapter. 

I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Streets and Bridges i 

Wholesale Firms 17 

Calico Printers 27 

Bleachers, Drysalters, and Hookers-In . 41 

Doctors 47 

Druggists 60 

Booksellers 77 

Sundry Traders, Engineers, and Professors 91 

Notable Persons 105 

Places of Worship — Church of England . 115 

Do. Independent Chapels , 128 
Do. Wesleyan Methodist 

Chapels , . .147 

Do. Unitarian Chapels . 170 

Do. Various . . . .181 

Lawyers and Magistrates . . . . 195 

The Post Ofj-tce 202 

Stage Coaching Days . . . . . 209 

Travel and Goods Carriage by Road and Canal 219 

Opening of the Railway to Liverpool . . 227 

Government of Town : Curious Officials . 235 

Gas, Water, and Haxkney Coaches . . 242 

Medical and other Charitable Institutions 247 

Literary, Scientific, and other Societies . 260 

Newspapers 276 

Building Clubs 292 

Music, Paganini, and Malibran . . . 297 

Public Amusements 307 

Dress and Conclusion 316 

Appendix 323 

Obituary 333 



^ 



REMINISCENCES OF MANCHESTER 

FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE STREETS AND BRIDGES. 



T T was on the afternoon of a certain Monday in March, 
1829, that I was driven to Manchester in his gig by the 
father of the late Mr. John Robinson Kay, formerly a 
director of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, who 
lived at Longholme, near Bacup, where my father, who 
was a Wesleyan minister, then was stationed. Having 
lived in Manchester ever since, I propose to furnish some 
reminiscences of the Manchester of that period. 

Mr. Kay was a manufacturer of cloth, both by^ steam 
power and hand loom, and always attended the Manchester 
market on a Tuesday. A very different thing it was then 
for a country manufacturer to attend the Tuesday's market 
from what it is now. With what ease and comfort, by the 
aid of a first-class carriage and an express train, he is now 
transported to Manchester, going and returning the same 

B 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



day, even to and from places as distant as Blackburn and 
Burnley. Then, if a manufacturer lived fifteen or twenty 
miles from Manchester, he generally came on the Monday 
previously, frequently driving his own conveyance, and put 
up at some inn — there were not many "hotels" in those 
days — the name of which was given in the " Directory,'' 
as well as the address of his place of business in town. 
Accordingly, in that for 1829, we find, under the head of 
" Country Manufacturers," " Kay, Thomas, calico manufac- 
turer, Longholme, 3, Walton's Buildings, Tues., White 
Lion, Hanging Ditch." This is a sample of most other 
entries under that head, though here and there one may be 
found having only the place of business named. 

After Mr. Kay had put his horse up at the White Lion, 
he conducted me to my future home, No. 21, Market 
Street. The same shop is now numbered 41, inasmuch as 
the streets were not then numbered on the sensible plan at 
present adopted, viz., the even numbers on one side and 
the odd on the other. Market Street was numbered, for 
instance, from the first shop on the left-hand side going up — 
which was then, and till very lately, that of Clark, cutler — 
consecutively to the last shop on the same side, which was 
occupied by R. and J. Cleave, booksellers, and was num- 
bered 61 \ then crossing over the top of Market Street, 62 
was the Royal Hotel and New Bridgewater Arms, kept by 
Henry Charles Lacey, which had been removed from the 
comer of High Street a few years previously ; and the last 
shop on the left-hand side going down was 108, occupied 
by Mr. Prince, a grocer, who made a princely fortune, and 
from whom Prince's Court was named. Prince's Court 



NEWALVS BUILDINGS. 



existed till the last enlargement of the Exchange, which 
now covers the site. A few weeks after my coming to Man- 
chester, I was taken to the office of Messrs. Atkinson and 
Birch, in Norfolk Street, then one of the leading firms of 
solicitors, and bound an apprentice to W. Dentith and Co., 
wholesale and retail druggists. One of my fellow-apprentices 
was the youngest son of the celebrated Dr. Warren, and 
brother of the late Samuel Warren, recorder of Hull, and 
author of the " Diary of a Late Physician," and " Ten 
Thousand a Year." Warren's brother Edward was an artist 
of some promise. 

About ten or twelve years before the time I speak of a 
special Act of Parliament had empowered certain commis- 
sioners to widen and improve Market Street. This had 
been nearly completed but not entirely ; there were two old 
piles of buildings still left standing. One was. that which 
occupied the site of the front part of the present Exchange, 
and which when pulled down was succeeded by the ever- 
memorable NewalFs Buildings (No. i). Mr. Newall, who 
was a grocer, was then living, his shop being the first in the 
old building going up the street. In the alteration Market 
Street had been raised at the lower end and lowered at the 
middle part. Consequently the floor of NewalFs shop was 
lower than the level of the street, and to enter it you had 
to descend by a step. The next shop to this was Shaw's, a 
saddler ; then came a florist and seedsman, whose nursery 
was in Cheetwood. Next was Charles Lovatt, the well- 
known tobacconist. By the way, there were then only 
twenty-three tobacconists in the whole of Manchester and 
Salford. To-day, to show hoW society has in one respect 



4 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

made a retrograde movement, I may mention that the last 
"Directory" contains the names of nearly 500. Of course 
some allowance must be made for increase of population, 
but will that account for all this difference ? The last place 
of business in this old pile was the Peacock Coach Office, 
kept by Mr. John ELnowles, the father of the late proprietor 
of the Theatre Royal, who also carried on the business of a 
coal merchant at Ducie Street, Piccadilly. It was from this 
office that the afterwards popular London coach the Peveril 
of the Peak started, it then being only a two-horse one. 

The other pile of old buildings stood nearly opposite 
Spring Gardens, on the site now occupied by the shop of 
Messrs. WooUey and the adjacent ones. The street here 
having been considerably lowered, the foothpath on that 
side was on a sort of bank, which separated the carriage way 
from the path. Singular to say, there was also a coach 
office in this old pile, the Swan, kept by Weatherald and 
Webster — (the latter gentleman was a Quaker) — ^from which 
the Red Rover used to start. Next to it was the shop of 
Mr. Hargreaves, then one of the oldest druggists in Man- 
chester; and hereabouts was the place of business for a 
time of Old Weatherley, the bookseller. A little higher up 
was Cunliifes, Brooks, and Co.'s Bank ; and near it was the 
warehouse of Mr. Emmanuel Mendel, father of Mr. Sam 
Mendel, a rope, twine, and pitch-paper manufacturer, his 
house being in Brazennose Street. A little higher up again 
was the Palace Inn, which stood back, having a good open 
space in front, and being a large brick house having a double 
flight of steps at the front door. It is well known that in 
1745 Mr. Dickensen lived and entertained Prince Charles 



MARKET STREET, 



here. John, the head waiter for many years, was widely 
known. He afterwards kept the King's Arms, at the bottom 
of King Street, his name being Pownall. 

The time prescribed by the Act of Parliament for effect- 
ing the improvement of Market Street was limited, I 
believe, to twelve years. When it had transpired, there was 
one more alteration to be effected and which was conse- 
quently not made for many years after. The next shop to 
the inn at the corner of Palace Street, occupied by Mr. 
John Roberts, the stationer, projected a little beyond the 
line of the street, and has only been pulled down at a 
recent date, having been the subject of litigation between 
Mr. James Cheetham, the last occupier, and the Corpora- 
tion. The office of the Guardian newspaper, published by 
Messrs. Taylor and Garnett, was on the opposite side of 
the street, nearer Brown Street. Neither Corporation Street 
nor New Brown Street had then any existence, whilst a 
portion of Cross Street running from Chapel Walks to 
Market Street, then known as Pool Fold, was a narrow and 
somewhat dingy street. In it was the office of Hannibal 
Becker and Co., large oil of vitriol manufacturers. Mr. 
Becker was an ancestor of a well-known member of the 
Manchester School Board. The first shop on the right 
hand near where the Exchange steps now stand, was that of 
Patison, a confectioner; next was a tavern called the 
Rifleman ; and next the book shop of Ann Hopps, the wife 
of James Hopps, who was the brother of John, a well- 
known book^seller. The shop was entered by a flight of 
steps, and Mrs. Hopps lodged with Morris, a chimney 
sweeper, who lived farther on in the same street 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Of course we should hardly expect that any one who was 
in business fifty years ago in Market Street would be found 
there to-day. In the case of the Messrs. Darbyshire, the 
business is still carried on by the sons, whom I well remem- 
ber as youths. A few other names are still perpetuated — 
though the owners have long since passed away — in Lynch 
and Jewsbury, the druggists, Mr. Daniel Lynch being a 
leading man amongst the Freemasons of that day. The 
celebrated James Everett, the Wesleyan minister, at that 
time kept a stationer's shop about ten doors above Clark's. 
He was originally a Wesleyan minister, but on account of a 
throat affection went into business, and afterwards re-entered 
the ministry. The next shop was that of the fashionable 
hatter of that day, Mr. Mountcastle, whose appearance was 
rather remarkable, being very good looking, always un- 
usually well dressed, and wearing a scrupulously white 
neckerchief. At that time there was a very heavy duty on 
all kinds of glass, and as a consequence not a single shop- 
window contained any plate glass, but shop windows were 
composed of small squares of ordinary crown glass. The 
first shop which made a venture in that line was one very 
near Mr. Mountcastle's, I think a milliner's, and called 
Chantilly House, This was before the duty was taken off. 
There were two windows, and in the centre of each was in- 
serted a brass frame about two feet long and one and a 
half broad, holding a sheet of plate glass. It used to be 
said that the two cost more than jQz^* ^^ ^^^ object of 
the proprietor was to cause a little sensation I am sure he 
was gratified, . for everybody went to see these " large " 
squares of plate glass. 



MARKET STREET. 



The next building to the Bridgewater Arms coach office 
was the warehouse of H. Bannerman and Sons \ and not 
far from this was the office of Mr. David Holt, generally 
known as Quaker Holt, a cotton spinner, who was reputed 
to be the best carver at a public dinner-table in Man- 
chester. He was one of the commissioners for the widen- 
ing of Market Street. Nearly opposite to Dentiths' was 
the Norwich Union Fire Office, having a statue of Justice 
blindfolded over the door. The Talbot Inn, which was 
pulled down a few years since, was then standing at the 
comer of the street now called West Mosley Street ; and a 
little lower down was the Mosley Arms, afterwards removed 
to Piccadilly. Turning out of Market Street into Brown 
Street, next to the Commercial Inn, were the Shambles, 
since converted into the Post Office; and over was the 
Manor Court Room, where the Court Leet was held, where 
the boroughreeve and constables were elected, and where 
the "Court of Requests" was held. The Court, which 
had only jurisdiction to the amount of forty shillings, was 
presided over by commissioners, of whom the chairman 
was a barrister named Hill, whilst his colleagues were lay- 
men, as in a Court of Quarter Sessions. 

The left-hand side of Piccadilly going from Market Street 
consisted principally of shops, a few private houses, and 
offices. Amongst the shops was that of Mr. Joseph Kid- 
son, a tailor, which remains yet in the hands of his son. 
The supply of water was then in the hands of the Man- 
chester and Salford Waterworks Company, and it was here 
they had their offices. Near to them was that of the well- 
known John Law, a solicitor, who was very popular as an 



8 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

advocate in the police court, his opponent generally being 
another solicitor, Edward Foulkes. Opposite the end of 
Portland Street were two good houses, in one of which Mr. 
John Roberts the stationer lived, the other being occupied 
by Mr. James Bloor, one of the principal pawnbrokers, 
whose business was conducted at the back of his premises 
in Back Piccadilly, the front presenting all the appearance 
of a private house. Mr. Bloor now resides at Southport, a 
hale and hearty old man nearly eighty years of age, and he. 
told me lately that having been born in that house he 
resided there for seventy-two years. Will not this fact bear 
out what Mr. Turner the surgeon used to say as to the mis- 
taken views of those people who are so fond of talking of 
the unhealthiness of Manchester? Mr. Turner lived for 
the greater part of his life in the heart of Manchester, and 
after spending many of his last years in Mosley Street, died 
at a good old age. I am tempted to add my own testi- 
mony to the eifect that at a most important period of my 
life, when being developed from a boy into a man, I lived 
eight years in Market Street, and had not a day's illness 
during the whole time. 

Instead of the magnificent hotel which now stands at the 
comer of Portland Street, there existed two or three large 
brick houses, known as Portland Place. In the first of 
them dwelt Mr. Thomas Houldsworth, who lived to be one 
of the oldest members of Parliament, representing success- 
ively Pontefract, Newton, and North Notts. " Houldsworth's 
Factory," in Little Lever Street, was well known all over 
Manchester. He was very popular amongst his employes, 
as well as amongst the inhabitants generally, and was a 



THE INFIRMARY. 



liberal supporter of the races, keeping a stud of racehorses 
his jockeys always wearing green and gold. The next house, 
was occupied by Mr. Robert Ogden, cotton spinner ; and 
the next by the two partners in the firm of Hargreaves and 
Dugdale, calico printers, whose warehouse was in Marsden's 
Square. 

The Infirmary was a plain brick building, without the two 
wings, which have been added to it since; the lunatic 
asylum, which had a lower elevation, being an extension of 
tlie main building. In front was the sheet of water known 
as the Infirmary Pond, separated from the footpath by 
palisading. At the Infirmary gates stood the public baths, 
the income arising from them being appropriated to the 
support of the Infirmary. The charge for a cold bath to 
non subscribers was is. j to subscribers of half-a-guinea, lod.; 
and to those of a guinea, pd. The price of a vapour bath 
was 5 s. ; of a vapour and hot bath when used together, 6s.; 
and of the shampooing bath, 7s. They were under the 
superintendence of Mr. William Galor, who was succeeded 
by Mr. John Haworth, for many years a councillor for St. 
George's Ward, and now a resident of Southport, in the 
enjoyment of excellent health at the age of seventy-six. 

Perhaps there is no street which has been so completely 
metamorphosed in the course of fifty years as Mosley Street 
I do not mean as to its shape and size, for they are not 
altered, but as to its character. Could one of its old 
residents see to-day its warehouses lining each side and the 
immense stream of traffic pouring constantly through it, he 
would be astonished Fifty years ago it was a quiet, orderly, 
genteel street, the abode of some of the Hite of Manchester. 



lO MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



Here were the residences of the Rev. Dr. Calvert, warden 
.of the Collegiate Church, Daniel Grant, Sam Brooks, 
David Bannerman, Thomas Worthington, Leo Schuster, 
S. L. Behrens, John Frederick Foster, the Stipendiary 
Magistrate, and several of the leading medical men. The 
Portico was there, as also the Royal Institution, which had 
been recently built, at a cost of ;^2 6,000. The Assembly 
Room, opposite the Portico, was a plain brick building; 
whilst on the other side of Charlotte Street, but on the same 
side of Mosley Street, was the chapel where Dr. M*Call was 
preaching to large congregations every Sunday. Higher up 
the street was the Unitarian Chapel, where the Rev. J. J. 
Tayler officiated. I well remember a hue and cry that one 
Sunday morning Daniel Grant's house had been robbed 
whilst the inmates were at church. The large warehouses 
in Parker Street, behind the Infirmary, had then no existence, 
whilst George Street and Faulkner Street contained princi- 
pally private residences. In fact, I cannot remember that 
there was a single warehouse in either of these streets, Mosley 
Street, Portland Street, Peter Street, Oxford Road, or 
Pickenson Street, except that in the latter street was 
Pickford's canal warehouse, an arm of the canal reaching 
into the warehouse, where the boats were loaded with goods 
for London. It is an extraordinary circumstance that 
whilst so many buildings in this street and neighbourhood 
which existed fifty years ago have been destroyed to make 
way for the erection of large and substantial warehouses on 
their site, there is nearly opposite to the former site of 
Pickford's warehouse a row of small cottages which were 
there at the time I speak of, and which are standing yet. 



OXFORD ROAD, \ i 



Peter Street, which now has its Free Trade Hall, Con- 
cert Hall, Theatre, and other public buildings, contained 
nqthing of the kind fifty years ago. Both the Theatre 
Royal and " Concert Rooms " were in Fountain Street, the 
former occupying a site between York Street and Charlotte 
Street, on which the warehouse of Daniel Lee and Co. now 
stands ; whilst music was not then honoured by being domi- 
ciled in a separate building, but had apartments next door 
to the churchwardens' office and nearly opposite the theatre. 
Tlie large space of ground known as St. Peter's Field, on 
which the building erected for a museum with others now 
stand, and on which the great meeting of 60,000 perso^M 
was held which ended so disastrously, in 1819, was still un- 
occupied by buildings. A large meeting of, it was said, 
40,000 or 50,000 persons was held on it shortly after the 
time of which I am writing for some political purpose. 

Oxford Road was pretty much then as it is now, except 
that of course the traffic was much less ; no railway bridge 
crossed it, there were fewer shops and more private houses, 
and a little beyond Tuer Street, the houses were large and 
detached, the homes of the wealthy. Here were the resi- 
dences of Richard Potter, afterwards M.P. for Wigan; 
William Entwistle, once M.P. for South Lancashire ; the 
Rev. Dr. M'Call, James Wood, the founder of the firm of 
Wood and Westhead ; and John Femley, who before he 
died presented such a magnificent gift to the Wesleyan 
Connexion, in the shape of a large and handsome chapel, 
day and Sunday schools, a school for ministers' daughters, 
and a minister's house at Southport. Mr. Jeremiah Garnett, 
one of the proprietors of the Manchester Guardian^ lived 



1 2 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

in one of the houses which have since been converted into 
shops opposite to the east side of All Saints' Church, known 
then as Grosvenor Place. 

Chorlton-upon-Medlock was then known as Chorlton Row. 
The Stretford Road was not made, and the townships of 
Hulme and Moss Side consisted mainly of fields. What 
houses and shops there were in Hulme were chiefly in 
Chester Road and the neighbourhood. Jackson's Lane 
contained thirty or forty houses at the Chester Road end^ 
and then became a winding country lane extending in the 
direction of Greenheys. I remember taking a walk one 
Sunday afternoon soon after I came to Manchester, and 
turning out of Oxford Road into a street which I think was 
Boundary Street, when I soon got into the fields, and by 
following a footpath at last found myself in Jackson Street, 
near to Chester Road. 

For more than forty years no alteration was made in 
Deansgate itself of any importance ; so that the Deansgate 
of fifty years ago was very like that of ten years ago. The 
names of some streets turning out of Deansgate have been 
altered, whilst one or two new streets have been made, and 
others have disappeared. Cupid's Alley has been changed 
into Atkinson Street, and Parliament Street into Hardman 
Street, the latter street being in such bad repute it was 
thought best to obliterate the name. Neither John Dalton 
Street nor Lower King Street existed at that time. At the 
comer of Bridge Street and Deansgate were commodious 
meat shambles, and behind them the pork shambles. Where 
now is the beginning of Lower King Street was an open 
space, known as the Star Yard, leading to the stables behind 



DEANSGATE. 



13 



the Star Hotel. At the other comer of the yard was the 
Star Coach Office. The inn was kept by Mr. Thomas 
Yates. He was about the last gentleman in Manchester 
who wore that peculiar appendage of hair hanging down the 
back, known as a queue. Mrs. Yates survived him, and 
continued the business to the time of her death, when she 
was succeeded by her daughter, Miss Ann Yates, in whose 
hands it still remains. Mrs. Yates, who was a tall handsome 
lady, appeared at the first Fancy Dress Ball in 1828, 
dressed as an " Old English Lady," attracting considerable 
attention from her fine representation of the character. 

King Street, from Deansgate to Cross Street, has not 
undergone any important alteration. The part opposite the 
Old Town Hall has been widened. St. Ann's Street, 
leading from the Square into Deansgate, only extended as 
far as Back Square, the remainder of the way consisting of 
a very narrow street, known as Toll Lane, so called, I 
suppose, from the fact that it being originally the principal 
entrance to Acres Fair, held in the Square, toll was there 
demanded on the cattle passing through. 

One of the most important alterations ever made in 
Manchester was the opening out of Victoria Street and the 
making of the road past the Cathedral to its junction with 
Strangeways, together with the building of Victoria Bridge, 
an improvement be it remembered designed and completed 
without the assistance of the Corporation, for it then had 
no existence. Most persons are aware that what is now 
Victoria Street was formerly Smithy Door. The entrance 
to it from Market Street was like a narrow isthmus passing 
between the projecting comers of two buildings opposite 



14 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

each other, the space between the curbstones being only 
sufficient to allow a vehicle to pass with scarcely an inch to 
spare. The width of the footpath was proportionate, so that 
it was dangerous for a person to attempt to pass through at 
the same time as a vehicle. The right-hand building was 
the Unicorn Inn, kept by Joseph Challender, at which the 
celebrated club known as " John Shaw's " a few years after- 
wards used to meet. The other end of Smithy Door 
opened into a street which was a continuation of Cateaton 
Street, and was joined to the bridge which there spanned 
the Irwell. This was a very narrow structure and had a 
much greater declivity than has the present bridge. It was 
known as the " Old Bridge," and the street which joined 
Cateaton Street with it, and which blocked up that end of 
Smithy Door, was "Old Bridge Street" The footpath 
which now separates, the Cathedral yard from the Mitre 
Hotel was continued round the yard on the river side, just 
as it is yet on the other side. Between this footpath and 
the high rocky bunk of the river were a few shops and two 
or three taverns, of which I remember the Blackamoor's 
Head was one and the inevitable Ring-o'-Bells another. 
The fine open space in which the statue of Cromwell now 
stands had then no existence. Foot passengers could get 
into Strangeways by means of the footpath, but carriages 
had to go round by Hanging Ditch and Fennel Street So 
also in going to Cheetham Hill, a foot passenger would 
have to take the right-hand footpath of the churchyard and 
proceed through Long Millgate to Ducie Bridge ; whilst a 
vehicle would have to get into Millgate by Hanging Ditch 
and Fennel Street 



BRIDGES, 



15 



Manchester was then encircled by a number of toll-bars, 
at some of which foot passengers had to pay toll for cross- 
ing a bridge. There was a toll-bar on Ducie Bridge ; one 
in Strangeways, not far from Strangeways Hall, which was 
then standing ; one at Longsight, one on Broughton Bridge, 
one on Blackfriars Bridge, one in Regent Road, one in 
Stretford Road after it was formed, one at Pendleton, and 
I think others. I remember the case of a medical man 
who wanted to see a patient that lived just through the 
Strangeways bar, and who left his gig waiting whilst he 
walked through to see his patient and back. He was sum- 
moned by the keeper of the bar before the magistrates and 
had to pay the toll. 

The bridges connecting Salford with Manchester were 
the iron bridge leading from Strangeways to Greengate, the 
Old Bridge, Blackfriars, New Bailey, and Regent Road. 
Like the Old Bridge, the New Bailey one has been replaced 
with a handsome structure, more suited to the increasing 
traffic passing over it. The little chain bridge, as it was 
called, in Lower Broughton, was then in existence, for I 
remember the circumstance that very shortly after I came 
to Manchester, a number of soldiers of the rifle corps 
which was then stationed here, and who wore a green uni- 
form, were crossing the bridge, when, in consequence of 
the uniformity of their step, the chains gave way, and a 
number of them were precipitated into the river, without 
any fatal result, though with some serious injury to a few. 
Had they broken the regularity of their step, and crossed 
the bridge in non-military fashion, I suppose the misfor- 
tune would not have happened. A singular circumstance 



1 6 MANCHES^TER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

connected with the accident was, that the bridge was 
erected by the father-in-law of the officer in command of 
the men, and who lived at the castellated mansion close 
by, called Castle Irwell. 

To return to the central part of the town, the streets in 
which the principal Manchester warehouses were to be 
found, were High Street, Cannon Street, Marsden Square, 
Church Street, and the smaller streets running out of these? 
There was not then, or for some years after, a single ware- 
house in Manchester making any pretensions to architec- 
tural effect, either in the home or shipping trade. Not only 
were the buildings in which the latter were carried on 
very plain structures, but they were to be found mostly in 
retired situations, such as Back George Street, Mulberry 
Street, Queen Street, and Back Mosley Street. 



LEESE, KERSHAW, AND CALLENDER. 17 



CHAPTER II. 



WHOLESALE FIRMS. 



T REMARKED, in the last chapter, that fifty years ago the 
principal warehouses were to be found in High Street, 
Cannon Street, and the neighbourhood. The first ware- 
liouse in High Street, on the right, turning out of Market 
Street, was that of Wood and Wales. The senior partner 
was the same gentleman, I believe, who in after years took 
3. great interest in the passing of the act which prevents 
boys climbing chimneys to sweep them, and was so active 
in seeing its provisions carried out. The next warehouse 
lYas that of Butterworth and Brooks, calico printers, and a 
little further was the warehouse of Leese, Kershaw, and 
Callender, then one of the leading houses in the general 
home trade. Joe Leese, as I have heard him familiarly 
•called, lived at the Polygon, Ardwick. James Kershaw, as 
is generally known, became M.P. for Stockport. He was a 
prominent member of the Congregationalist body. The 
third partner was William Romaine Callender, father of the 
late member for Manchester, who resided in Plymouth 
Grove. Mr. Callender was also a Congregationalist A few 
doors further was the firm of Wood and Westhead. Both 
gentlemen were leading members of the Wesleyan body, 



1 8 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

Mr. James Wood being a popular local preacher. His son, 
Dr. Peter Wood, was one of the physicians to the Infirmary 
for some years, until his retirement to Southport, where he 
died a few years since. Mr Edward Westhead, his partner, 
lived in Cavendish Street, at the large house near the 
comer of Cambridge Street, behind which there was then a 
large garden. His eldest son, Joshua Procter Westhead, 
was M.P. for York for some years. He inherited the Lea 
Castle estates, in Warwickshire, from his uncle. Captain 
Brown, whose name he assumed under the form of Brown- 
Westhead. 

Right amongst the surrounding warehouses in High 
Street was the office of Mr. Capes, the auctioneer, father of 
the late senior partner in the firm of Capes, Dunn, and Co., 
whom I remember very well at that time as a clerk in the 
office of Gardner, Harter, and Co., drysalters. Chapel Walks. 
Near to this was the warehouse of Mr. Thomas Worthing- 
ton, whose house was in Mosley Street, but who afterwards 
resided at Sharston Hall, in Cheshire. On the opposite 
side of the street was that of William Maclure and Sons. 
Mr. Maclure lived at Tipping Street, Ardwick, and was the 
father, I believe, of a gentleman well known amongst us. 
Mr. George Royle ChappelFs warehouse was near to this* 
He was an active member of the Wesleyan body, and re- 
sided in Nelson Street, Oxford Road. When he went to 
reside there first — shewing the then insecurity of the roads 
outside the town — and was detained late at the warehouse, 
he used to secure a place on a London coach which started 
at about nine or ten o'clock at night and went through 
Oxford Road and Wilmslow. The Sun Fire Office 



THE SUN FIRE OFFICE, 



19 



ought to be honourably mentioned as having so long and so 
bravely resisted the ambitious tendency to change, which 
has led some insurance offices to seek success more by de- 
pendence upon outside show than upon substantial merit 
The " Sun Fire Office : Robert Duck, agent," was No. i, 
High Street, in 181 1 (how long before I cannot say) ; it was 
so in 1829; it was still there under the same agency in 
1848 ; and there in 1876 under another agency. At last I 
find it has yielded to the march of events, and is there no 
longer. All honour to the Sun Fire Office. 

In Marsden Square was the warehouse of William Allen 
and Brothers, who removed afterwards to High Street. Mr. 
Allen was the father of Mr. William Shepperd Allen, the 
present M.P. for Newcastle-under-Lyme. Here also were 
Pickford*s Van Office, and the Savings Bank under the 
management of Mr. Gibson. A few years previously, Mr. 
Thomas Price, a fustian manufacturer, whose warehouse 
was in the square, had been left alone in his office during 
the dinner hour, and was found by his clerk lying on the 
floor dead, having been brutally murdered. His warehouse- 
man was suspected of the crime and tried at Lancaster, but 
the evidence not being strong enough to convict him, he 
was acquitted Here also was the warehouse of Mr. Hugh 
Greaves, father of the late George Greaves, the surgeon, of 
Stretford Road, who died a few years since of blood 
poisoning, in consequence of pricking his hand during an 
operation. 

In Cannon Street, Messrs. Wright and Lee had their 
place of business, the firm afterwards becoming that of 
Daniel Lee and Co. Near to this was the warehouse of 



20 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Mr. Absalom Watkin, father of Sir Edward ; and lower 
down that of Francis Marris, Son, and Jackson, becoming 
afterwards Edward and John Jackson, of York Street, and 
the bank of Scholes, Tetlow, and Co. At the lower end of 
the street, on the Market Street side, was the warehouse of 
Potters and Norris. The " Potters " consisted of the two 
brothers, Thomas and Richard. The latter became M.P. 
for Wigan, whilst the former was the first Mayor of Man- 
chester, and was knighted. He was the father of the late 
Sir John Potter, and of Mr. Thomas Bayley Potter, M.P. for 
Rochdale. His residence was at Buile Hill, Pendleton. I 
well remember him driving to business in a plain one-horse 
open vehicle, with his two sons, then very young men, and 
arriving soon after eight every morning at the Market Street 
end of Cromford Court, which was close to Mr. Dentith's 
shop, where they alighted and walked through Cromford 
Court to Cannon Street. One of the most popular Church- 
men in Manchester fifty years ago was Mr. Benjamin 
Bnddley, a merchant, whose warehouse was in New Cannon 
Street, his house being in Lever Street. He was several 
times chosen boroughreeve, and two or three times was a 
candidate for the honour of representing Manchester in 
Parliament, but without success. In the same street was 
the warehouse of Broadhurst, Henson, and Broadhurst, a 
well-known firm. On its dissolution Mr. Broadhurst ob- 
tained the appointment of Borough Treasurer under the 
Corporation. The warehouse of Fletcher, Burd, and 
Wood was then in Friday Street. The firm was afterwards 
changed to Samuel Fletcher, Son, and Co., and the business 
removed to one of the large warehouses in Parker Street. 



JiiR. JOHN SLAGG, SENR. 2 1 

Mr. Samuel Fletcher was one of the foremost members 
amongst the Congregationalists, and no man was ever more 
deservedly and more generally respected. His residence 
was in Oxford Road. His partner, Mr. Burd, on the 
establishment of the Corporation, became Alderman Burd. 

The late Mr. John Slagg's warehouse was a door or twa 
from Market Street, in Pall Mall, and being near to Mr. 
Dentith's shop, I well remember him when comparatively a 
young man. In the course of time the word " company " 
was added to the name of the firm, but the same warehouse 
has been occupied by the firm till nearly the present time. 
Mr. Thomas Slagg, his father, at that time kept the 
Clarendon Inn, in Oxford Road, behind which, in 1824, 
was a well-frequented bowling green. He died wealthy,, 
leaving behind him another son, Thomas, who has resided 
at Lytham* some years, and a daughter who married Mr. 
Briggs, a manufacturer at Blackburn. 

Besides the streets which have been named, there were 
several smaller warehouses in Fountain Street and Spring 
Gardens. Instead of the palatial warehouse built by 
Messrs. J. and S. Watts in Portland Street, at the time I 
speak of they occupied a shop in Deansgate, nearly oppo- 
site the present Barton Arcade, where they carried on the 
drapery business. Their business was afterwards removed,, 
first to a fine warehouse in New Brown Street, when that 
street was opened out ; then to a larger one in Fountain 
Street, behind the present Manchester and Liverpool Bank; 
and afterwards to their present one in Portland Street. 

. ■ ■■ ■ . ■ 

* He has died since these lines first appeared in print. 



22 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

One of the oldest and most prosperous wholesale houses in 
Manchester is that of John and Nathaniel Philips and Co., 
of Church Street, the firm having been in existence more 
than eighty years. Originally they had a mill in Salford, 
and afterwards a warehouse in Somerset Street, Garside 
Street Their name appears in the Directory of 1811, as 
merchants and tape manufacturers, and in 1829 they still 
occupied the premises in Somerset Street, but shortly 
after removed to Church Street. Mr. Mark Philips, who 
was four times returned as M.P. for Manchester (once in 
opposition to Mr. W. E. Gladstone, then a Conservative 
candidate), was a member of the firm. Another house in 
Church Street deserves mention, inasmuch as the history of 
the rise and progress of the firm of John, James, and George 
Cooper may be taken as a type of the history of scores of 
other houses who have been successful in the Manchester 
trade. Fifty years ago Mr. John Cooper, who migrated 
from a village near Leek, was a draper in Oldham Street, 
having converted a private house into a shop. At first his 
speciality was mourning, but shortly after he bought a small 
manufactory at Dunstable, and began the wholesale straw- 
bonnet trade, in rooms over the Oldham Street shop. 
After a time he was joined by the two brothers, when they 
extended their premises backwards along Church Street, 
and afterwards acquired the premises now occupied by 
them, and I suppose are now one of the best known houses 
in the kingdom. 

Our energetic and venerable fellow-townsman, Mr. John 
Rylands, was then a young man in partnership with his 
father in New High Street, in a warehouse which still forms 



MR, JOHN RYLANDS, 23 

a part of the extensive premises occupied by the Company 
bearing his name. So that the motto of the Eccles-cake 
maker might truly be written over their door, "Never 
Removed," though it should be added, "But Greatly 
Extended ! " The firm was then Rylands and Sons, and 
they employed a number of handloom weavers in the manu- 
facture of checks. There is a characteristic anecdote toki 
of young John Rylands by an old man who is now employed 
in carting coals at Altrincham. It would appear that it was 
a practice with some of the weavers to damp the " cut," as 
it was called, before bringing it to the employer, I presume 
for the purpose of making it weigh heavier. When this 
carter was a lad his mother used to weave for Rylands and 
Sons, and she occasionally sent her son with the cut. It 
was young John's business to receive the work and examine 
it. On the lad's bringing a cut one day the following con- 
versation took place : — 

"Now, my lad, I want you to tell me something. If 
you'll tell me the truth I'll give you a penny," 
" Ay, my mother tells me alius to tell t' truth." 
" Very well ; what did your mother do to this cut before 
she gave it you ? " 

" Hoo did nowt, nobbut just weet it a bit." 
" Robert (to the cashier), give this lad a penny." 
A neighbour, who had also brought some work in, over- 
hearing the conversation, and getting home before the lad, 
told his mother what had been said. Whereupon the good 
woman prepared to give her son a good thrashing on his 
return, but he made such a piteous appeal to her to the 
effect that she " had alius towd him to tell t' truth," that he 



24 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

, ^ ■ • — ■ — ■ ■ - — - — I - 

quite disarmed her wrath. As usual, the anecdote remains 
unfinished, and we are not told what young Mr. John did. 

The firm of Carlton, Walker, and Co., has been one of 
high repute. Fifty years ago Mr. James Carlton was in 
business alone as a muslin manufacturer, at 13, New High 
Street, his residence then being in Strangeways ; but shortly 
afterwards he removed to Irwell House, Lower Broughton, 
where he continued to reside for many years. There has 
perhaps not been a Manchester merchant whose character 
for honour and integrity stood higher than James Carlton's. 
Very quiet and undemonstrative, he was the true Christian 
gentleman, and was a prominent member of the Congrega- 
tionalist body. Shortly after the time referred to he left the 
warehouse in New High Street, and founded th'e firm of 
Carlton, Walker, and Lewis, in whose service my only 
brother died, the new warehouse being in Mosley Street, 
and still in the occupation of George Walker and Co. 

In those days the small easy neckties now worn by 
gentlemen were unknown, and the neck was generally en- 
cased either in a deep stiff stock which buckled behind, or 
in a large silk handkerchief, inside which was a very deep 
stifTener, a specimen of which may be seen in the portrait of 
Baron Stockmar, given in the first volume of Theodore 
Martin's " Life of the Prince Consort." One of the principal 
manufacturers of this class of goods was Frederick Ramsden, 
who first had a shop in Deansgate. His trade having greatly 
enlarged, shortly after New Brown Street was opened out he 
took a warehouse in it, and entered into the general trade ; 
when my brother (having served an apprenticeship with Mr. 
Peter Drummond, a large draper, in Deansgate, and father 



CARLTON, WALKER, AND LEWIS, 25 

of Dr. Drummond, of Higher Broughton) entered Ramsden's 
service, and after a while travelled for him. After being 
with him six years he entered into an engagement with 
Carlton, Walker, and Lewis, and having travelled for them 
one year he came home to die, at the early age of twenty- 
seven. There used to be a little tale told of one of their 
travellers, a Welshman, which, as a good joke, is worth 
repeating. There is a certain class of goods known as 
jaconets, and which, I am told, are glazed calicoes used for 
lining the sleeves of coats, &c., and were sent out on wooden 
rollers. When these goods were first introduced, the firm 
in question did a large trade in them. The Welshman once 
visited a draper in the principality, and in describing the 
big trade his firm was doing in this class of goods, he gravely 
assured his customer that such was the demand for them 
that they had been obliged to buy a large forest in America 
in order to provide wood for the rollers. 

Amongst packers and makers-up, I may be allowed to 
mention the London firm of Wheelton, Brewer, and Buck- 
land, which opened a branch in Manchester very shortly 
after the time of which I am writing, under the management 
of Mr. John Brewer. Their place of business was the New 
Market Hall, opposite the end of Strutt Street, near the 
City News office. Though an old building it had been 
substantially built and contained a large room on the 
ground floor, which was flagged as though it had once been 
a market-halL I see it is now replaced by a more modem 
structure. Mr. Wheelton was sheriff* of London at the 
time of the collision between the Court of Queen's Bench 
and the House of Commons in connection with the trial of 



26 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

Stockdale v. Hansard. Stockdale was a publisher of a certain 
class of literature, and had been attacked by some member 
in his place in the House of Commons. His speech was in 
due course printed by Hansard, against whom Stockdale 
brought an action in the Queen's Bench for libel. It was 
decided that although the member was privileged in what 
he said, Hansard was not in his publication of it, and Stock- 
dale obtained a verdict. It was the sheriff's place to levy 
execution, which by his officers he did. Great excitement 
prevailed in the House because of this supposed infringe- 
ment of the liberties of Parliament, and, after Wheelton had 
been summoned to the bar of the House to explain his 
conduct, Parliament avenged itself by lodging the poor 
sheriff in the Tower, where he remained for about a week, 
when he was liberated. 



THE DUTY ON PRINTED CALICOES, 



27 



CHAPTER III. 



CALICO PRINTERS. 



T^IFTY years ago all the ingenuity of a Chancellor 
of the Exchequer was employed, not in dis- 
covering how he could relieve the burden of taxation, 
but how many ways there were into the pocket of the 
British taxpayer. As a consequence we cannot be surprised 
that not only were newspapers and advertisements heavily 
taxed, but soap, leather, glass, and many other articles of 
general consumption, amongst them being printed calicoes, 
which paid a duty of 3 id. per square yard. I well remem- 
ber how the tab ends of prints used to bear certain numbers 
and hieroglyphics which had been impressed on them by 
the exciseman. Of course there was a heavy penalty for 
either buying or selling a piece of print without such marks. 
Every printworks was under the supervision of an excise- 
man, who used to visit the place at certain times to levy the 
duty and impress the pieces with his stamp. Tales were 
rife as to excisemen visiting various printworks for this pur- 
pose, and sometimes being so well plied with liquor as to 
lose self-control, when their stamp would be borrowed for a 
short time, and used pretty freely in stamping hundreds of 
pieces, which were consequently admitted into the market 
duty-free. 



28 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



I have mentioned that the second warehouse on the 
right-hand side of High Street, was that of Butterworth and 
Brooks, calico printers, whose works were at the other side 
of Bury. When a boy, I accompanied my father over the 
works, and remember being allowed to enter a room which 
we were told very few persons were allowed to enter, inas- 
much as a new process of engraving copper rollers was 
carried on in it. This was by working a small steel roller, 
which had the pattern engraved on it, on a large copper one, 
by means of a press, the hard steel cutting the pattern on 
the softer copper, and the process being many times re- 
peated till the whole surface of the copper roller was 
•covered with the pattern. 

The second partner in the firm was the well-known John 
Brooks, whose residence was then in Lever Street, and who 
was the brother of Samuel Brooks, the banker. How 
different in some things were the two men. Both successful 
in business, the one took an active interest in public affairs, 
the other but little, if any. The banker's name would be 
occasionally found on a committee, but he seldom appeared 
on the platform, and I cannot remember him once making 
a speech on any public question. When Brunei, the great 
engineer, and the builder of the Great Eastern, whilst play- 
ing with his children on one occasion, unfortunately swallowed 
half a sovereign, which stuck in the gullet, remaining there 
two or three days, during which there was considerable 
public excitement about it, it is said that John Brooks 
remarked to a friend, "They should send for our Sam, 
for if anybody can get it, he can." John Brooks was a 
great friend of Mr. Benjamin Braidley, the well-known 



MX. JOHN BROOKS, 29 

Conservative, and though a Conservative himself, he came 
out nobly during the Anti-Com-Law agitation, distinguishing 
himself as well by his energetic opposition to the Com Law 
as by his munificent support of the funds required to carry 
on the agitation. When the last supreme effort was made 
to effect a breach in the walls of protection, and at a large 
and enthusiastic meeting of merchants and manufacturers, 
held in the Town Hall, it was resolved to raise a fund of 
^250,000, John Brooks, with twenty-two others, put down 
his name for ;^i,ooo. He was a worthy coadjutor for some 
years of Richard Cobden, John Bright, George Wilson, and 
other pioneers in the early days of the agitation. He made 
no pretensions to oratory. His speeches were brief, quaint, 
witty, and sensible, interspersed with a few sentences in the 
Lancashire dialect, and always to the point I have a 
vivid recollection of attending one of the earliest meetings 
<A the Anti-Com-Law agitation, held in the first Free 
Trade Hall (the present one being the third), at which 
John Bright spoke before he was M.P., and John Brooks. 
The audience had to stand; there were no seats. The 
room was not more than half full, and the rain was 
dripping through the roof here and there. There was a 
little sympathy and a little enthusiasm, the tide was just 
beginning to turn; but I often contrast that meeting with 
the last occasion on which John Bright spoke on the same' 
spot 

Another large firm of calico printers whose warehouse 
was also in High Street, but higher up on the opposite 
side, was that of Fort Brothers, their works being at Oaken- 
shaw, near Accrington. Their principal manager at the 



30 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



warehouse was Mr. Fred Brooks, a well-known musical 
man, living at Prestwich. ' He played the organ at Prestwich 
Church, and in consequence came a good deal in contact 
with the Earl of Wilton, who took considerable interest in 
him. Like many other musical men, he was careless as to 
his health, and was cut off in his prime. I well remember 
a short time before his death hearing him express his regret, 
and his determination to turn over a new leaf Another 
large firm was that of Ainsworth, Sykes, and Co., whose 
works were at Clitheroe, their warehouse being in Cannon 
Street Some years after they took some works at Garratt, 
near to Brook Street The firm of John Dugdale and 
Brothers, who 50 years ago were calico printers, still carry 
on business as merchants. Their warehouse was in Cannon 
Street, and their works near Burnley. Mr. John Dugdale 
resided at Richmond Hill, Greengate. No one who passes 
along Greengate to Broughton Bridge to-day could suppose 
that two or three comfortable and respectable large de- 
tached houses existed on the left-hand side in that locality 
fifty years ago. Such, however, was the case, Mr. Lockett, 
the well-known engraver to calico printers, occupjdng the 
next house to Mr. Dugdale's. In 1835 Mr. Dugdale was 
induced to become a candidate for the representation of 
Salford in Parliament, in opposition to Mr. Joseph 
Brotherton. During my apprenticeship Dentith sold his 
retail business to Horatio Miller, a gentleman from London, 
to whom I was turned over. Miller became intimate with 
Dugdale, and I was induced to join Mr. John Hadfield, a 
solicitor, in canvassing for Dugdale. Of course we were un- 
successful I think this was my first and last time of under- 



MR. JOHN DUGI>ALE, 3 1 

taking such a task. Some time during the election, Dugdale, 
who was a blunt, plain-speaking Lancashire man, was chaffed 
by an elector as to his wealth, when he replied, "Ay, I 
fairly stink o' brass." For many years after he was known 
in Salford as " Owd Stink o' Brass." He afterwards left 
Richmond Hill, and went to reside at a pleasantly-situated 
house on the bank of the Irwell, near to Eccles. In 1834, 
he purchased for ;^7,5oo the old Union Clubhouse, at the 
Infirmary end of Mosley Street, on the left-hand side going 
down, next to Mr. Daniel Grant's house. He was an in- 
timate friend of Sam Brooks, the banker. Many are the 
tales which were told of the little friendly tricks they played 
on one another ; as, for instance, that Sam Brooks, having 
a pony to sell, informed Dugdale that a pony was to be sold 
by auction at the Star Yard, and suggested to him that he 
should buy it. The latter, supposing he was to buy it for 
the banker, did so, paying a good price for it. On going to 
the bank and seeing Mr. Brooks, he said, " Well, Sam, I've 
bought thee that pony," when he was informed that he had 
misunderstood the suggestion, which was that he should 
buy it for himself, but that he (Brooks) knew the pony very 
well, it having once belonged to him, and he was sure that 
John Dugdale would be pleased with his bargain. 

I suppose that everybody has heard of Hoyle's prints and 
Hoyle's printworks. Whether or not their prints were as 
popular fifty years ago as they have been more recently I 
cannot say. I find the firm has been in existence the greater 
part of a century, if not quite a century. In 181 1 the works 
of Thomas Hoyle and Son were where they are to-day, the 
warehouse being in Watling Street, and Mr. Thomas 



32 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Hoyle's residence at Ardwick. Fifty years ago the ware- 
house was in Friday Street, next door to Fletcher, Burd, 
and Wood's, and Mr. Hoyle's house at Mayfield, near the 
works, which one may easily imagine was a more airy and a 
pleasanter situation than at present. Another well-known 
printworks was Barge's, at Broughton Bridge, the firm being 
John Barge and Co., and their warehouse being in Peel 
Street. Mr. Tom Barge, one of the partners, was well- 
known, and resided in Roman Street, Stony Knolls. Mr. 
John Fildes, once M.P. for Grimsby, was a cashier in 
their service. The works of Lomas and Bradbury were 
in the neighbourhood, the entrance to them being on the 
left-hand side of Strangeways, going towards Broughton. 
Mr. Lomas was the inventor of a method of printing 
calicoes on both sides alike. 

In 1829 the firm of Edmund and Robert Peel, calico 
printers, had their warehouse in Watling Street, at the 
comer of Friday Street. They were successors — though 
not the immediate successors— of the first Sir Robert Peel, 
who began business about 1770, when only twenty years 
of age, and who married the daughter of Mr. Yates, 
who subsequently became his partner. In 181 1 their 
warehouse was in Peel Street, the firm then being Peel, 
Yates, Halliwell and Co., the street being named no 
doubt after Mr. Peel; whilst the last-named partner 
gave the name to Halliwell Lane, Cheetham Hill, he 
having built the first two or three large houses on the right, 
in one of which he lived. More than forty-five years 
ago I learnt from an old gentleman, who was formerly 
a draper in Hull, that when he first came to Manchester 



SCRAMBLING FOR PRINTS. 33 

to buy goods, Peers warehouse was approached by an 
avenue of trees. The cart was in the habit of bringing a 
load of prints on three mornings in the week — Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays — from the works. The warehouse 
doors were not opened till nine o^clock, by which time the 
prints were all arranged in the saleroom. A crowd of 
drapers was generally waiting for the doors to be opened, 
when they would rush upstairs to the saleroom, and a 
scramble for prints would ensue, each draper making a pile 
on the floor of such prints as he had chosen, and waiting 
for the entering clerk coming round to look them over and 
enter them. What a contrast with the state of things to- 
day ! No wonder that the first Sir Robert Peel is said to 
have died worth ;^2,5oo,ooo, and that the firm of Peel, 
Yates, and Halliwell used to pay ;^4o,ooo annually to the 
excise for duty on printed goods. 

Many firms entitled themselves calico printers who were 
not really such, but who either purchased patterns from a 
pattern designer or employed their own designer. They 
bought calico, had it bleached, and forwarded it to some 
printworks to be printed with their own design. Others, 
again, who both on their invoices and their signboards 
called themselves calico printers, were merely dealers in 
prints. I rather think the firm of Robert Turner, jun., 
and Co., who fifty years ago had a warehouse next to that 
of Wood and Westhead, in High Street, and who were 
entitled calico printers, were amongst the first-named. I 
have mentioned that on the site of the Queen's Hotel there 
stood three or four large brick houses, in one of which 
Mr. Houldsworth, M.P., lived. The door of the corner 

c 



34 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



house was in Piccadilly, and in it Mr. Robert Turner 
resided. He kept a stud of racehorses as well as Mr. 
Houldsworth, and was the brother of Mr. AVilliam Turner, 
of Pot Shrigley, the &ther of the young lady who was 
abducted from school by Edward Gibbon Wakefield. 
Robert Turner, of Piccadilly, followed Wakefield and Miss 
Turner to France and brought her home again. It was 
clearly proved on the trial that there had been no cohabita- 
tion, and she afterwards became the wife of Mr. Legh, of 
Lyme. Her father was reputed to be immensely wealthy, 
but at his death this was proved to be an error. 

Four or five doors from Turner's warehouse was that of a 
very large and respectable firm of calico printers, whose 
works were at Rhodes, near Middleton — that of Daniel 
Burton and Sons. They began business somewhere about 
the beginning of the present century, but have ceased to 
exist more than thirty years. Mr. Daniel Burton was the 
father of the late Dr. Burton, the founder and rector of All 
Saints* Church, who was at the beginning of his career a 
Methodist preacher, the other members of the family being 
also devoted Wesleyans. Daniel Burton had three other sons, 
John, George, and James Daniel. Fifty years ago, John 
was the factotum of the trustees of Oldham Street Chapel 
and George became a Wesleyan local preacher. At the 
time when rioting was so fashionable amongst the working 
classes, there was once a riot at the Rhodes Printworks, 
when one of the sons despatched a messenger to Man- 
chester for the assistance of the cavalry. Accordingly a 
troop of Scotch Greys galloped over and quelled the riot 
A few Sundays after, in the little Wesleyan Chapel, on the 



C. AND E. POTTER AND CO. 



35 



preacher reading his text, " What must I do to be saved ? " 
a shrill voice from one of the congregation answered the 
question by exclaiming, " Send for th' Scotch Greys." 

The firm of Charles and Edmund Potter and Co. began 
their business rather more than fifty years ago, their ware- 
house being then in Fountain Street and their works at 
Dinting, near Glossop. Though Charles has only been 
dead a few years the name of the firm was changed to that 
of Edmund Potter and Co. many years ago, and still exists 
at the present day. Edmund at that time lived with his 
mother in Oxford Road, a little this side of All Saints' 
Church, but on the opposite side and near to Dr. Burton, 
the rector. As is well known, he was M.P. for Carlisle for 
some years. Besides those printworks in the immediate 
vicinity of Manchester already named, may be mentioned 
those of Hedley, Atkinson, and Co., at Broughton Grove, 
behind the present Grove Inn, Higher Broughton, which 
was not then built. The works of Otho Hulme and Sons 
were at Spring Vale, their warehouse being at the lower 
end of Cannon Street, near to that of Potters and Norris. 

Nearly opposite to it was the warehouse of William Grant 
and Brothers, I suppose the best-known firm of calico 
printers which Manchester ever produced. They were in 
business at the beginning of the century as merchants, but 
afterwards became calico printers; their works being at 
Ramsbottom. At one time William Grant resided in Lever 
Street, but afterwards lived near the works. Fifty years ago 
the firm consisted of William and Daniel, the latter residing 
in the fourth house on the left-hand side of Mosley Street 
going down. He went to live there about the year 1815, and 



36 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



resided in that street till his death, long after other residents 
had been driven away and wholesale places of business had 
taken almost entire possession of the street. In 1848 he was 
living lower down the street, having moved to another house 
a little past the warehouse occupied by the late firm of 
Carlton; Walker, and Co. In less than twenty years the 
character of the street had completely changed, so that 
Daniel Grant's house was the only private residence re- 
maining in it, if we except those of two or three medical 
men at the lower end of the street, and which of course 
cannot be spoken of as private residences. He died at a 
good old age; and, in addition to those I have already 
named, he affords another instance of the longevity enjoyed 
by many who have lived for many years in the very heart of 
Manchester. 

I never saw William Grant but once ; but as Mr. Miller 
had occasional business transactions with the firm, I some- 
times saw and had opportunities of speaking to Daniel. It 
is said that Charles Dickens in his description of the 
Cheeryble Brothers in Nicholas Nicklehy^ has attempted to 
pourtray the members of the firm of William Grant and 
Brother. If so, as it regards their generosity, benevolence, 
and goodness of heart, I consider he has drawn a true 
picture, but all the rest is mere caricature. From what I 
remember of Daniel Grant I should say he was anything 
but loquacious, and was rather reserved and dignified in his 
manner, though condescending, considerate, and very kind 
to all he had to do with. I well remember how proud I 
was one morning when, my master having learnt that they 
were wanting concentrated lime juice at the works, he sent 



DANIEL GRANT. 37 



me to the warehouse to see Daniel Grant and make him an 
offer of some. To my delight he ordered about a hundred 
pounds worth. In giving me the order he wasted no words, 
and yet he did it so kindly that I have never forgotten the 
circumstance. In later years he used to arrive at his ware- 
house about ten or eleven o'clock, and usually came in his 
carriage. By the time of his arrival a number of poor 
people had gathered at the warehouse door awaiting his 
arrival. When his carriage drew up they would divide into 
two lines, forming an avenue from the carriage to the 
warehouse door through which he passed. If he did not 
distribute his alms to them himself he would send a clerk 
out to them, and I believe they seldom went away 
unrelieved. 

The process of impressing cotton fabrics with a pattern in 
colours was not confined to calico, but was extended to 
cotton velvets. The material mostly used as a pigment was 
chrome yellow, of which, I remember, we used to sell a 
great deal to the firm of Jackson, Watson, and Greg, whose 
warehouse was in the neighbourhood of Watling Street A 
large trade was done in these printed velvets, though what 
became of them, whether they were used for coats and 
waistcoats in the agricultural districts, or were exported, I 
cannot say. At the time when the Anti-Corn-Law agitation 
was at its height, and a suspicion lurked in the minds of 
many, especially amongst the supporters of Protection, that 
Sir Robert Peel was undergoing a process of conversion, and 
was about to bring in a measure of free trade in corn, and 
whilst the country was anxiously awaiting some sign from 
him, Mr. Charles Ramsay, of Ancoats Vale, printed a 



38 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

pattern consisting of an ear of corn with the stalk and a 
flowing blade or leaf. On this blade was printed the word 
** FREE." He forwarded a piece of it to Sir Robert Peel, 
asking his acceptance of it as a piece of printed cotton 
velvet, but without drawing his attention particularly to the 
nature of the design. Sir Robert, of course, gracefully 
accepted it, and thanked the donor. In a very short time 
a paragraph went the round of the papers describing the 
pattern, and reporting Sir Robert's acceptance of it Infer- 
ences were drawn, and the Protectionist party were up in 
arms, but the storm was instantly quelled by Peel's return- 
ing the piece to the donor with an explanatory note. 
I have in my possession a small portion of this piece of 
printed velvet which was the cause of so much commotion, 
which I had given to me at the time, and have religiously 
preserved ever since. 

In travelling from Buxton to Manchester, after passing 
New Mills, a beautiful valley on the right opens to our 
view, and in it a cluster of white buildings is seen. These 
are the Strines Printworks. The Striries Printing Company 
have occupied a prominent position in Manchester for 
many years. Fifty years ago their warehouse was in Mul- 
berry Street, Deansgate, which was then a very nondescript 
sort of street. The Roman Catholic Chapel .was there, 
having since undergone considerable architectural improve- 
ment in its external appearance. Attached to it were the 
residences of the Revs. Henry Gillow, Daniel Heame, and 
John Billington. The street was then as narrow as it is 
now, but nearly all the old buildings having been replaced by 
modern warehouses (one of which is the large handsome 



JOHN WHITEHEAD AND SONS. 39 

block erected by Mr. John Heywood), it has lost its dingy 
character and put on a brighter aspect. It then contained, 
besides the warehouse of the Strines Printing Company, 
f\v^ others, several private dwellings, and the tap of the 
Hope public-house. One of these houses was the residence 
of Mr. Addison, a silk mercer and haberdasher, of King 
Street ; one was occupied by Mr. James Parry, a portrait 
painter; one by a tailor, and another by a dressmaker; 
whilst one or two, it was whispered, were houses of ques- 
tionable repute. 

Mr. James Bury has supplied the follomng account of 
other large firms of calico printers. Messrs. John White- 
head and Sons had their works at Breightmet, near Bolton. 
Their warehouse was nearly opposite Grant's, and like it, 
was one of the old family residences of which the street was 
then composed, and having only a few years before a row 
of trees facing the dwellings along each side of the street. 
John Whitehead was a crofter or bleacher at Levenshulme, 
but towards the close of the last century he began calico 
printing at Breightmet, and lived at Ainsworth Hall. Early 
in the present century the business devolved on his three 
sons, John, James, and Thomas. The latter lived at Bank 
House, Bolton; whilst James lived in Piccadilly, in one of 
the two houses now the Mosley Arms Hotel ; Whitehead's 
doorway and hall being now Boyd's, the stationer's shop. 
A sister. Miss Mary Whitehead, lived in her own house in 
Mosley Street, at the corner of York Street, her neighbour 
at the other end of the row being Daniel Grant. Common 
report pictured these two for man and wife, a picture which 
it need hardly be said was never realized. The lady bought 



40 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



an estate at Bumage, and there built a mansion which she 
named Brook Flat. Subsequent to her death, it was called 
Burnage Hall, and was lately rented by Mr. Samuel Watts. 
Another daughter, Miss Sally Whitehead, married an attor- 
ney of Manchester named Redhead. 

James Whitehead was the holder of original ;;^ioo shares 
in the Old Quay Company, which were, years after his 
death, sold for several times their original value. He was 
one of the directors of the company. One of the pleasures 
of the directors was to take a day's voyage down the river 
to Warrington, dining on board their own boat There is 
still on the river a flat named " The Whitehead." 

The firm was very successful and amassed great wealth, 
one pattern alone, called the "Bird's-eye,*' realizing upwards 
of thirty thousand pounds. It was a circle with two lines, 
one blue and the other white, on a chocolate ground. It 
became as famous as Tommy Hoyle and Son's " lilacs," and 
there was scarcely a village dame in the kingdom who did 
not feel proud of her " bird's-eye " print gown. Of all the 
great wealth of this family of the Whiteheads only Burnage 
Hall Estate is held by a Whitehead, a widow, the remainder 
being taken by females to others or dissipated. 

Another firm was Samuel Matley and Sons, whose ware- 
house was the first door in New High Street from Tib 
Street, now the entrance to Rylands and Son's. The family 
lived in Mosley Street, now John L. Kennedy and Co., 
No. 47. One of the sons, "Sam," was a Manchester 
" buck," a fine, handsome, gay young fellow. 



THE BEALEYS, BLEACHERS. 41 



CHAPTER IV. 

BLEACHERS, DRYS ALTERS, AND HOOKERS-IN. 

" I "HERE were several large bleachworks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Manchester, amongst which might be 
named those of the Bealeys, at Radcliffe, near Bury, and 
the Ainsworths, at Halliwell, Bolton. The ancient name 
for a bleacher was a " whitster," and the business seems to 
be as old as the cotton trade. There are not many firms, 
either manufacturing or otherwise, which are in full opera- 
tion to-day, and can look back to an uninterruptedly 
prosperous career of at least one hundred and thirty years, 
through father, grandfather, great-grandfather, and great- 
great-grandfather. The large and flourishing bleaching 
concern of Richard Bealey and Co., at Radcliffe, however, 
is in this proud position. The first lease of land and build- 
ings for their bleachworks is dated May 26, 1750, and re- 
cites the previous occupation of the lessees. The convey- 
ance is from James Marsden to William Bealey, Richard 
Bealey, ajid Joseph Bealey, since which time they or 
their descendants have constantly occupied the works as 
•*' whitsters." Joseph was the second son of William, and 
was the great-grandfather of the present head of the 
firm. Joseph's son Richard succeeded to the business in 



42- 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



partnership with his brother Ralph, their warehouse being 
in Bank Street, and, in accordance with a custom referred to 
previously, their inn was the White Horse, Hanging Ditch. 

In 1811 Richard was in partnership with his son Adam, 
as Richard Bealey and Son, their warehouse being in New 
Cannon Street. Richard died in 181 7, and was succeeded 
by Adam, who did not live many years after. He had 
married a Chester lady, whose sister became the wife of the 
Rev. Dr. Warren. She survived her husband many years, 
and carried on the business in her own name as " Mary 
Bealey." In 1829, the time these notices specially refer to, 
her warehouse was in Birchin Lane. Both she and her 
husband were strongly attached to the Wesleyan cause. 
Amongst that body few ladies have been as widely known, 
and as deservedly respected, on account of her noble deeds 
and many virtues, as Mrs. Mary Bealey. Her daughter 
married the well-known Wesleyan lawyer, Mr. Percival 
Bunting, who retired from Manchester to London a few 
years ago. Her eldest son, Richard, is now at the head of 
the firm, and is a county magistrate. I believe there is a 
probability of the business being perpetuated in the family 
many years longer ; and one cannot but wish for the family 
as long and as prosperous a career in the future as they 
have enjoyed in the past. 

Having spoken of calico printers and bleachers, it is 
not possible to avoid a passing glance at the Drysalters, 
the interests of the two being so united. They were an 
active and intelligent class. What a flutter they used 
to be in on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday mornings, 
when the printers' carts arrived each with a load of 



DRYSALTERS, 43 



prints, and with requisitions for certain drugs and dry- 
salteries wanted at the works, to be sent back in the 
carts. Like the busy bee gathering honey from every 
opening flower, they were quite as busy going from 
door to door of the print warehouses, showing samples, 
giving quotations, and gathering orders. The most pro- 
minent figure of that busy band was the late William 
Benjamin Watkins, afterwards Mr. Alderman Watkins, who 
with his robust frame was to be seen on these occasions 
trudging about with quick, firm step, dressed in buckskin 
knee breeches and top boots. By some of us juveniles (and 
I fear by others too) he was irreverently designated " Buck- 
skin Billy." 

Poor Gregson, the author of " Gimcrackiana," has hit off 
what I have described : — 

Dear drysalters ! who on accustomed round 
Each Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday are found, 
Skipping up warehouse steps with action smart : 
** Good morning, sir I Pray have you had a cart ? 
Is there aught wanting for the works to-day ? 
Promptest attention shall our porters pay. 
Our drugs are excellent, and you well know 
That at this time they are extremely low." 

I know not whether the institution of " hooking-in " still 
exists, or whether, owing to the march of civilization, it has 
been abolished. Fifty years ago it was in a very flourishing 
condition. Hookers-in abounded at every street comer. 
In the days when there were no railways, and men had to 
use the more tedious mode of travelling by stage coach, a 
journey to Manchester and back was a more formidable 
affair. Country drapers from distant places could not then 



44 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

run over to Manchester, buy goods, and return in a day. 
Hence they came here seldomer, but stayed longer and 
bought more largely at once. Living then in Market Street,. 
I had opportunities of seeing the hookers-in swarm about 
the doors of the Thatched House Tavern, the White Bear^ 
and similar inns every morning, besieging the head waiters,, 
who were pretty well fee'd, with the view of ascertaining 
who had arrived over night Many were the tales which 
were told of them. One was that an old and a young 
stager in different lines were talking together at the ware- 
house door of the latter, when a gentleman passed, on which 
the old stager said to the other : " That is Mr. So-and-so, 
from Leicester ; he is a large buyer in your way." Away 
went the young one after the gentleman, and presenting his 
card, begged him to turn in and look round, with the 
assurance that they had some goods very cheap which would 
exactly suit him. He did his work so well that there was 
no resistance, and Mr. So-and-so followed to see the stock. 
Casting his eye round the first room, he quickly assured the 
salesman that there was nothing in that room in his line. 
So with the next, and so with the next. At last the question 
was put to him, "What line is yours?" "Oh," replied 
he, " I am David Bellhouse, the timber merchant" One 
well-known gentleman of this class was Mr. Joseph Scott, 
familiarly known as Joe Scott He was a smart, well-dressed 
man, with a dash of the aristocrat in his appearance. I 
have heard it stated that he was once sent to London by his 
employers on a special mission, which only required his 
presence there for a day or so. He went to an ordinary inn 
and announced himself as "Lord ." Shortly after 



HOOKERS'lN, 



45 



the waiter pointed him out to another gentleman as 

"Lord ," when he was much astonished by the 

reply, "That ! ; why, that's Joe Scott, of Manchester." 

It used to be said that the firm of William Grant and 
Brothers was the first to employ hookers-in, and the first to 
give up the use of them. 

Mr. Thomas Brittain has contributed the following re- 
miniscence of hookers-in : — " My connection with the Man- 
chester trade from 1831 to 1845 brought me firequently in 
contact with the * hookers-in,' as they were familiarly called, 
and I knew many of them personally. They were known 
to each other pretty generally by nicknames. One of the 
most successful of them was a Mr. Peel, who was known as 
Sir Robert Peel. Another, a Mr. Lewis, was reported to 
have made an attempt on his own life; he was named 
Sudden Death ever afterwards. Previous to this one of the 
hookers-in had obtained the name of Murder — I cannot 
remember why — and another the name of Battle ; so that 
amongst this interesting fraternity there were 'Battle, 
Murder, and Sudden Death.' 

" The more successful of the hookers-in obtained excel- 
lent remuneration for their services. One of them was said 
to receive a thousand a year, and I am inclined to believe 
it They were not a long-lived race, for the daily discharge 
of their duties brought them into continual connection with 
the hotels, where they had to treat their clients ; and then 
by a kind of commercial necessity, they were compelled to 
drink more than was good for them. I have a lingering 
respect for the fraternity. Amongst them were many 
excellent fellows, but it is not to be regretted that railways 



46 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

and other changes in business life have caused the hookers- 
in (as I formerly knew them) to become things of the past/' 
Before quitting those subjects which are more im- 
mediately connected with the Manchester trade, it may 
be well to remark that at the time I speak of it was 
customary to lock up the warehouse during the dinner 
hour; keeping it open was the exception, not the rule. 
Then the circumference was nearer the centre, Manchester 
had not spread itself out as it has done since, and the 
homes of the employes were. nearer the scenes of their 
labour. There were few who did not go home to dinner, 
and hence there were hardly any restaurants such as now 
abound on every hand. There was no Saturday half- 
holiday, and both master and man made much longer 
hours than is now the practice. In busy times it was no 
unusual thing to be at business till ten or eleven o^clock, 
and even twelve, on Saturday nights as well as other nights. 



MEDICAL MEN. 



47 



CHAPTER V. 



DOCTORS. 



TN 1829 there were twenty-two physicians practising in 
Manchester, and 104 surgeons, making a total of 126 
medical men. It is not possible now to divide them into 
two distinct classes, as was the case formerly. Then, 
medical etiquette prohibited a physician performing a 
surgical operation, however trivial. The physician was 
quite distinct from the surgeon. At present there are in 
Manchester 270 medical men, many of whom, though pos- 
sessing the title of M.D. are practising as surgeons. I 
calculate there are 30 gentlemen who are pure physicians, 
158 who are pure surgeons, and 82 who, though they 
have the title of M.D. (conferred by a Scotch or 
Irish college), practice as surgeons. Four of the phy- 
sicians of half a century ago were in practice at the 
latter end of the last century, namely. Dr. Banks, who 
then lived in Market Street, removing afterwards to 
George Street ; Dr. Michael Ward, who resided in King 
Street, and afterwards in Downing Street; Dr. Mitchell, 
living in Piccadilly; and Dr. S. A. Bardsley, uncle of 
the late Dr. James L. Bardsley. The former of the 
two was residing in Chatham Street, Piccadilly, in 1794, 



48 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

and continued to do so till about 1827. The elder 
Bardsley eventually gave up the house in Chatham Street 
to his nephew, who began practice some years before, 
and the uncle retired to Ardwick Green. The late Dr. 
J. L. Bardsley received the honour of knighthood about 
twenty-five years ago, and eventually went to reside in 
Greenheys, but retained the house in Chatham Street for 
consulting rooms to the time of his retirement. At the 
beginning of the present century, what is now the lower end 
of Mosley Street, from Bond Street to St. Peter's church, 
was called Dawson Street, and in it Dr. Hull lived, who in 
1829, was one of the leading physicians in Manchester. 
Dr. Edward Holme, F.R.S., was a vice-president of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, and lived in King 
Street, and Dr. Davenport Hulme, who was one of the 
physicians to the Infirmary, lived in Mosley Street, both of 
them enjoying a large practice. 

It is impossible to call to remembrance the medical men 
who were in practice in Manchester half a century since 
without being struck with the fact of the longevity of many 
of them, notwithstanding that they lived in the very heart 
of Manchester during a great part of their lives, as in the 
case of the late Mr. Turner, proving, as I think, that our 
good city is not the unhealthy place some people would 
represent it to be. The elder Bardsley lived to be a very 
old man. I well remember him as a slender, tall, old 
gentleman, with his head bent forward in walking ; whilst 
Sir James was far advanced in life when he was called away. 
The same observation is true with respect to the others I 
have named — Drs. Hull, Davenport Hulme, Holme, 



MR. JOHN WINDSOR, RL.S. 49 

Banks, MitcheU, Ward, and to two other leading physicians 
of that day, Drs. Lyons and Jarrold. In a former notice I 
mentioned the case of Mr. Bloor, now of Southport, who 
lived seventy-two years in one house in Piccadilly. The 
next house but one to his was the residence of Mr. John 
Windsor, F.L.S., an old and much-respected surgeon. He 
began practice in the same house in 18 15, and after living 
there fifty-three years, died in 1868, in his eighty-second 
year. He was a native of Settle-in-Craven, and the author 
of "Flora Cravoniensis," to which the Atheimum lately 
referred in complimentary terms. In the early part of his 
life he was a member of the Society of Friends, and lived 
highly esteemed not only by the members of that body 
but by others who knew him. Soon after he began prac- 
tice he was appointed one of the surgeons to the Eye 
Institution, with Mr. Wilson and Mr. Barton, and was 
consulting surgeon to it at the time of his death. One of 
his sons is a member of the City Council, and another 
follows his father's profession. Our respected fellow-towns- 
man, Mr. J. C. Needham, married one of his daughters. 

Another octogenarian who was practising fifty years ago 
is Dr. Radford, then living in King Street. He is now in 
his eighty-sixth year, and is to-day taking as active a part in 
the duties connected with St. Mary's Hospital, in which he 
has always taken the liveliest interest, as if he were a young 
man. He attended my brother in his last illness. Nor are 
these the only instances of such remarkable longevity in the 
medical men of half a century ago. Some time during the 
first decade of the present century Mr. John Johnson 
Boutflower began practice in Greengate, Salford. About 



50 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



the year 1823 he took his son into partnership, and both 
were practising fifty years ago. Mr. John Boutflower, the 
son, is still living, and though in his turn he has a son 
who assists him, yet I believe he still practises. I am 
not aware of his exact age, but a surgeon who has been 
in practice at least fifty-six years must now be a very old 
man. Another instance is that of Dr. Harland, who ^xhy 
years ago lived in Salford; and having many patients in 
Manchester, as well as in Oldham, Rochdale, and other 
towns, he used to meet them at 21, Market Street, where I 
was an apprentice, and where he called every day. He was 
then a bachelor and an intimate friend of Mr. John 
Dugdale, whose niece he eventually married. He retired 
from practice some years since, and is now, I think, a little 
over eighty years old, and enjoying a peaceful old age at 
his residence in Greenheys. His son is curate of Stretford. 
The late Mr. Roberton, who had a large practice, died a 
few years since at an advanced age. Fifty years ago he 
lived in King Street, which it will be seen was then very 
popular with medical men as a place of residence. The 
late Mr. R. T. Hunt, who also attained an advanced age 
and died a few years ago, lived in Gartside Street, at the 
time we speak of. He was then assistant surgeon to the 
Eye Institution, and at the time of his retirement from 
Manchester to Disley, which took place a few years before 
his decease, he held the position of surgeon to it. 

The late Mr. Joseph Jordan, who attained such eminence 
both as a surgeon and as a lecturer on anatomy, began 
practice prior to 18 14, and at one time was in partnership 
with Mr. Blundstone, at No. 4 Bridge Street, where he was 



LEADING SURGEONS, 5 1 

in 1829. Mr. Jordan lived to a great age. The late 
Mr. Heath, who had a large practice, and who also lived 
to be an old man, was living in Cooper Street at the time. 
Mr. James Braid, who made a great stir at one time by 
his lectures on and practice of animal magnetism, was living 
in Piccadilly, but afterwards removed to St. Peter's Square. 

Amongst the leading surgeons were Messrs. John and 
Robert Thorpe, James Ainsworth, John A. Ransome, and 
W. J. Wilson. John Thorpe, the father of Robert, was then 
the oldest surgeon in Manchester, and was practising several 
years before the close of the last century. His house was 
then in Cock Gates, Withy Grove, a place we should now 
think very unfit for the residence of a surgeon. In 1829 he 
was living in King Street; whilst his son, who began 
practice somewhere about the year 18 14, lived in Oldham 
Street. Robert (or, as he was familiarly called. Bob) 
Thorpe I remember very well ; as well as James Ainsworth, 
to whom my master once sent me with some slight accidental 
injury. The latter began practice about the year 1808, at 
the upper end of King Street. After residing there more 
than forty years he died at Cliff Point, Broughton. Mr. 
J.* A. Ransome was practising in Princess Street in 18 10, 
and after sgme years removed to St. Peter's Square, where 
he was eventually succeeded by either his son or nephew 
Joseph. There were at this time two members of the 
medical profession as well as two druggists members of the 
Society of Friends — Mr. Ransome and Mr. Windsor. 

Another surgeon practising at this time in Manchester 
was Mr. Charles Greswell, living in Great Ducie Street, son 
of the Rev. W. P. Greswell, incumbent of Denton. The 



52 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

latter was a quaint-looking little old gentleman, well known, 
I believe, as a very learned man, who had another son in 
the Church, the author of some important works. Mr. 
Samuel Barton, who afterwards rose to eminence, was then 
living in Mosley Street He retired from the profession 
many years ago, and after an absence from Manchester for 
a time returned, residing at Bankfield, near the entrance to 
Manley Park, where he died a few years since. A little 
higher up Mosley Street, on the opposite side, was the 
residence of Mr. Thomas Ashton, who, though he never had 
a large practice, was well known amongst the literary and 
scientific circles of Manchester. He eventually took the 
degree of M.D., and retired some time ago from Manchester. 
A few years since I had the pleasure of meeting him, and of 
finding him well. His father, who was the bread baker 
of the day, at No. 3, Piccadilly, was a wealthy old gentleman, 
having made a considerable fortune in his business. Owing 
to the very superior quality of his bread, for which he got a 
higher price than any other baker, he had almost a 
monopoly. He will be remembered by many, no doubt, 
as a big and very old man, moving about very slowly, with 
the weight of years bowing him down, and his feet encased 
in a huge pair of shoes. At the close of the last century he 
had a shop in High Street. 

I have mentioned the late Mr. Thomas Turner else- 
where, and the age to which he lived. His career was 
a remarkably successful one from the first. Fifty years 
ago, his prescriptions, coming to be dispensed, were neither 
few nor far between. I well remember his neat hand- 
writing at that time, the style of which altered so little with 



MR. THOMAS TURNER. 



55 



advancing years. Independently of his ability, the secret 
of his success was not far to seek. He was remarkably 
genial and kindly in his manner, and alwa3rs brought sun- 
shine into a sick room. If a poor fellow was down, he 
would try to lift him up. If a patient thought it was all 
over with him, he would try to cause " hope eternal " to 
spring up in his breast He preached the doctrine that it 
is not work which kills men, but worry. * He acted on it, 
and proved the truth of it, for he was never worried, 
worked to the last, and died at a very advanced age. 

A well-known surgeon half a century ago was Mr. Benja- 
min Roberts, who began practice in Brazenose Street about 
the year 1812. He removed to Stevenson Square, and 
then to a house at the corner of Lever Street, and Back 
Piccadilly. He was the brother of Mr. John Roberts, the 
well-known stationer of Market Street. Their father was 
one of the early Methodist preachers sent out by John 
Wesley, beginning his labours in 1759, and was appointed 
one of the ministers of Oldham Street Chapel in the years 
1774-5 aiicl 1799. Exactly opposite, in the same street, 
lived another surgeon, who had a fair share of public 
confidence, Mr. Thomas Fawdington. He was one of the 
surgeons of what was then called " The Lying-in Hospital.'* 
In Salford, besides Mr. John Boutflower, Mr. Gardom and 
Mr. Thomas Brownbill enjoyed for many years extensive 
practices, and held the offices of surgeons to the Salford 
Dispensary. The father of the latter was a large brick- 
maker, first in Manchester and afterwards in Salford. He 
helped to level the mount on which the present Quaker's 
Chapel was built, by making the clay portion into bricks. 



54 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Anyone acquainted with the medical men of Manchester 
fifty years ago will not think a notice of them complete 
without some mention of Mr. Heurtley, who practised as a 
surgeon for nearly half a century, residing during that time, 
first at the Infirmary, then in Spring Gardens, and after- 
wards in Oldham Street, where he died at an advanced age. 
At the beginning of the present century he was House 
Apothecary at* the Infirmary, and afterwards went into 
practice. He lived and died a bachelor, and was rather 
remarkable both in appearance and dress, wearing panta- 
loons made after the fashion adopted by the dandies of a 
former period — fitting tight round the calf, and finishing off 
above the ankle. He set himself up as a great wit, and was 
very fond of punning. If he said a good thing which took, 
he never rested till he had related it to all his friends to 
whom he could gain access, and to some of them more than 
once. Not only so, but he took a great delight in pro- 
claiming to everybody that he was an unbeliever in the 
inspiration of the Bible and the truth of Christianity. The 
consequence was that his practice was very limited, though, 
no doubt, his ability was great. 

Besides the foregoing I well remember the following : — 
Mr. Jesse, of Downing Street, Ardwick, who had a large 
practice ; Mr. Robert Crowther, of Longworth Street, who 
removed into Quay Street ; Mr. Gavin Hamilton, of Port- 
land Street, who went to reside in Burlington Street, 
Chorlton Row, then a new neighbourhood, and who married 
Miss Ward, the actress, a daughter or other relative of 
Mr. Ward, the teacher of music, of Ward and Andrews; 
Mr. George Femeley, of St. Peter's Square ; Mr. Grindrod, 



DOCTOR SCHOFIELD. 



55- 



of Oxford Road, now practising as a hydropathic physi- 
cian, I believe, at Malvern ; and Dr. J. P. Kay, in King 
Street. This gentleman attained considerable eminence 
both in his profession and as an author. He wrote the 
"History of the Cholera" in 1832, and, besides other works, 
one on Asphyxia. He retired from practice to become 
president of the Poor Law Board, assuming the name of 
J. Kay-Shuttleworth, and was made a baronet The present 
Sir U. Kay-Shuttleworth is his son. 

I must not omit to notice two or three men who, though 
they had not received a professional training, enjoyed a 
large share of public confidence — the first in the practice of 
physic, and the second in that of surgery. I refer to the 
Rev. James Schofield, and Mr. Edmund Taylor, "the 
Oldfield Lane Doctor." The former was formerly the 
minister of the chapel known as Christ's Church, near the 
barracks, in Hulme, and at the time we speak of was the 
minister of a similar chapel in Every Street, Ancoats. 
Patients from all the country round used to apply to him, 
and he had the reputation of curing the ailments of many 
who had been given up by the regular practitioner. He 
was very popular amongst the working classes, and took an 
active part in politics, being one of the leaders of the 
Radicals of that day, and a coadjutor of Henry Hunt, to 
whom a monument is erected in the burial-ground attached 
to his chapel. 

The Oldfield Lane Doctor came from Whitworth, near 
Rochdale, to Manchester sometime during the first decade 
of this century, leaving either two or three brothers behind 
him known as the Whitworth doctors, who were as popular 



56 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



as Edmund Taylor afterwards became in Salford. He 
appears to have made a name for himself shortly after his 
settlement in Salford; for in the "Directory" for 1811 his 
name is entered thus : " Taylor, Edmund, Oldfield Lane 
Doctor, Oldfield Road, Salford." It is said that the Whit- 
worth doctors had been celebrated for two or three genera- 
tions. The whole family seem to have had a gift in that 
line, the female as well as the male members of it. A sister 
of Edmund Taylor married Mr. Maden, a wealthy gentleman 
and a magistrate, residing at Bacup, and she gratuitously 
practised the healing art amongst the poor to a late p>eriod 
of her life. I remember, when a youth, spending an evening 
at her house with my father and mother, when she gave 
them an account of her labours, stating that she devoted 
her mornings to this charitable work, having a dispensary 
fitted up for the purpose, and that the average cost of her 
drugs and medical appliances was ;£^7o a year. 

I used to be very fond of watching old Edmund Taylor's 
operations, and have spent many an hour in his surgery, 
frequently on a Sunday afternoon, for he was then alwajrs 
to be found at work. It was most interesting to watch 
the various cases of accident and forms of injury which 
presented themselves. The surgery, which had been a large 
kitchen, having a stone floor, a fireplace, and some benches 
round it, was at the back of the house, and opened into a 
large yard. Anyone could go in or out as he pleased, with- 
out any notice being taken, as the old gentleman attended 
to one thing at a time, and seldom noticed anybody or any- 
thing but the patient he had in hand, or the one thing he 
was doing. He went through his work at one uniform 



THE OLDFIELD LANE DOCTOR. 5 7 

pace, and was never hurried or excited by anything. A 
great many patients were generally waiting their turns, and 
occasionally there were spectators like myself, but I was 
always struck with the decorum and stillness which pre- 
vailed. Though the old doctor would sometimes crack a 
joke with a patient, he seldom spoke in a loud voice, and 
there seemed to be a tacit understanding amongst those 
present to preserve quiet Hanging up were several skins 
of leather, ready spread with a brown kind of plaister, from 
which occasionally he cut long strips with which to bind 
up some broken arm, dislocated shoulder, or other injured 
part. On his shelf were a number of stone bottles, about 
the size of ordinary medicine bottles, which were filled with 
a peculiar liniment, for which he and his brothers were 
celebrated. It was known as the " Whitworth Red Bottle,'^ 
and seemed designed for universal application. Of this they 
used to dispense large quantities. Spirit of turpentine 
was one of the ingredients, and I remember, during my 
apprenticeship, once sending Taylor a large puncheon of 
that drug. He was assisted, at one time, by a son who died 
of consumption. His place was taken by a sister, after- 
wards Mrs. Ridehalgh. 

A third, who was more of a quack, was the so-called 
Dr. Lignum, of Bridge Street, who was afterwards joined by 
his son. His real name, I believe, was Wood, and he chose 
to assume the Latin word for wood. He was the proprietor 
of a celebrated quack medicine, which is still sold, known 
as " Lignum's Antiscorbutic Drops." 

The Pharmacopoeia of fifty years ago contained the 
names of 444 drugs and their preparations, whilst that of 



58 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

to-day contains the names of no fewer than 802. The 
former did not contain the names of quinine, morphia, or 
iodine, three of the most commonly used drugs of the 
present day. In fact, so frequently are they prescribed in 
one form or another, that one wonders how the doctors 
managed without the two latter. Quinine was in use to a 
certain extent, though it was not officially sanctioned ; but 
where one grain was then used I believe a hundred are 
now. The system of treating many diseases has indeed 
been completely revolutionized Speaking generally, the 
practice used to be to pull down the system ; now it is to 
build it up by a freer use of quinine and other tonics. But 
in nothing is the change more striking than in regard to the 
then common habit of blood-letting, as it was called. I 
suppose that in the last century it was even more common 
than it was at the time we speak of, so that if a person fell 
down in the street from exhaustion he was sure to be bled. 
Though the practice was becoming more restricted, yet it 
was very prevalent fifty years ago. I well remember my 
brother suffering from rheumatic fever, and seeing Mr. 
Gardom, one of the best surgeons in Salford, draw a basin 
full of blood from his arm — a thing which no sane medical 
man would do in the present day. Not only was the lancet 
used in this way, but cupping and the application of leeches 
were continually resorted to in cases of inflammation, which 
it was supposed impossible otherwise to subdue. It is no 
wonder if the doctors prescribed such treatment that the 
public believed in its utility. It was no uncommon thing 
to be told by persons that they found it conducive to their 
health to be bled periodically, and that such treatment was 



BLOOD-LETTING, 



59 



necessary for them. I remember a neighbour in Market 
Street, a thin, delicate-looking man, who used to believe in 
the necessity of periodical blood-letting, and who, if I asked 
him how he was, would sometimes reply that he had not 
been bled lately and did not feel very well. He would 
accordingly be bled. No wonder that he died in the prime 
of life.* 

Fifty years ago the profession of dentistry was in its 
infancy. Then Manchester only contained six or seven 
dentists ; to-day there are over one hundred and twenty. 
The three principal ones were Messrs. Richard Helsby, in 
George Street ; John Faulkner, near the Wesleyan Chapel, 
in Oldham Street ; and Faulkner and Son, at the comer of 
Back Piccadilly, on the left-hand side of Lever Street. 

* The case of Malibran, who died after first being bled, wiU be referred 

to in a succeeding chapter. 



60 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER VI. 



DRUGGISTS. 



"PIFTY years ago there were only sixty druggists in 
Manchester and Salford ; to-day, their number ex- 
ceeds 260. So that whilst the doctors have increased in 
that time a little more than too per cent, the druggists have 
increased about 330 per cent. Not one of the sixty who 
were then in business as druggists is so now ; whilst, so far 
as I can ascertain, only two out of the whole number are 
living. These are Mr. Eli Atkin, of Newton Heath, and 
Mr. William Hyde Lamb. Mr. Atkin was an apprentice in 
the same shop as myself, but had completed his apprentice- 
ship before I began mine, and was then in business, in part- 
nership with Mr. Dale, as Dale and Atkin, in Swan Street. 
He afterwards relinquished the retail business, and became 
a drysalter and manufacturing chemist Mr. Lamb was then 
a druggist in Shudehill, but shortly after removed to the 
comer of Lower Mosley Street and Windmill Street, and 
for some years was a member of the Town Council He is 
now an estate and property agent, having an office near his 
old shop, but on the opposite side of the street 

The oldest member of the trade, at that time, was 
Mr. Daniel Lynch, who about the year 1790 began business 



A TKINSON AND BARKER. 6 1 

in Market Street, near what is now the end of Corporation 
Street, but which, of course, did not then exist. He after- 
wards removed to the opposite side, higher up, next door 
to the Commercial Hotel, where he was in 1829. I have 
before stated that he held the chief office in the fraternity of 
Freemasons. There was another druggist who was in busi- 
ness in the last century, and whose name was retained 
in the firm of Atkinson and Barker, though he had retired 
from it before 1829. Mr. John Atkinson was in business 
in 1790 in St Mar3r's Gate, and afterwards went into 
partnership with Mr. Robert Barker, occupying the shop 
at the corner of Market Place and SL Mary's Gate, 
which was pulled down a few years ago to make way for 
the splendid pile now occupying that and the adjacent 
ground, and which was at the time of its demolition in. the 
possession of Messrs. Mottershead and Co. Mr. Atkin- 
son was the inventor of that well-known mother's friend, 
" Infants' Preservative," which, we are informed, has re- 
ceived the patronage of royalty. When I first knew the 
shop, the firm had two assistants, who eventually went 
into partnership and opened a shop in Market Street, the 
firm being Ingham and WestmacotL They afterwards 
dissolved partnership, and both have since passed away. 
Mr. Westmacott was a relative (nephew, I believe) of the 
sculptor of that name, and had a taste for the art himself. 
At the time of his death his shop was at the comer of 
Market Street and Corporation Street, where he left a son 
as his successor, who also has artistic tastes. 

Next door to Atkinson and Barker's, in the Market Place, 
was the shop of Mottershead and Brown. About the year 



62 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

1790, Thomas Staines was carrying on business, as a 
druggist, in the Market Place, his house being at White 
Cross Bank, Salford. In 181 5 he was in partnership with 
Mr. Mottershead, the firm being Staines and Mottershead^ 
which was succeeded in a few years by that of Mottershead 
and Brown, and which existed fifty years ago. At that time 
Mr. Brown^ was dead, and shortly after the business was 
carried on in the name of John Mottershead. He was a 
descendant of the Rev. Joseph Mottershead, who was 
minister of Cross Street Chapel 54 years, commencing his 
ministry in 1717, and who died at the age of 83 years. I 
often had occasion to go to the shop, and remember Mr. 
Mottershead very well. He was a plain and homely man, 
both in his dress and manner, and, being a bachelor and 
living on the premises, he had an ancient-looking house- 
keeper, who used occasionally to come limping into the 
shop to see how its occupants were getting on. I heard it 
stated that she Vas the first person in Manchester who 
made fermented ginger beer in bottles. Mr. Mottershead 
had at that time two apprentices, one of whom, Thomas H. 
Taylor, afterwards began business in St. Ann's Square, 
where he continued many years. A few years since he 
relinquished it for another branch of business. The other 
apprentice was a nephew of Mr. Mottershead's, Thomas 
Roberts, who was afterwards taken into partnership, the 
firm being Mottershead and Roberts, and the business was 
continued by Mr. Roberts after Mr. Mottershead's death. 
More than thirty years ago. Barker, the successor of Atkin- 
son and Barker, relinquished the retail business, when the 
comer shop, which was a larger and more convenient one 



OLD DRUGGISTS. 63 



than Mottershead's, was taken by him. The business was 
carried on by Mr. Roberts till the premises were pulled 
down, when it was disposed of to the two gentlemen who 
had so ably managed it for him, and who removed it to 
premises under the Exchange, Mr. Roberts having become 
the senior partner in the firm of Roberts, Dale, and Co., 
manufacturing chemists, Combrook. I well remember both 
Mr. Taylor and Mr. Roberts when they were youths behind 
Mottershead's counter. 

The names of several of the druggists of that day are 
still perpetuated, namely. Lynch, Mottershead, Jewsbury, 
Bullock, and Goadsby, though the men themselves have 
been dead some time, and have no descendants now in the 
business. . Mr. Francis Cxoadsby, father of the late Alder- 
man Goadsby, was then a druggist in Chapel Street, his 
shop being on the Manchester side, between New Bailey 
Street and Blackfriars Bridge. Another venerable Salford 
druggist of that day was Mr. William Brearey, whose shop 
was then at Pendleton. He had a shop previously in 
Market Street, and afterwards removed from Pendleton 
to Upper Brook Street Contemporary with the elder 
Goadsby and Brearey was Mr. James Brereton, who evi- 
dently believed, as well as his successors, that " a rolling 
stone gathers no moss,'' for, about the year 1810, we find 
him keeping a shop at the comer of Cateaton Street and 
Smithy Door, where I knew him in 1829, and which he con- 
tinued to keep for many years. He was succeeded by his 
son, who in his turn was succeeded by Mr. Hughes, the 
present occupant So that the old shop has only changed 
owners twice in about seventy years. Another druggist who 



64 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

began business about the same time was Mr. John Cook ; 
his shop was in King Street, a little lower down than the 
Old Exchange entry, on the same side. I remember it in 
1829, as it presented a rather old-fashioned appearance, 
having bow windows with small panes of glass. There was 
also another druggist's shop then in King Street on the same 
side three doors from Deansgate, and next to Townsend's, 
the music seller, occupied by Mr. Daniel Bullock. So that 
Kling Street then contained two druggists, though there is 
not one there now. 

Oxford Road had only one, Mr. Thomas Sigley ; whilst 
there was only one in the whole of Hulme. That happy 
individual was Mr. Robert Middleton, of Chester Road. 
Of course the Stretford Road was not then constructed. 
There were four in the Market Place. Besides Atkinson 
and Barker and Mottershead, there was George Vaughan, 
who was also a seedsman and began business at the begin- 
ning of the century, his shop being in the comer next to the 
Blue Boar court. Nearer to Market Street was Mr. Gilbert 
Blackberd, also a druggist and seedsman, in the shop 
now occupied by Mr. Henry Watkinson, the seedsman. 
Mr. Thomas Watkinson, an elder brother, succeeded 
Mr. Blackberd, and after some time gave up selling drugs, 
confining his trade to the other branch. He died several 
years since, and was succeeded by his younger brother. 

Market Street at that time possessed four druggist's shops, 
their owners being Stocks and Dentith, Daniel Lynch, 
Robert Halstead Hargreaves, and Jewsbury and Whitlow. 
The most popular street with druggists was Piccadilly, 
which then contained six, two of the number being sons of 



JEWSBURY AND WHITLOW. 65 



Wesleyan ministers. The first shop which was so long 
occupied by Mr. Standring, and which has only just been 
pulled down to widen the entrance to Tib Street, was then 
occupied by Mr. John Williams Gaulter. His father was 
the Rev. John Gaulter, who in the early part of his career 
was a contemporary of Wesley, at which time his name used 
to be spelt Gaultier. In my early days he resided for a 
time in Manchester, and I remember his tall and handsome 
figure and venerable appearance, dressed in the costume of 
the day with knee breeches, black stockings, and silver 
knee-buckles. His son was a very gentlemanly man, and 
began business about the year 18 12. When I first knew 
him his assistant was Mr. L. Simpson, who afterwards began 
business in Princess Street, his shop being the first opened 
in that street. It was thought at the time to be rather a 
rash undertaking, but it succeeded. He retired many years 
ago, when he disposed of his business to Messrs. Ransome 
and Co. 

Previous to this, Gaulter had two apprentices named 
Jewsbury and Whitlow, who ultimately went into partner- 
ship, beginning business about the year 1825, in the shop 
over the door of which the name of one of the partners 
is still retained. It was one of three or four which 
had just been rebuilt, and were then called " Egyptian 
Buildings." Mr. Jewsbury's father was a yam agent, and 
also agent for the West of England Insurance Company, 
and was the father of the two authoresses, Miss Jewsbury 
(afterwards Mrs. Fletcher), who died in India, and 
Miss Geraldine Jewsbury, the novelist. Jewsbury married 
his partner's sister, whose mother kept the George and 

D 



66 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Dragon Inn, at the comer of York Street and Fountain 
Street. The house was sold some time after her death, and 
the premises taken for the South Lancashire Bank, long 
since defunct 

About the year 1824 there was a hosier's shop at the 
comer of Swan Court, in Market Street, occupied by Mr, 
James Townsend. During some extensive alterations which 
were being executed at the next shop, some injury was done 
to the foundation of Townsend's shop. One Saturday after- 
noon a man going past was startled by the falling of bricks, 
and he shouted to Townsend waming him of danger. The 
latter had just time to escape, with his bag of money in his 
hand, when the building fell Fortunately just at this time 
the shop (now No. 27) which had been occupied by Mr. 
Bentham, a bookseller, who had removed to the Market 
Place, was at liberty, and to this Townsend removed. After 
carrying on business some years longer he retired, and dis- 
posed of it to a Scotchman named Brown, who had resided 
in Manchester for some years. Mr. Brown had several chil- 
dren, and amongst them a bright, bonny-faced boy, called 
William Scott, who he was ambitious should become a 
dmggist. Accordingly, when William was old enough, he 
was sent to Mr. John Lesse/s, in Piccadilly, but did not 
remain long there, and was bound an apprentice to Messrs. 
Jewsbury and Whitlow. After some time they dissolved 
partnership. Whitlow going to Liverpool and Jewsbury 
retaining the business. For many years before Jewsbury's 
death, owing to some spinal injury, he lost the use of the 
lower extremities, and could not attend to business. He 
wisely took into partnership his former apprentice, then an 



JAMES WOOLLEY. 67 



assistant, who still survives to render services to his fellow- 
townsmen in various public capacities, as William Scott 
Brown. 

I mentioned in a notice of Market Street, that in 1829 
the alterations connected with the widening of the street 
were not complete, and that there was still standing on the 
left-hand going up, an old pile of buildings, the footpath in 
front of which was much higher than the carriage way. One 
of the shops in this old pile was that of Mr. Hargreaves, 
already mentioned, who began business there jn 1796. He 
was also a drysalter, and had been a chemical manufacturer, 
in which he made a large fortune. I was often sent to him 
to inquire what he would charge us for some article which 
we had not m stock. As sure as I did so the old gentle- 
man would seize a duster and commence a polishing 
operation on his counter-top. Whilst doing this he would 
mutter a complaint that my master was spoiling the trade 
(referring to the drysaltery) by cutting down the profits and 
underselling him. Then, after another rub or two, he would 
gruffly give me the information I sought. In due time the 
old buildings came down, and were replaced by the present 
ones, which stand on the site. Mr. Hargreaves retired from 
the business about 1844, and was succeeded by the late 
Mr. James WooUey. Three doors from Gaulter's, in Picca- 
dilly, was the shop of Mr. Samuel Dean, a druggist ; and 
when I came to Manchester Mr. James Woolley was just 
completing his apprenticeship with Dean. I remember him 
calling to see the assistant in the shop where I was one 
Sunday afternoon about that time. He eventually opened 
a shop in King Street, near to the one now occupied by 



68 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Messrs. Wilson and Co., the ironmongers. When Mr. Har- 
greaves retired, Mr. James WooUey purchased his business. 
He was for some years a member of the Town Council, 
and greatly respected by all who knew him. He did not 
live to be an old man, and his business is carried on by three 
of his sons, who have greatly extended the wholesale branch 
of it, as well as the premises occupied by their father. 

There were two druggists then in Manchester who were 
quakers. One of them was Mr. W. Ansell, whose shop was 
in St. Mary's Gate, He was a clean, pleasant-looking little 
man, very precise and methodical in his manner, and just 
the sort of man to inspire you with confidence in his 
accuracy. His was the only place then in the town where 
chemical apparatus could be purchased. He was succeeded 
by Mr. Dale, now of the firm of Roberts, Dale, and Co. 

The other quaker druggist was Mr. George Danson, in 
Piccadilly, his shop being between the houses of Mr. Bloor, 
the pawnbroker, and Mr. John Windsor, the surgeon. A 
little lower down, and three doors firom the Albion, was 
the shop then occupied by the late Mr. Thomas Standring, 
who afterwards removed to that which had been Gaulter's, 
and which has so recently been pulled down. It may be 
interesting here to state that fifty years ago the late owner 
of the site gave ^^3,500 for it, and it was recently sold to 
the Corporation for ;^22,5oo. 

I have mentioned the name of Mr. John Lessey, in 
Piccadilly, to whom young William Scott Brown was first 
sent to learn the mysteries of a druggist's shop. He was 
the son of the Rev. Theophilus Lessey, one of the early 
Wesleyan ministers, and had a brother Theophilus, also a 



ELLEN THORP. 69 



Wesleyan minister, known as one of the most eloquent 
preachers of the day. Next door to John lived another 
brother, a surgeon. The sixth druggist in this street was 
Mr. R. WoodaU. 

Not only was there a noted surgeon, named Robert 
Thorpe, in Oldham Street fifty years ago, but there was also 
in the same street a noted druggist, named Ellen Thorp, 
who was quite as popular in doctoring women and children. 
In 1794 there were two lady druggists in Manchester, one 
being "Ann Cooke, druggist and seedsman, 27, Market 
Place;'* and the other Ann Thorp, apothecary, 45, 
Oldham Street. She had a son, Issachar, who acquired a 
knowledge of the business when a young man, and who 
afterwards became a calico printer, having a warehouse in 
Fountain Street, and who, on the death of his mother, took 
her business. For a few years he had both businesses on 
his hands, and I doubt not that his wife Ellen assisted him 
at this time in the shop, and so became sufficiently ac- 
quainted with its duties to be enabled^to follow them up 
after his death. The shop of Ann Thorp, in 1794, was a 
black and white . half-timbered old house. Ellen Thorp, 
on the death of her husband, continued the business, which 
is still carried on by her successor. 

About the year 1822 Mr. John Stocks, who had a shop 
previously at the comer of Thomas Street and Oldham 
Street, removed to Market Street The shop to which he 
removed is now No. 41, but owing to a different method of 
numbering the streets, was then 21, and is the shop in which 
I served my apprenticeship. At the time Mr. Stocks re- 
moved to it, Mr. Eli Atkin was his apprentice, and Mr. Atkin 



^o 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



informs me that there was at that time a tradition in the 
place that it was the oldest druggist's shop in Manchester. 
I have no means of tracing its history further back than 
1794, at which time its occupant was George Buxton Brown. 
Soon after the beginning of the present century the business 
was transferred to William Wilson, who retained it till John 
Stocks became its possessor. Stocks took into partnership 
William Dentith, who had been a traveller for David Taylor 
and Sons, and the firm became Stocks and Dentith, but had 
not existed long before Stocks died. When I was an 
apprentice the premises belonged to a Mr. G. B. Brown, of 
Halifax, I presume a son of George Buxton Brown, who 
was there in 1794. After the death of Mr. Stocks, his 
widow retired from the business and I was bound an 
apprentice to the new firm of William Dentith and Co., my 
father paying down ;£^ioo as my premium. Mrs. Stocks, 
who was the sister of our almost octogenarian friend, 
Mr. Benjamin Rawson, of Ardwick Green, afterwards mar- 
ried Mr. Heap, a large stonemason, who built the steeple of 
St. Peter's Church, which at first was without one for some 
years. He also built St. Matthew's and Stand Churches, 
but imfortunately got involved in a law suit for extras with 
the Church Commissioners, which he lost I understand 
Mrs. Pochin, the wife of the M.P., is his grand-daughter. 
Dentith had two other apprentices when I entered his 
service. The elder of the two was the son of the late Rev. 
Dr. Warren, and brother of Mr. Samuel Warren, Q.C., the 
author of " Ten Thousand a Year." He afterwards entered 
the service of Pole and Co., merchants, of London, who 
had a house at the Isthmus of Darien^ to which he was 



AUTHOF^S APPRENTICESHIP. 



71 



sent, and where he died shortly after. The second was 
Henry Blaine, the son of a retired draper at Hull. After I 
had been rather more than two years with Dentith, he sold 
his retail business and went altogether into the wholesale, 
taking Blaine with him and leaving me with his successor. 
Shortly after my apprenticeship terminated, Blaine made 
overtures to me to go out with him to the Cape of Good 
Hope. I went to consult my father, who was at the time 
attending the Wesleyan Conference at Birmingham, travel- 
ling all night by the Red Rover coach. He in his turn 
(unwisely, as I thought) consulted a missionary named Kay, 
who had just returned from the Cape. The result of a five 
minutes' conversation with him was, that Blaine went out 
without me, foimded the house of Blaine Brothers, and 
became the Hon. Henry Blaine, member of the Upper 
House of Legislature at the Cape. 

A druggist's apprentice in those days had to work both 
harder and longer than at the present day. My master 
being a large soda water maker, I had the advantage of 
learning that branch, at which for the two first years of my 
apprenticeship I worked pretty hard. At that time there 
were only three makers of soda water in Manchester — 
Gaulter, in Piccadilly; Thompstone, in Cupid's Alley; and 
my master. In the shop was a soda water fountain, fi-om 
which soda water was drawn by means of a strong glass 
globe, the mouth of which fitted tightly on to a nipple, and 
out of which it was poured into a tumbler ready for drink- 
ing. On one occasion Blaine was drawing a glass for a 
customer when the globe burst and laid open his cheek, 
thereby slightly disfiguring him for life. 



72 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

After I had been with Dentith between two and three 
years he sold his retail business to Mr. Horatio Miller, of 
London, to whom I was bound over. Miller had been for 
some years an assistant with Godfrey and Cooke, of London, 
who were at that time the principal West End chemists, and 
had most of the aristocracy as customers. He afterwards 
went one or two vo3rages on board of a whaleship as medical 
attendant, which would be illegal in the present day. He 
had seen much of life, having mixed a good deal with London 
society, and was not long in Manchester before he made the 
acquaintance of a number of the professional and literary 
men of that day, with others of congenial tastes, whom he 
gathered around him. He was a believer in the fact that 
your grand stately " spreads " do not always yield the most 
pleasure, and preferred snug and less ostentatious social 
gatherings. Moreover, being a bachelor, he had no fear of 
the consequences if sometimes he brought in a friend to 
partake of a little "plain family dinner" without notice. 
After a while he seemed to become rather partial to me, 
used to read Shakspere and other authors to me after 
business hours, and often permitted me to be present when 
entertaining one or two of his friends, whose society I used 
greatly to enjoy. 

Chief among these was Mr. Henry B. Peacock, the 
elder, better known as Harry Peacock, who was, I believe, 
one of the founders of the Prince's Theatre. Fifty years 
ago he had a tailor's shop in King Street, but had removed 
at the time I knew him into St. Ann's Square. I used to 
delight in his company, as his conversation abounded in 
wit, humour, and anecdote. In a diary I then kept for a 



WILLIAM BRADLEY, THE ARTIST. 73 

short time I find his name frequently mentioned. Another 
frequent visitor was Charles Swain, the poet, whose dark 
lustrous eyes and intellectual conversation I well remember. 
Charles Wilkins, the barrister, occasionally dined with us. 
Though he afterwards became Serjeant Wilkins he did not 
attain to great eminence at the bar, and died after a some- 
what brief career. He was known to his friends as anything 
but an affluent man. His ft)rte was in addressing juries. 
To hear him was a rich treat, as he told them that it was 
now his " turn, under the direction and correction of the 
learned judge, to place the facts of the case before them," 
rolling his words out with delightful smoothness and 
distinctness. 

Mr. Miller was also on intimate terms with Charles 
Calvert and William Bradley, the artists. I mentioned some 
time since in the City News that on one occasion Miller 
had promised to take a young lady to the flower show at the 
Town Hall, and that being prevented doing so he requested 
me to supply his place. She was Calvert's daughter, and 
became Bradley's wife, but at the time of my writing I had 
forgotten in what relation she stood to Bradley. After my 
reference to her in the City News she wrote me a kind 
letter, from which I may be allowed to give the following 
extract : — " I was the young girl you so kindly escorted to 
the flower show, and Mr. Miller, of Market Street, was a 
very kind friend of my father's, and visited at our house in 
Princess Street The time of going to the flower show was 
prior to my marriage. I afterwards visited, along with my 
father, Mr. Miller's house, taking tea and spending the 
evening there, admiring the flowers he so prided himself 



74 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

in arranging in vases ; and the circumstance is impressed on 
my memory in consequence of Mr. Miller so much admiring 
a gold chain I wore for the first time, being the first present 
from Mr. Bradley, and which he put round my neck just 
befcxe I set out for Mr. Miller's house." Those who have 
felt any interest in the notices of William Bradley which 
have appeared in the City News will not be sorry to read 
another extract from the same letter. The writer says : — 
"Long .years have passed since I saw you. I have been 
eleven years in Sydney, N.S.W., with my present husband, 
my two daughters, and my eldest son ; and having acquired 
a comfortable competency after all the tossing of fortune, 
or rather misfortune, I am now settled down in this place " 
(naming a small town on the banks of the Thames). 

Other visitors at Miller's house were Mr. Lot Gardner, 
of High Street ; Mr. Joe Marsland, cotton merchant, of 
Cockpit Hill ; Mr. Edward Saul, of the firm of Gardner, 
Harter, and Co., drysalters; Mr. Wilham Hatton, iron 
merchant, Blackfiriars Street ; and Mr. George Condy, the 
barrister. The latter was the son of an Irish Wesleyan 
minister. He had very little practice at the bar, but was 
one of the commissioners in bankruptcy, and for some years 
was editor of the Manchester and Salford Advertiser^ at the 
time Mrs. Leresche was its proprietor, and its office was at 
the comer of Spring Gardens and Market Street. 

Mr. Miller having resided so long in London, and having 
as I have said mixed a good deal in London society, had 
become acquainted with many of the leading actors of the 
day. Accordingly when any of them came to Manchester 
he found them out and invited them to visit hinL I have 



MACREADY, DOWTON. 75 

a distinct remembrance of dnce dining with Charles Kemble, 
and of the pleasure I felt in assisting him to vegetables. 

Macready was also a visitor at Miller's house when he 
came to Manchester. I have a vivid recollection of his 
coming in one morning having, in passing a newly-painted 
lamp-post, daubed the sleeve of his coat. It was a single- 
breasted brown overcoat, and I had the pleasure of helping 
him out of his difficulty. The manner of his thanking me 
was most polite and courteous, and the tone of his voice so 
striking that I used to think that if I heard the same words 
again uttered by the same voice, blindfolded, I should 
recognise it. 

Dowton was another visitor. I suppose he was the finest 
representative of FalstafF of all who ever attempted the 
.character. He was, in the early part of his career, a con- 
temporary and a colleague of Mrs. Jordan, the intimate 
friend at one time bi William IV. I have preserved a note, 
written by Mr. Clarke, the manager of the Theatre Royal, 
to Condy, the barrister, which I presume had been handed 
to Miller in explanation of Clarke's absence. There is no 
date to the note, but it will be seen the dinner party was on 
a Sunday. The following is a copy of the note : — 

My Dear Sir, — I am on the doctor's list, and cannot leave house 
to-day. Will you have the kindness to make my apology to Mr. Miller, 
with whom I was to dine, and say that I very much regret not being 
able to meet him ? Dowton relies upon your good offices to show him 
the way to the dinner table ; he is domiciled at No. 70, Falkner Street ; 
Andrews on door. — ^Yours very truly, 

Sunday morning. Rt. Clarke. 

— Condy, Esq. 



76 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Andrews was a performer at the Theatre Royal, and took 
the characters of old men. He was the father of Mr. 
Andrews, of the firm of Ward and Andrews, professors of 
music 

Horatio Miller afterwards relinquished the drug business, 
and went into partnership with Mr. Robert Hindley, the 
brewer. Miller's Lane, Salford, sometimes known as Bob 
Hindley, and sometimes as Captain Hindley, firom his having 
held the rank of captain in the Volunteers of a former 
period.* Afterwards Miller went to Fleetwood and then to 
Squthampton, as agent for one or two steam-packet com- 
panies. The last I heard of him was that he was connected 
with the exhibition of the great Globe in Leicester Square, 
during the Great Exhibition of 185 1, and that he had a trial 
with Mr. Wylde concerning it, and had lost his case. He 
occasionally indulged in writing poetry, of which I retain 
several specimens, and was somewhat of an adept at 
sketching and modelling. I have in my possession a carica- 
ture pen and ink sketch which he made of Dentith's head, 
which is a capital likeness. After finishing my apprentice- 
ship I remained with him, at his request, as an assistant for 
two or three years, when we went into partnership together 
as soda water makers, the business being carried on in my 
name. 

Altogether, my old master was not an ordinary man, and,, 
in looking back, I think of him with the liveliest interest. 



* In 1833 Mr. Hindley was elected president of the club knovm a& 
''John Shaw's/' and held the office till 1852, when he resigned, being. 
82 years of age. 



REV. yAMES EVERETT. ^^ 



CHAPTER VII. 



BOOKSELLERS. 



TN 1829, the first bookseller's shop you met with coming 
up Market Street on the left-hand side was that of 
James Everett He was originally a Wesleyan minister, 
and, owing to a throat affection, he became after a time 
what is technically called by the Wesleyans a supernumer- 
ary, and entered into business for some years. He then 
re-entered the Wesleyan ministry, and in the year 1849 
finally left the body. His shop fifty years ago was near the 
present end of Corporation-street, but he afterwards re- 
moved higher up to a shop near the end of New Cannon 
Street. As I used to make for him ten gallons of ink at 
once, and take it to him, I remember him well, being 
generally met by some quaint remark as to the quality of 
the ink. He resided in a kind of square, called Sedgwick's 
Court, which turned out of Deansgate, on the river side, 
between St. Mary's Gate and the Old Bridge. I recollect 
having been sent to his house one Sunday morning early 
with a request that he would preach at Oldham Street 
Chapel that morning. He was a popular preacher, and 
author of several works, the most noted of which were 
" The Life of Sammy Hick, the Village Blacksmith," and 



78 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

the Weshyan Takings, which last was published anonymously. 
There was one which he published about sixty years ago, 
which made no small stir at the time, and of which the 
publication was suppressed, I believe. Hence I find the 
recollection of it has nearly passed away. One of the 
earliest things of the kind which I can remember is the 
handling of a copy of this work, which my father possessed, 
and looking at one of the illustrations. It was called The 
Parson an4 the Cat, and was intended to take off the 
parson-hunting tendency of the age. It was cast in the 
"John Gilpin" mould, and narrated in verse how a certain 
parson, returning home disappointed of his day's sport, 
espied a lad with a cat and induced him to set poor puss 
down and let the dogs be after her. The instinct of the 
cat induced her to get as far out of the way of the dogs as 
she could by clambering up the hind quarters of the horse, 
then up the back of the rider, then on to his head. There 
was a picture of the scene of the hat and wig of the rider 
flying away, and the cat setting her claws on to the bald 
head of the poor affrighted and tortured parson. 

The next bookseller's shop on the same side was that 
of Ebenezer Thomson and Sons, who occupied the shop 
No. 20, at the comer of Cromford Court, next to the one in 
which I was apprenticed, which was then No. 21, the num- 
bers running consecutively at the time. In 1790 the same 
shop was occupied by James Thomson, bookseller. In 
18 10 it was divided into two shops, one being occupied by 
James Thomson and Son, the son being Ebenezer, who 
lived at the back of New Windsor, Salford. In 1815 the 
shop was restored to its original dimensions, and Ebenezer 



EBENEZER THOMSON AND SONS. Jg 

had the business to himself, the father having retired, and 
residing at " Cheetham Cottage Town," Red Bank. In 
1824 the firm was still Ebenezer, but in 1829 it was, as I 
have stated, E. Thomson and Sons, and a year or two 
after was changed to James and Joseph Thomson. They 
were known as dealers in books on mechanics and the 
various branches of civil engineering as well as general 
literature, their stock of new and second-hand books being 
one of the largest in the provinces. Their printed catalogue 
in 1829 extended to something like 600 octavo pages, and 
contained the names of 20,000 volumes. They dealt also 
in stationery and stamps and did a good business in book- 
binding. The younger brother, Joseph, died some years 
since, but I had the pleasure of meeting with James three 
or four years ago, when he was staying at the same hotel in 
Southport as myself, his residence being near Bowness. 

The next bookseller to the Thomsons was W. Dean, 
near to the end of New Cannon Street. In 18 10 the shop 
was next door to that of Mr. Hargreaves, the druggist, and 
kept by R. and W. Dean. In 18 15 they had removed to 
the comer of Brown Street, where they remained some 
years, but in 1824 there was only William in the concern ; 
and in 1829 the business had crossed over to the other side 
of the street again. When the Deans were at the comer of 
Brown Street they printed the Manchester Directory for 
Pigot, and published it conjointly with him, Pigot being at 
that time merely an engraver and not a letterpress printer. 
James Pigot was an engraver in Back Faulkner Street in 
1 794, and afterwards removed to Fountain Street where he 
was at the time I came to Manchester. At that time his 



8o MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

■ ■■■■■»■■■■■ y ■ I ■ -■■l..l III! I ^^^^— ^— ^»^ 

son was in partnership with him, the father living in Polygon 
Avenue, Ardwick, and James, the son, behind the premises 
in Fountain Street 

The next bookseller's shop or stall, between the shops of 
Watson, the trunk-maker, and Hargreaves, the druggist, in 
the old part of Market Street not yet pulled down, was that 
of old Weatherley, about whom so much has been said in 
the columns of the City News, 

In proceeding up Market Street, we next come to quite 
a nest of booksellers, all close together, the first of whose 
shops was that of Thomas Forrest His history, in one 
respect, is interesting, inasmuch as he came to Manchester 
to seek his fortune, with a fellow-joumejonan printer, named 
Jeremiah Gamett, of whom I shall have more to say shortly. 
They worked together for a while on Wheeler's Chronicle, 
and when the Manchester Guardian was established Mr. 
Gamett joined it, ultimately becoming a partner. Forrest, 
sometime about 1822 or 1823, took a shop in the Old 
Exchange Passage, where he printed a history of Wales for 
Mr. Cathrall, the then editor of the Chronicle, and, about 
1828, removed to the shop adjoining the then Brooks's 
Bank, in Market Street He was the only bookseller who 
would allow the publications of the Unitarian body to lie 
on his counter. He had a good business in printing and 
stationery, which, after some changes, passed, in 1853, into 
the hands of his former apprentices, Messrs. Johnson and 
Rawson, who have somewhat extended it, and carry it on 
in the same premises. 

After passing the shop of Mary Lowe and Co., tailors, 
and the Old Palace Inn, the next shop at the comer of 



yOHN ROBERTS. 8 1 



Palace Street, was that of Mr. John Roberts, a large 
stationer. He was the son of one of Wesley's early coadju- 
tors, and brother of Mr. Benjamin Roberts, the surgeon, of 
Lever Street. Being an intimate friend of my father's I 
knew him well, and have spent many days at his house in 
Piccadilly, next door to Mr. Bloor's, and opposite the end 
of Portland Street, when a boy, on a visit with my mother. 
He began business about the first year in the present 
■century, and I have heard it stated that his father, being 
stationed at the time at the Oldham Street Chapel, after the 
service there one week evening, announced to the con- 
legation that his son had begun business in Market Street, 
as a bookseller and stationer. His business was noted as 
the oldest stationery business, and also for the enormous 
number of bill stamps which he sold, disposing, I believe, 
of more than all the other dealers in them in Manchester 
put together. He was a very upright tradesman, very 
genial, lived to a good old age, and stuck to business nearly 
to the last, leaving behind him a handsome fortune. He 
had an only son, Thomas, who was remarkably corpulent 
for so young a man. He died a few years after he was 
married, ^r. Roberts did a large bookbinding trade, which 
was practically managed by Mr. John Leigh, who married 
Mr. Roberts' relative and assistant. Miss Andrews, and 
who succeeded him in the business. After his retirement 
Mr. James Cheetham took the business. 

Three doors higher up the street was the shop of 
Mr. Charles Ambery. He was, perhaps, more of a seller of 
books than any hitherto named. He had not been in this 
business long before 1829, having been a joiner previously, 



82 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

but being connected with Bennett Street Sunday School — 
with which Mr. Benjamin Braidley was also associated — 
the latter provided him with the means of beginning busi- 
ness as a bookseller, for which he had already manifested a 
taste. He was well supported by Church people and did a 
large trade. I have occasionally seen what has been a very 
handsome Bible and Prayer Book bound together, in the 
hands of an elderly married lady, which was purchased at 
his shop before she was married. 

Next door to Mr. Ambery was the shop of Mr. John 
Royle, the stationer. I well remember him as a very old 
man. In 1810 he was in Deansgate, and in 181 5 he was 
lower down Market Street, near the shop which is now 
Darbyshire's, the confectioner's, his house being in Hodson 
Street, Salford. After that he went still lower down, occu- 
p)dng a site near the present omnibus compan/s office. 
From there he went into the Market Place, where he was 
in 1824, but at last reached the shop at the comer of 
Marsden Square, where he was when I was an apprentice. 

Crossing over the end of High Street, we next came to 
the bookshop of T. S. Gregson, the first shop in Egyptian 
Buildings, Jewsbury and Whitlow's being the second, and 
Miles Craston's, the hatter, being third. Gregson was the 
author of a book which is now becoming rare, called 
" Gimcrackiana," composed mainly of poetic and humorous 
descriptions of Manchester men and things, a specimen of 
which was given in a previous chapter on "Hookers-in." Poor 
Gregson gave way to a little failing, and his shop in a few 
years gave him up. It appears that he was in the habit of 
frequenting the George and Dragon, at the comer of York 



r. S. GREGSON. 



83 



Street and Fountain Street, and that on one occasion he was 
turned out, and requested not to enter it again. At the 
time, he was assistant bookkeeper at the shop of a neigh- 
bouring firm, and shortly afterwards the following stanzas 
were found on the flyleaf of a rough day-book in hiis 
writing. The first is a quotation, I believe, and in the 
second he evidently tries to relieve his feelings : — 

BLOWING-UP DAY. 

Whoe'er has travelled life's dull round, 

Where'er his toilsome journey's been, 
Must sigh to think how oft he's found 

His wannest welcome at an inn. 

The contrary we here may trace ; 

For quaffing off an extra flagon 
The writer, held in sad disgrace, 

Was banished from the George and Dragon. 

Affer leaving the shop, it was taken by Mr. Benjamin 
Binyon, as a confectioner, who, whilst there, opened the 
Beehive Restaurant, under the Palace Inn, which was the 
first extensive restaurant established in Manchester. 

The last shop on the left-hand side of Market Street was 
that of Joseph Gleave. He was an old Manchester book- 
seller, having been in business several years before the 
close of the last century, in Southern Street, a small street 
which turned out of Priestner Street, in Alport Town. He 
then rempved to Alport Street, and thence to the comer of 
John Street and Deansgate. This was his principal place 
of business, where he published a Hebrew Grammar, by 
Dr. Bayley, " The House of Stanley,*' " Bennef s Oratory," 
and other works. A short time before his death, he opened 



84 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

the Market Street shop as a branch. There was a John 
Gleave, a dealer in second-hand books, in 1829, not far 
from Marsden Square, who, I believe, was a son of Joseph, 
but who was only there a few years. 

In Piccadilly, nearly opposite the Infirmary clock, was 
the shop of Mr. William Ellerby, who came here in 
1826, as the agent of the Religious Tract Society, but 
united with the agency a general bookselling business. 
He wa s not originally well educated, but by rare 
application and perseverance he became a very well 
informed man on all general literary subjects, especially 
those connected with theology and the rise and progress of 
Puritanism and Nonconformity. Having been a commercial 
traveller for fourteen years, he h^d gathered a great deal of 
historical information, which enabled him to contribute a 
series of articles to the Congregational Magazine, and greatly 
to assist the late Mr. George Hadfield in the suit institfted 
to recover Lady Hewley's property, whereby it was taken 
from the Unitarians and handed over to the " Orthodox 
Dissenters." He was also consulted on literary matters by 
such men as the late Sir Oswald Mosley and Sir John 
Bowring, when they had occasion to visit Manchester. He 
revised and published an edition of Edwards "On the 
Religious Affections,'* and also published several pamphlets, 
from his own pen, on the Quaker Controversies, at the time 
Isaac Crewdson and others seceded from that body. He 
died in 1839. 

Mr. Thomas Sowler was a letterpress printer at the close 
of the last century, in partnership with Mr. Russell, at 
Hunt's Bank, the firm being Sowler and RusselL After a 



LOVE AND BARTON. 85 

time they dissolved partnership, Mr. Russell joining a 
Mr. Allen, and carrying on the printing business in Deans- 
gate, and Mr. Sowler beginning business, as a bookseller, in 
St. Ann's Square. At the time I came to Manchester, 
Mr. Sowler had added the publication of the Manchester 
Courier Xjq his, other business. Subsequently the book trade 
was relinquished, the efforts and capital of the firm being 
confined to the publication of the newspaper, and to a 
general job printing business. 

In 1829, not far from Sowler's shop, at the comer of Red 
Lion Street and Exchange Street, the firm of Bancks and Co. 
was in full swing, doing a very extensive business. They 
ultimately collapsed, their failure being one of the elements 
which assisted in eventually bringing down the Bank of 
Manchester, to whom they were at the time indebted for 
considerably more than ;^ 100,000. With them was Mr. 
Benjamin Love, who, with Mr. John Barton, an assistant of 
Mr. Gleave's, began business as Love and Barton, in a shop 
in Newall's Buildings. They subsequently removed to the 
former premises of the Bank of Manchester. Mr. Love is 
dead, and Mr. John Barton has retired, the business being 
now carried on by Mr. Henry Barton. Mr. Love possessed 
some literary ability, and was the author of one or two works, 
the most important of which was descriptive of Wesleyan 
Methodism, he having at one time been a Wesleyan. 
Ampng their assistants were Thomas Roworth and William 
Hale, who, on completing their terms, formed the partner- 
ship which, as Hale and Roworth, began business in King 
Street, subsequently removing to Cross Street A few years 
ago they separated, when Mr. Roworth removed to his 



86 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

present shop in St Ann's Square, where he has a consider- 
able Church connection. 

George, or " Old Bentham," as he was commonly called 
fifty years ago, had a small shop in the Market Place, doing 
an unpretending but not an unprofitable business among the 
market people and fi*equenters of the Exchange. In New- 
market Buildings, near to Market Street, at the same time, 
was the shop of Ann Hopps, the widow of John Hopps, 
who had his shop there at the beginning of the century, and 
whose name has been previously mentioned in these 
pages. 

James Wroe, a well-known Radical fifty years ago, was a 
bookseller in Ancoats Lane. He began first with a stall in 
Port Street, and succeeded so well that in a few years he 
not only occupied the shop referred to, but about the year 
1819 became the printer and publisher of the Manchester 
Observer, the office of which was in Market Street, near the 
Sun Entry. He was so violent in his politics that he printed 
several libels on the Prince of Wales in the Observer, He 
was prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced to pay a heavy 
fine, and to be incarcerated in Lancaster Castle for three 
years. Before the expiration of his term of imprisonment 
another indictment had been presented against him, and 
Joe Nadin was waiting in Lancaster to serve him with 
another warrant on his exit He, however, somehow 
managed to escape him and got on to the Manchester 
coach, but before he got to Preston, I believe in consequence 
of the upsetting of the coach, he broke his arm and was 
again imprisoned. This led to his ruin, for he failed in 
1826, and was confined as a debtor in the King's Bench. 



CHARLES SWAm. 8 7 



He afterwards complained that he had been deserted in the 
hour of need by his Radical friends, some of the more 
wealthy of whom had promised to make good whatever he 
might lose in his advocacy of thdir views. He had some 
time previously sold the Observer to Mr. Thomas John 
Evans. He died in 1844. 

Mr. Robert Robinson, who, in 1829, was a highly- 
respectable bookseller in St. Ann's Place, was related to the 
wife of Sir Benjamin Heywood, his son, the present Vicar 
of Swinton, being named Henry Robinson Heywood. In 
1 82 1 Robinson had a partner named Ellis \ and in 1825 his 
partner was Mr. Thomas Bent, who afterwards went to 
London and established Benfs Literary Advertiser^ as a 
journal for publishers and bookbuyers. Mr. Bent married 
a sister of the late Mr. John Richardson, of the Mosley 
Arms, and was not successful in business. His three 
daughters, the Misses Bent, were brought up by their uncle 
at the Mosley Arms, and took an active part in St. Ann's 
Sunday Schools during the incumbency of Mr. Richardson 
and subsequently. 

The firm of Swain and Dewhurst were in business nearly 
fifty years ago as booksellers, their shop being between the 
Manchester Times office and the Dog and Partridge Tavern, 
in Ducie Place. The first-named gentleman was Charles 
Swain, the poet I possess a copy of Henry Kirke White's 
poems, which my master purchased at their shop, and 
presented to me. They never did a large business, and 
after a while Mr. Swain became an engraver and lithographer 
in Fennel Street. His partner, Dewhurst, continued the 
book trade in Market Street. In a part of the back of the 



88 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Exchange, Webb and Simms had a bookseller's shop, the 
business being ultimately carried on by Geo. Simms, in 
which establishment Mr. David Kelly was brought up, who 
afterwards succeeded Charles Ambery It was Webb and 
Simms and Charles Ambery who first introduced the system 
of allowing a discount on books. 

William Willis was at one time the largest bookseller in 
Manchester, and was employed when a boy by an old 
bookseller named Newton. He afterwards borrowed ten 
pounds from his father, and set up a bookstall on his own 
account This so annoyed Newton that he bought the 
ground upon which his rival's stall was erected, and Willis 
had to remove to a piece of ground near High Street. He 
was afterwards joined by a partner, who brought one 
hundred pounds into the concern, when the new firm re- 
moved to a cellar in St Ann's Square. In five years the 
partnership was dissolved, and he removed to another 
cellar in Market Street He afterwards opened a shop in 
Hanging Ditch. Owing to his carrying on the publishing 
business, disaster overtook him, and he was much reduced 
in circumstances. He eventually became a Roman Catholic, 
abjuring many of the political opinions which he held s^t 
one time, and died suddenly. 

In 1829 there was a bookseller named Samuel Johnson 
in Market Street, his shop standing on the site now occu- 
pied by Hyam's clothing establishment He was originally 
a spinner, in the same factory, in Ancoats, in which the late 
Elijah Dixon also worked. Whilst he worked in the 
factory, he had a bookstall near Store Street, which he 
foimd to answer so well that he left the factory and took a 



LETTERPRESS PRINTERS. 89 

shop near the Ancoats end of Lever Street. When the firm 
of W. and R. Dean failed, he bought the stereotype plates 
of several works published by them. His business largely 
increased, so that he was obliged to remove to other 
premises in Rochdale Road, and ultimately retired to the 
Isle of Man, where his son Joseph still resides, his son 
Thomas still continuing the bookselling business in Cor- 
poration Street. 

Some of the booksellers, who have been named, were 
letterpress printers, and besides these and the printers of 
newspapers, who will be mentioned afterwards, the names 
of two or three others, who were in business fifty years ago, 
occur to my mind. Mr. Thomas Wilkinson had his office 
in Ridgefield, where it had been since 181 7. He was. 
succeeded by his son, the printer of this book, who now 
carries on the business at the "Guttenberg Works," at 
Pendleton. Mr. George Cave had his office in Pool Fold, 
afterwards taking into partnership Mr. Charles Sever. Mr. 
William Preston Aston was in St. Ann's Street ; Mr. Joseph 
Pratt, in Bridge Street ; Mr. John Swindells, in Hanging 
Bridge ; and Mr. Mark Wardle, in Back King Street. But 
the two, of whom I have the best recollection, are James 
Patrick and Wilmot Henry Jones. The former had his 
office in Cockpit Hill, just below the shop in which I was 
apprenticed, and was the official printer of the racing lists 
during the season. How well I remember how ten or 
twenty men used to issue sometimes out of the entry leading 
to Cockpit Hill, about eight o'clock in a morning, crying 
" Patrick's krekt list of the running horses, with the names, 
weights, and colours of the riders." His place of business, 



90 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

in 1820, was near to NewalFs shop, in Market Street He 
held the monopoly of the racing business for many years. 
W. H. Jones's office was at the end of Barlow's Court, it 
being only divided by Mr. ' Ronchetti's shop from my 
master's, and I used to be very fond of running in and 
having a chat with him when I had an opportunity. He 
was the printer of Bayley's " Fe§tus," and was the first in 
Manchester to print posters in colours. I remember calling 
in once, when he told me that he had a handbill to print for 
a hatter, who had solicited his aid in its composition, and 
asked me to give him an idea. I told him that Lord 
Chesterfield had said that if a man wore a good and well- 
brushed hat and a well-polished pair of shoes, he looked a 
gentleman. The idea pleased him immensely, and he 
worked it into his bill. 



EDWARD GOODALL AND CO, 91 



CHAPTER VIIL 

SUNDRY TRADERS, ENGINEERS, AND PROFESSORS. 

/^NE or two references have been made to the fact that 
^^^ the names of many firms which existed fifty years ago 
exist at the present day, although their owners are no more. 
Not only so, but in several instances these old firms are 
carrying on business in the same premises as they were half 
a century and more since. Edward Goodall and Co., carpet 
dealers, were then occupying the same premises in King 
Street as now, though the shop was only half the size it is, 
the comer one, which was then occupied by Mr. Robert 
Gough, an ironmonger, having been added since. Mr. 
Edward Goodall died only recently, being upwards of 80 
years of age. Satterfield and Co. were also in business in 
the same premises in St. Ann's Square as were occupied by 
them up to a recent date, and which are still occupied by 
their successors. At the time the firm ceased to exist I 
believe it was the oldest retail firm in Manchester. In what 
year Mr. John Satterfield began business I cannot ascertain, 
but it is certain he was in business as a linen draper on the 
same site in 1794, and as there is a brass plate on one of 
the pews of St. Mar/s Church bearing the inscription, 
" John Satterfield, 1788," we may take it for granted that 



92 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



he was in business in the Square before that date. Another 
old firm of linen drapers which were in business in 1829, 
and are still occupying the same premises in Old Millgate, 
is that of Smith, Hill, and Co. I cannot learn that they 
were in business before the early part of this century, but 
in 1810 William Smith and Co. were carrying on business 
as drapers there, and continued to do so till about the year 
1826, when William and John Hill were taken into partner- 
ship. I well remember them, having reason to remember 
John especially ; for my master, Horatio Miller, having gone 
to London for a week, on his return informed me that Mr. 
John Hill, who was a customer, had noticed my conduct 
^during his absence, and had told him how very attentive to 
"business I had been, and he presented me with a copy of 
Shakspere as a token of his pleasure. Mr. William Hill 
was a leading man in Salford, of which he was boroughreeve 
on one or two occasions. 

There was also at the time referred to a draper's shop in 
Chapel Street, Salford, between the Old Bridge and Black- 
friars, which is deserving of notice, inasmuch as its owner 
some years afterwards became Mayor of Manchester, and 
received the honour of knighthood. The late Sir Elkanah 
Armitage first began business in the shop I allude to as a 
draper, about the year 181 7, and some ten years afterwards 
began to manufacture bedticks and nankeens, having a 
warehouse in Bank Buildings, Cannon Street. In a few 
years the Salford business was given up, and his warehouse 
was removed to Cromford Court 

Fifty years ago Messrs. Hime and Hargreaves, music- 
sellers — ^now Hime and Addison — ^were in St. Ann's Square ; 



THOMAS AND EDWARD BINYON. 



93 



Mr. Henry Whaite was in Bridge Street; Mr. Charles 
Meredith, the law stationer, was in Ridgefield; Mr. William 
Broome, the accountant, was in Essex Street; Messrs. 
Sharp, Roberts, and Co., the machine makers, had their 
works in Falkner Street; Mr. Joseph Cockshoot, whose 
business has been merged in the Cockshoot Conveyance 
Company, was then a well-known hackney coach proprietor. 

Mr. William Gibb, who will ever be remembered in Man- 
chester in connection with the efforts he successfully made 
to obtain the privilege of having bonded warehouses here, 
was then a wine and spirit merchant in Spring Gardens. 
His name is still perpetuated in the firm of Smith and 
Gibb, his nephews in Oxford Road. 

Another well-known firm in business here fifty years ago 
was that of Binyons and Co., who had then two shops, one 
in St Ann's Square, the same as now occupied by them, 
and one on the right-hand side of Oldham Street. The 
firm then consisted of two brothers, Thomas and Edward, 
who began business in 1817. Tradition says their grand- 
father, having married Ruth Wakefield, whose father was a 
rich banker, at Kendal, provided the capital with which 
Richard Arkwright began the cotton trade. His eldest son, 
Thomas, was a cotton manufacturer, and the inventor of a 
cloth made from a mixture of silk and wool. He was the 
fether of the Binyons, engaged in the tea trade, whilst his 
brother Benjamin was the father of Alfred Binyon, who in 
1829 ^^ ^ calenderer and a coal agent, but having married 
Lucy Hoyle, afterwards became a partner in the firm of 
Thomas Hoyle and Sons, calico printers. Thomas and 
Edward had a brother and two or three sisters, who were 



94 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

also engaged in business here at the time we speak of. The 
brother, Benjamin, was a partner in the firm of Binyon and 
Taylor, twine manufacturers, Peter Taylor looking after the 
manufacturing part of the business, at Hollinwood, and 
Benjamin Binyon being the salesman, and lodging with his 
sister Deborah, who kept a ready-made linen shop in 
Piccadilly. Two other sisters, Hannah and Ann, were tea 
dealers, nearly opposite the end of Portland Street I 
should have said that Thomas Binyon served an apprentice^ 
ship to a druggist, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, but not liking the 
business, went to Liverpool and learnt the tea trade. It is 
well known that the Binyons were all Quakers, and pos- 
sessed in an eminent degree the virtues for which the 
members of the Society of Friends are remarkable. The 
business is now carried on, in greatly extended premises, by 
George Henry Fryer, a nephew of the late Thomas Binyon, 
and our friend Thomas Harrison, whose scientific status is 
well known in Manchester. Several members of another 
well-known Quaker family, the Labreys, were carrying on 
the tea business in Manchester at that time, whilst one of 
the brothers was a guard on the Peveril of the Peak coach. 
An old and respectable firm in business here fifty years 
ago was that of J. Fletcher and Co., com millers and 
merchants, their business premises being then in Tib Street, 
shortly afterwards being removed to Hanging Ditch, where 
they at present remain. The founder of the firm was 
Joseph Fletcher, who at the beginning of this century was 
a baker, in Swan Street, near New Cross, to which business 
he added that of a grocer, taking the next shop for the 
purpose. In the course of time the shops were given up. 



THE CORN TRADE. 95 

and the business of a com miller was carried on, at the 
Albion Com Mills, in Tib Street, to which was added that 
of a cheese factor, and the importation of Irish grain and 
butter. Joseph Fletcher died about fifty years since, 
leaving several daughters, three of whom are still alive, one 
of them being eighty-three years of age. Another of them 
was the first wife of Mr. Charles Bradbury, the well-known 
collector of antiquities, and another is the mother of 
Mr. Fletcher Moss, the present head of the firm. She is 
still living, and remembers during one of the bread riots, 
which occurred about sixty years ago, having to hide in the 
cellar, when the shop and warehouse were broken into by 
the mob. At that time flour and meal were selling at 120 
shillings per load of 240 lbs., and the principal food of the 
working classes was barley meal and oatmeal, the former 
being an article of food which the poorest will scarcely 
touch now. On one Saturday about this time forty loads 
of it were "scaled" out in small lots as food to the 
customers. 

Another old firm of com dealers in business fifty years 
ago was that of James and Samuel Barratt, in Fennell 
Street They were brothers-in-law to Joseph Fletcher, Mrs. 
Fletcher being a Miss Barratt When the Fletchers gave 
up the retail and went altogether into the wholesale, they 
were much opposed by the Barratts, so much so that when 
the former got new lurries painted blue, the Bairatts, whose 
lurries had been blue, immediately had them painted red. 
Just at the comer of Swan Street and Shudehill was another 
old com dealer, named Hesketh, who more than seventy 
years ago was in business in Chapel Street^ Salford. He 



96 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



was a friend of my father's, and a Wesleyan, and with his 
family attended Oldham Street Chapel 

Besides Samuel Prince and William Newall, already 
named, the principal grocers whom I remember were 
George Southam, father of the late Mr. Southam, the sur-> 
geon, of Salford ; Richardson and Roebuck, both of the 
Market Place ; and James and Thomas Fildes, in Shudehill, 
where they carried on a large wholesale business in addition 
to the retail They had also a shop at the corner of Travis 
Street, London Road, which had been carried on by their 
father, Thomas Fildes, who took an active part in the 
establishment of the first Sunday school in Manchester. 
Near to his shop was a cellar, inhabited by a poor shoe- 
maker named John Lancaster, who, in 1785, came to Man- 
chester from Halifax, and ahnost immediately started a 
Sunday School in his cellar. Both he and his neighbour 
were Methodists, and Mr. Fildes, learning what he had 
done, joined him in the effort. The cellar was made warm 
and comfortable, and soon another cellar was added. 
Shortly afterwards, Thomas Fildes erected some cottages, 
over which was a large room, behind his residence in 
Worsley Street, to which the children were transferred. 
His grandson, Mr. James Fildes, of Spring Gardens, in- 
forms me that, so far as can be ascertained, this was the 
first Sunday School erected in Manchester, which would be 
about the year 1787. Mr. James Fildes, the elder, as a 
trustee of Oldham Street Chapel, was one of the principal 
defendants in the Chancery suit instituted by the Rev. 
Dr. Warren, and which, being decided by Lord Lyndhurst 
against the doctor, led to what is known among Wesleyans 



ITAUAN TRADESMEN. 



97 



as the Warrenite division. During the hearing of the case, 
Sir Charles Wetherell, Dr. Warren's counsel, used to cause 
a smile by his persistently speaking of the defendant as 
*' James Fil-dees.'* 

Fifty years ago several respectable Italians were in busi- 
ness here, as carvers and gilders, looking-glass makers, and 
printsellers. In 1810 Vincent Zanetti carried on business, 
as a carver and gilder, at Wright's Court, Market Street, and 
his brother Vittore at a shop a little higher up Market 
Street. About the year 181 7, Vittore 2^netti joined the late 
Mr. Agnew, the firm being Zanetti and Agnew. At the time 
I came to Manchester, Mr. Vittore Zanetti had retired in 
favour of his son, when the firm became Agnew and Zanetti, 
having removed to the premises still occupied by Messrs. 
Agnew in Exchange Street Messrs. Grundy and Fox, 
printsellers, were at the time in business in St. Ann's 
Square, but shortly removed to the premises in Exchange 
Street, occupied so long by Messrs. Grundy. Mr. Joseph 
Merone commenced business, as a carver and gilder, at the 
beginning of this century, in Market Street, in the shop 
now occupied by the Milner Safe Company. I remember 
him there, in 1829, as an old man. Mr. Dominic Bolongaro 
began business, as a carver and gilder, about the year 1818, 
in Old Millgate, where he continued till he removed to the 
premises in Market Street, now occupied by his son, which 
was shortly after I took up my abode on the opposite side 
of the street At this time there were two looking-glass 
makers, named Peduzzi, in separate shops in Oldham 
Street Anthony commenced business, as a picture dealer, 
in Spear Street, during the first decade of the present 

£ 



98 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

century, and after settling in Tib Street for a few years, 
took a shop in Oldham Street. James Peduzzi, who, I 
believe, was Anthony's son, began business about 1822. I 
remember we had them both as customers for quicksilver. 
Joshua Ronchetti was a noted maker of barometers, thermo- 
meters, and specially of hydrometers, of the latter of which 
he had a large sale, on which at that time handsome profits 
were made. His first place of business was his house in 
Balloon Street, Withy Grove. He afterwards removed 
to Cateaton Street, and shortly after I came to Market 
Street, he became our neighbour. His son-in-law, Mr. 
Casartelli, succeeded him, and occupies the same pre- 
mises. Baptist the father of Joshua Ronchetti, was a 
" weather glass maker," in High Street. Joshua had two 
sons. Baptist and Joshua, who followed the same business 
in London, with the latter of whom I was very intimate. 
Miss Ronchetti, his eldest daughter, died very recently. 
Another of these Italians, whom I knew well fifty years 
ago, was John Bianchi, in Tib Street. He was a maker of 
plaster of Paris, with which he used to supply those of his 
poorer countrymen, who were often seen carrying all the 
kings of Europe on their heads. Bianchi afterwards entered 
the police force, and proved himself to be a very intelligent 
and useful officer. 

Besides the carvers and gilders already mentioned, the 
notorious Joseph Gale carried on that business in 1829, 
near the shop now occupied by the Milner Safe Company 
in Market Street His sparkling wit, his humour, and his 
drollery were inimitable ; and the tales which were told of 
the sly tricks which he played on his friends, and even on 



BENJAMIN JOULE AND HIS SONS. 99 

casual acquaintances, were innumerable. He once met 
with a man at the Wind Mill Tavern, in Bridge Street, who 
had been getting married that day, when, pretending that 
he had met him before and was an old acquaintance, he 
led him off, and got him so drunk that the poor fellow only 
found his way home to his newly-married wife the next day. 
He served his apprenticeship to Mr. Dominic Bolongaro, 
and whilst in Market Street failed in business, and then 
commenced as a hatter in Ducie Place. When the 
Exchange Arcade was built, he removed to King Street, near 
the well-known shop of Miss Boardman, the confectioner. 
He introduced a new feature into the hatting trade, and 
kept a barrel of beer on tap, with bread and cheese for 
his visitors. At length, during the mania for speculation 
in shares, he became a share broker. 

At present there are nearly 120 brewers in Manchester, 
whilst in 1829 there were only 28, the largest of whom was 
Mr. Benjamin Joule, of Salford, the father of Mr. Benjamin 
St. John Baptist Joule, J.P., of Southport, the accomplished 
organist and musician, and Mr. James Prescott Joule, 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., so well known in scientific circles 
for several important discoveries, but chiefly for that of the 
mechanical equivalent of heat 

The late Alderman Bake was then a saddler in Port 
Street, whence he removed to keep the Bull's Head Inn in 
Barnes Street, which thenceforward was generally known as 
"Jim Bake's." The late George Pilkington, the giver of 
the statue of Humphrey Chetham now in the Cathedral, 
was then a cashier and manager in the service of Mr. Ellis 
Duckworth, the distiller, in New Cannon Street. As we 



lOO MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

obtained the spirits of wine used in the business from thence, 
and being a neighbour, I knew him intimately. On Mr. 
Duckworth's retirement, George Pilkington; succeeded him. 
A little lower down Market Street, not very far from the 
present site of the Omnibus Office, was the shop of Mr. 
James Varley, smallware dealer, and father of Mrs. Linnaeus 
Banks. Mrs. Varley used to attend to the business as well 
as her husband. Being neighbours, I knew them very well, 
the impression left on my mind of Mrs. Varley being that 
she was a very agreeable, chatty, and intelligent lady. 

Fifty years ago there was a confectioner's shop a few 
doors past the end of Bridge Street, in Deansgate, kept 
by Mary Harrison & Co. Though the shop was small, the 
business done in it was large. It would be interesting to 
know how many wedding breakfasts have been adorned by 
bridescakes which have been sent out from this establish- 
ment, for it used to bear a high character for the quality of 
these important elements of festivity. This old-fashioned 
shop, with its small panes of glass, has retained its original 
simplicity, resisting most resolutely to the present day the 
tendencies of the times towards glare and grandeur. At 
last, I understand, it is to follow the fate of so many other 
mementoes of a bygone age, and in another week or two 
will be demolished. The Miss Harrisons came from 
Buxton, and were known as the " Buxton Bakers." * 

The name of Micah Fumiss, silversmith and toy dealer, 
whose shop I well remember fifty years ago, at the corner 
of St. Ann's Square and St Ann's Street, should not be 



♦ The shop has lately been taken down, and the busmess removed. 



FASHIONABLE TAILORS. iqi 

omitted. It has been suggested to me that he was one of' 
the very oldest traders in Manchester, but there is no evi- 
dence that he was in business in the last century. He was 
occupying the same shop, however, about the year 1810. 

The most fashionable tailors fifty years ago were Scarr, 
Petty, and Swain, next door to Mr. Furniss, in the Square ; 
Geary and Home, their next door neighbours ; John King, 
father of our respected City Alderman, whose shop was on 
the opposite side; Edward Varley, of Exchange Street; 
and John Skerrette Stubbs, whose shop was between those 
of J. Pickering, the music seller, and James Adshead, the 
hosier. Mr. Stubbs was originally a silk manufacturer in 
Market Street, and failed ; he then commenced the busi- 
ness of a tailor, in the square, and succeeded so well that 
he paid off his former creditors in full, and died a wealthy 
man. He had a remarkably well made figure, which shewed 
off a good suit of clothes to perfection. On the opposite 
side of the Square was the shop of Jonathan Wimpory, the 
fashionable boot and shoe maker. The gentleman who 
reigned supreme as a hairdresser was William Stoby, of 
St. Ann's Place, whose charge for simply cutting the hair was 
a shilling. He began business at the beginning of this century 
in Queen Street, certainly not a street in which we should 
now expect to see carriages draw up at a hairdresser's door. 
If any gentleman wished to adorn himself in leather breeches, 
he would make his way to the shop of old George Perkins, 
which, fifty years ago, was in Old Millgate, and previously 
was in ShudehilL The principal auctioneer at that time was 
Mr. Capes, father of the late senior partner in the firm of 
Capes and Dunn, whose room, I have already stated, was 



I02 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

in High Street. Another auctioneer who commanded a 
good share of patronage was William Morris, whose rooms 
were near Four Yards, in King Street, and who succeeded 
a well-known man named Howe, generally known as Lord 
Howe. 

The most noted engineers of the day were Peel, 
Williams, and Peel,* of the Soho Foundry, Ancoats, 
and Galloway, Bowman, and Glasgow, of Great Bridgewater 
Street. These two firms began business soon after the 
commencement of the present century, the latter of the two 
consisting at first of Galloway and Bowman only, who then 
designated themselves millwrights. There were then three 
organ builders in Manchester : Robert Bradbury in Picca- 
dilly, Joseph Richardson in Bloom Street, and Renn and 
Boston in Dickenson Street — the latter being the most 
noted and most largely patronized. 

Amongst the best known teachers of dancing at that 
time were Mr. Frederick Cooper, in Faulkner Street, who 
lived there for some years, and was succeeded by his son ; 
Mr. Prosper Paris, in Brazennose Street ; Mr. James W. 
Pitt, in Faulkner Street ; and Mr. Thomas Palmer, in George 
Street. A very popular teacher of French was M. Alexander 
Mordacque, in George Street, whom I remember well as a 
little, sharp, elderly gentleman. His son, I remember, too, 
as a Grammar School lad. He subsequently entered the 
Church, and obtained his first curacy at Haslingden, or 
at some place near it Other teachers of French were 



*Mr. George Peel still survives, having been bom in Halliwell 
Street, in 1S03. 



DAVID WARD BANKS. 103 



M. Eugene Vembeigue, in Faulkner Street ; and M. Louis 
Amand Beauvoisin, in Clarence Street 

The principal teachers of music, whom I remember, were 
Mr. Richard Cudmore, in George Street; Mr. Moses 
Hughes, in the same street ; Mr. James Hyde, in David 
Street; Mr. William Sudlow, in Hanging Ditch; and 
Messrs. Ward and Andrews, in Spring Gardens. The latter 
taught what was called the " Logerian System of Music," 
their rooms being at the right-hand comer of Spring Gardens 
and Marble Street, as you enter. Mr. Andrew Ward, at the 
age of eighteen, was leader of the band of the Theatre 
Royal, and died, in 1838, at the age of 49. Mr. Andrews 
was the son of a popular comedian at the same theatre. 
At the time we are speaking of, Mr. Ward's nephew^ 
Mr. David Ward Banks, was apprenticed to them. I became 
acquainted with him during his and my apprenticeship, and 
remember seeing him frequently riding down Market Street, 
on horseback, early in the morning, on his way to the 
country, once a week, travelling as far as Bury and Hasling- 
den, to give lessons in music at various schools and private 
families. He afterwards became very eminent in Man- 
chester, as a teacher, an organist, and as a musical conductor. 
On the occasion of the Queen's first visit to our city, 80,000 
Sunday scholars were gathered in Peel Park ; they were to 
sing " God save the Queen" in her presence, as she drove 
round the park, and Mr. Banks was selected as the con- 
ductor. Rehearsals had taken place in every Sunday 
school to be represented on the occasion, for weeks before- 
hand, and every precaution was taken to prevent failure and 
ensure success. When, however, the critical moment camCi 



I04 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

through no fault of the conductor, the first verse was hardly 
got through when the whole thing collapsed I was present 
amongst the children, as a teacher, and noticed that when 
the Queen's carriage drew up in front of the platform on 
which we stood, the children became so much excited, 
being seized with such a desire to have a good look at Her 
Majesty, with her gay surroundings of ladies and gentlemen, 
liveried servants, horses and carriages, that they forgot all 
about the object for which they were assembled, and ceased 
to sing. Poor Banks continued to beat the air with his 
baton, in his elevated stand, with all the violent energy of 
which he was capable, but it was of no use, and the affair 
ended with a loud shout of delight on the part of the singers, 
and a good laugh on the part of the Queen. The labour 
needed to organize such a gathering, and the arrange- 
ment of multitudinous details beforehand, formed an hercu- 
lean task, which was voluntarily undertaken, principally 
by Mr. Robert Needham, the brother of our friend, 
Mr. J. C. Needham. His death occurred shortly after, 
producing the impression on the minds of many of his 
friends that it had been hastened, if not caused, by the 
anxieties and toils he had lately passed through. 



MR. yOHN BROGDEN. 105 



CHAPTER IX. 



NOTABLE PERSONS. 



T^HE late Mr. John Brogden, the father of Mr. Alexander 
Brogden, M.P. for Wednesbury, at this time was a 
dealer in horses in Every Street, Ancoats. This led to a con- 
siderable intimacy with the late Mr. Samuel Brooks, who 
had always a great fancy for horses. Mr. Brogden relinquished 
his business, and became a contractor for cleansing the 
streets of the town, occupying the town's yard, which now 
forms part of the site of the new Town Hall. After this he be- 
came a contractor for the construction of railways, being best 
known for the construction of the Fumess Railway, which 
crosses the sands at Ulverston. I well remember him and 
his good-looking wife, as I used to see them in the gallery 
of Oldham Street Chapel every Sunday morning. 

I have a vivid recollection of the figure of an elderly 
gentleman whom I used to notice fifty years ago, as he 
tracked his way through the streets. It was impossible to 
see him without being struck by his appearance. He was 
a large-boned man, though not corpulent, was beginning to 
stoop a little, walked with rather a quick step, the expression 
of his face indicating that he was very much in earnest about 
something, and was most respectably dressed in black, 



I06 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

wearing the usual knee-breeches of the period, with silver 
knee-buckles and black stockings, and having on a pair of 
gold spectacles. To those who knew him I think I need 
not say that this was Mr. Thomas Fleming, who for many 
years took such a lively interest in the improvement of the 
town. To him, in connection with Mr. George William 
Wood, formerly M.P. for the southern division of the 
county, is principally ascribed the merit of originating the 
gas works of Manchester, and placing them on their original 
basis, which has been so beneficial to the town. At the 
beginning of the century, where is now the Blackfriars 
Bridge, Salford, was approached by means of a wooden 
bridge four feet wide, the descent to which on the Man- 
chester side was by means of forty steps, and which was 
only intended of course for foot passengers. Mr. Fleming 
was the means of forming a company and raising the capital 
in shares for the erection of the present structure, for 
passing over which a toll was paid for many years. The 
speculation did not pay, and ultimately Mr. Fleming bought 
up all the shares. The foundation stone was laid by him 
on the 4th of January, 1819, and the bridge was formally 
opened by him on August ist, 1820. It has now been free 
from toll several years. It was owing to his energy, too, 
that the widening of Market Street was originated and 
brought to a successful completion. He was a large 
manufacturer of archil in Water Street, having begun that 
business about the year 1790, in the same premises which 
he occupied in 1829. 

John Dalton, had not then received his degree of 
Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford, and fifty years 



JOHN D ALTON AND PETER CLARE. 107 

ago was professor of chemistr}% mathematics, and 
natural philosophy, residing with the Rev. William Johns, 
at his Academy in George Street He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society and President of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society. Most persons know that he was 
the discoverer of the Atomic Theory, and also that he was 
a Quaker. I occasionally saw him, the last time being 
about a year before his death, when I met him arm-in-arm 
with his attached friend Peter Clare, in York Street, as 
though they were proceeding from the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Rooms, in George Street, to Clare's house, in Quay 
Street They were walking at a slow pace, owing to the 
doctor's feebleness, his arm. resting on that of his friend. 
He had a beautifrilly calm and placid countenance, ex- 
pressive of gentleness, thoughtfulness, and intelligence, and 
was generally dressed in black. There is a clock in the 
room in which he sat as president of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society, in George Street, which was made at 
his request, I presume by his friend Peter Clare, and which 
only gives one stroke on the bell in the course of the 
twenty-four hours. This is at nine o'clock p.m., and by its 
means notice was given at that hour to close a discussion — 
showing Dalton's methodical character. 

Peter Clare was also a Quaker, and was Dalton's bosom 
friend. He was one of the secretaries of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society. His father, Peter Clare, was in 
business, at the close of the last century, in Deansgate, as a 
clock, watch, and smoke-jack maker, and about the begin- 
ning of the present one removed to Quay Street, where the 
son was residing in 1829, afterwards confining his attention 



I08 • MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

principally to the making of clocks, in which line both 
father and son were celebrated in their day. I well re- 
member the second Peter Clare. He was always remark- 
ably neat and well dressed in a suit of black, wearing 
knee-breeches with silver buckles, which showed his fine, 
well-shaped legs, and a broad-brimmed hat His linen was 
of the purest white, and he presented a clean, happy, and 
cheerful-looking face, which was not disfigured by a beard. 
The sight of Dalton and Clare, as I saw them walking 
arm-in-arm, was so striking that I could not resist stopping 
to gaze after them, and their figures still seem to be photo- 
graphed on my memory. 

I well remember Mr. John -Greenwood, the father of Mr. 
John Greenwood of the Carriage Company, who was the 
originator of omnibuses here a very short time before I 
came to Manchester. He kept the tollbar at Pendleton 
originally, and at the time I remember him he used to be 
busy looking after his one or two very small omnibuses, 
which ran to Pendleton at certain periods of the day from 
the left-hand side of the lower end of Market Street They 
ran in the early part of the morning, at noon, and in the 
evening, and for some years started from the place men- 
tioned. Mr. Greenwood was a rather big man, wore knee- 
breeches and coloured stockings, and had one of his hands 
mutilated, I believe by a gun accident At this time the 
present Mr. John Greenwood, whom I well remember as a 
young man, was a clerk in Trueman's cotton warehouse, 
Ducie Place, near the old Post Office, behind the Exchange. 
A little stout man named Penketh then drove his own small 
solitary T)us to Cheetham HilL He afterwards sold it to 



GEORGE WILSON, 109 



John Ramsbottom, and continued to drive for him. After- 
w:ards the Cheetham Hill omnibuses, which had increased 
in number, were sold to Greenwood, Clough, and Turner. 
After a while the partnership was dissolved, and Turner 
retained the Cheetham Hill concern and Greenwood the 
Pendleton one. 

George Wilson, the chairman of the Anti-Com-Law 
League, and afterwards chairman of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway Company, I used to know about the 
time referred to very well. He was in the habit of 
frequenting the shop where I was an apprentice, before he 
became a public character, and occasionally had a chat 
with my master and the assistant, being very plain and 
xmassuming in his manner. His father was a flour dealer, 
near to New Cross, and the son became a manufacturer of 
starch, at Newton Heath. He was a believer in phrenology, 
and afterwards became a member of the class formed by 
Mr. William Bally for the purpose of studying it Bally was an 
Italian, and well known in Manchester as a great authority 
on that subject I well remember how surprised I was 
when George Wilson was appointed to the office of chair- 
man of the Anti-Com-Law League, never suspecting his 
possession of those qualities which so eminently qualified 
him for it, and which the eyes of others had detected in 
him. Richard Cobden had a very high opinion of him, and 
used to say of him that he could always seer the end of any- 
thing firom the beginning. He had the weakness of indis- 
criminate generosity, being accustomed, at the latter period 
of his life, to keep plenty of loose silver and copper in his 
pocket, of which he would distribute to almost every 



no MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

suppliant he met When remonstrated with on the subject, 
he would reply that if he relieved only one deserving person 
out of the lot he was glad. I once had the pleasure of 
spending a very pleasant evening with him in London, in 
the early days of the League, as we happened both to 
be staying at Thompson's boarding-house, in Bartlett's 
Buildings. 

The late Alderman Charles James Stanley Walker lived 
to such a good old age, sitting on the bench to such a late 
period of life, that it is not many years since he passed 
from amongst us, and hence is well remembered by most 
Manchester people. I never saw him when he did not wear 
a swallow-tailed coat, which was always buttoned up to the 
chin. Fifty years ago his favourite colour was blue, the 
coat being adorned with smooth, bright, gilt buttons. His 
visage being free from hair, and his skin remarkably clear 
and smooth, he presented a very striking appearance, but 
always looked the gentleman. He descended from an old 
Manchester family, which had been Liberal in politics, on 
which account they had been much persecuted. His father, 
Thomas Walker, was the leader of the Liberal party here 
during the course of the first French Revolution, just after 
the breaking out of which he was appointed boroughreeve. 
His house and warehouse were attacked by one of the 
Church-and-King mobs of that period, and he was tried for 
treason in 1794, being defended by Erskine, who made 
one of his most celebrated speeches in his defence. 
I met the late C. J. S. Walker, on the occasion of laying 
the foundation stone of the present Withington Workhouse, 
when he told me that he remembered, when a little boy, his 



C. y. S. WALKER AND ''DICTUM FACTUM.'' m 

father lived in the last house in South Parade going from 
Deansgate, that the house was once attacked by a mob, and 
that he was taken out of danger's way at the back through 
the garden, which extended a long way behind When 
Manchester was incorporated, he was elected an alderman, 
and was made a magistrate, to the duties of which he 
assiduously devoted himself to the last. He was the 
brother of Thomas Walker, M.A., a barrister, one of the 
police magistrates of the metropolis, and author of a book 
full of common sense, known as **The Original," containing 
several chapters on aristology or the art of dining, the art of 
attaining high health, the art of listening, and the art of 
travelling. 

" Dictum Factum " was a gentleman tolerably well known 
here at the time I am speaking of. He was rather eccen- 
tric, and was afflicted with St. Vitus's Dance, which added 
very much to his apparent eccentricity. Notwithstanding, 
he was very genial, good-natured, and much respected. 
His name being Seddon, he took it as if written "Said 
done," which being translated into Latin is Dictum Factum. 
As he kept his carriage, he took this as his motto, had it 
painted on his carriage door, and it became the name by 
which he was familiarly known amongst his friends. It is 
said he was the author of the song known as " The Spider 
and the Fly." 

Joe Richardson was another well-known character fifty 
years ago. He was the son of Mr. Joseph Richardson, who 
kept the King's Head, in Chapel Street, Salford, and was 
known for his splendid horsemanship, it being said he was 
thQ best steeplechase rider in the country. He was lightly 



112 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

builty wore a pair of diab cloth knee-breeches and top-boots, 
and always seemed to be riding through the streets. He 
had such a command over his horse that it mig^t have 
been a part of himself. At the time of the late Alderman 
Bakers death, it was stated in a Manchester newspaper that 
after he went to the Bull's Head, which became such a 
famous betting house, Mr. Bake himself used to bring home 
the news of the winner of the St Leger from Doncaster on 
horseback. I must not dispute this, but I well remember 
that after a time Joe Richardson was employed to do this, 
using relays of horses. I can recollect what crowds used to 
be collected about Barnes Street, waiting for the news. It 
would be interesting to know how long the journey took 
him. 

I well remember that very corpulent, jolly-looking lady, 
known as Dolly Rexford, whose father was the senior 
partner in the firm of Rexford, Holland, and Taylor, wine 
merchants, in Cross Street, his house being in Brazenose 
Street. She was bom in 1798, the year in which her 
father died. Her mother, after her father's death, kept 
the Grapes, in Deansgate, and, in 1829, was living a 
widow, in Brazenose Street. Dolly became the wife of 
Job Haigh (who at that time kept the Rising Sun, in 
Swan Street), and died at the age of fifty-five. A notice 
of her appeared in the City News of September 7, 1878, in 
which it was stated that she was so stout, that when she 
travelled on the Altrincham line, it took two or three rail- 
way porters to get her in and out of the train. It may be 
that it is more difficult to get into a railway carriage than a 
hackney coach of the old time, even for a lighter person, as 



MANCHESTER NEGATIVELY. 113 

we all know; but I thought the statement a figure of 
speech. I once saw her get into a hackney coach — not a 
cab — opposite Ducie Place, in Market Street The coach- 
man had to give a good push behind, catainly, but she 
managed to get in. 

A little later I recollect John Easby, a well-known 
character of his day, who was the then editor oi Bob Logu^s 
Budget^ a despicable and scurrilous publication, the sale of 
which was encouraged, I regret to say, by the scandal 
which it retailed concerning various public characters, in 
this respect resembling some later publications. When a 
boy he was the recipient of Anne Hinde's Charity, and wore 
the livery of such, which consisted of green coat and vest, 
^een stockings, and leather knee-breeches. 

It seems to be convenient at this point to endeavour to 
present a negative picture of Manchester, which will give a 
good idea of the great changes which have taken place in 
its condition during the last fifty years. I have not tried to 
classify the objects named, but name them as they arise in 
the mind. Fifty years ago, then, there were in Man- 
chester no Athenaeum, no Bonded Warehouse, no Assize 
Courts, no Free Library, no Botanical Gardens, no police 
court, no public parks, no statues, no Concert Hall, no 
railway stations, no beerhouses, no members of Parliament ; 
no bishop, dean, or canons ; no mayor, aldermen, or coun- 
cillors; no town clerk, no city or borough coroner, no 
Cathedral, no stipendiary for the city, no police, no County 
Court, no poor-law guardians, no Saturday half-holiday, no 
early closing, no manorial rights, no penny postage, no tele- 
graphs, no local daily paper, no penny newspaper, no cabs. 



114 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



no omnibuses as now, no teetotal societies, no volunteers, 
no steel pens in constant use, no lucifer matches, no Stret- 
ford Road^ no free trade. There were no ocean steamships, 
slavery was not abolished, neither were the com laws. 
Everything was taxed — ^almanacs, windows, paper, soap, 
leather; bottles, and other glass; newspapers, advertise- 
ments, and hundreds of other things in common use, which 
are now as imburthened as the air. 



PLACES OF WORSHIP, 115 



CHAPTER X. 

PLACES OF WORSHIP. — CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 

A T the beginning of the last century there were only 
^^ two churches and two chapels in Manchester and 
Salford, viz. : — ^The Collegiate Church in Manchester, 
Trinity in Salford, the Presbyterian Chapel in Cross Street, 
and the Friends' Meeting House in Deansgate. Of these 
the only building now standing is the Collegiate Church, 
the others having been pulled down and rebuilt The 
following facts will shew the earnestness of the religious 
revival of the eighteenth century. 

Fifty years ago there were in Manchester and Salford 
sixty-seven places of worship and eighty-one ministers. 
To-day there are about 323 churches and chapels and 417 
ministers, showing that they have increased about five-fold 
since 1829. The following table shows with tolerable 
accuracy the relative numbers of these pertaining to the 
various sects. The number as to 1829 1 believe to be fairly 
accurate; there is some difficulty as to those of 1879, 
owing to the existence of a large number of mission-rooms, 
which I have endeavoured to exclude. There is also the 
consideration that the area is much larger than it was; 
that many places which were outside Manchester fifty years 



ii6 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



ago are now part of it So that I cannot say that the 
numbers for the present year are more than an approxima- 
tion to the truth, though I think a near one. The number 
of Wesleyan ministers does not include what are technically 
known as supernumeraries — ^that is, ministers who have 
given up the active duties of the ministry and yet do a 
good deal of preaching on a Sunday. 

The difficulty has been to draw a line fixing the limit : — 



1829. 



Place* of 

Worship, Minutert, 



Church of England 20 ... 33 

Independent 8 ... 5 

Wesleyan 9 ... 13 

Roman Catholic 3 ... 7 

Various Methodist 6 ... 5 

Baptist 4 ... 4 

Presbyterian i ... 2 

Unitarian 4 ... 5 

Welsh 5 ... 2 

Swedenborgian 2 ... 2 

Jews I ... I 

Quakers i ... o 

Various 3 ... 2 

67 81 



1879. 



• • • • • 



Place* of 
Worship, 

1 10 

34 
35 

33 

49 

17 

13 
12 

6 

2 

4 
I 

323 



Ministers^ 
30 

39 
88 

34 
12 

13 
13 

4 

2 

4 
o 

3 
417 



The following twenty churches existed fifty years ago : — 

I. The Old Church. — ^In 1419 Thomas de la Warre,. 
the then rector of Manchester, having succeeded to large 
patrimonial estates and to the advowson of the rectory,, 
proposed to the parishioners to build, at his own expense^ 



THE OLD CHURCH, 1 1 7 



and endow, a Collegiate Church, in lieu of the Parish 
Church. This was accomplished, and the present beautiful 
church was built, at vast expense. The ancient parish 
comprised 32 townships, having an area of 35,000 acres. 
The church has accommodation for 3,000 worshippers, and 
the number of baptisms and marriages here, it is supposed, 
is greater than in any other church in the kingdom. The 
soft red stone of the exterior, fifty years ago, was in a very 
decaying state, since which time very extensive repairs have 
been effected, both inside and out, and a new tower has 
been built Manchester was then in the diocese of Chester, 
the bishop of which was the Rev. John Bird Sumner, D.D., 
who afterwards was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. 
There was consequently neither cathedral nor bishop^ 
neither dean nor canons. We had instead connected with 
the Collegiate Church a warden, four fellows, two chaplains, 
and one clerk in orders. The warden was the Very Rev. 
Thomas Jackson Calvert, D.D., rector of Wilmslow, who 
succeeded the Rev. Dr. Blackbume. The latter was the 
youngest brother of Mr. John Blackbume, M.P., and of 
Mr. Isaac Blackbume, the distributor of stamps for Man- 
chester. Dr. Calvert was appointed in 1823, two months 
after Dr. Blackbume's death. He was a fine, venerable- 
looking man, having a very clerical appearance, whose 
house was in Mosley Street. The four fellows were the 
Rev. John Gatliffe, who was also rector of St. Mary's ; the 
Rev. C. W. Ethelstone, incumbent of St Mark's, Cheetham, 
whose son succeeded him there ; the Rev. John Clowes, 
of Broughton Hall ; and the Rev. J. H. Mallory, who at 
that time either lived or had rooms in Pall Mall. The two 



1 1 8 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Chaplains were the Rev. C. D. Wray, also incumbent of 
St Thomas's, Ardwick, and the Rev. Richard Rimmington, 
who was a customer of my master's. I remember him as a 
very genial, friendly, and gentlemanly man, dressed more 
like an ordinary gentleman than a cleric. Mr. Wray, it will 
be remembered, lived to be a very old man. The Clerk in 
Orders was the Rev. Moses Randall, who had been pre- 
viously curate at St Ann's. Mr. Humphrey Nichols, who 
only lately passed away from us, after benefitting the public 
charities by his accumulated wealth, was then Parish Clerk. 
He lived at Stony Knolls, and had Mr. Thomas Parry, 
whose house was close by in Fennel Street, as his deputy. 
I remember Mr. Clowes very well, from the fact that I heard 
him preach in the Collegiate Church one Sunday afternoon 
in lavender gloves. He was a tall man, and seemed to have 
unusually long arms. 

2. St. Ann's Church, a handsome Corinthian edifice, 
was founded by Lady Ann Bland, of Hulme Hall, in 1709, 
and was consecrated in 17 12. The rector, fifty years ago, 
was the Rev. Dr. Jeremiah Smith, who was also high 
master at the Grammar School, and lived in Long Millgate. 
He had held the ofiice of head master since the beginning 
of the century, at which time he was the curate of Trinity 
Church, Salford. He then became incumbent of St Peter's 
Church, and afterwards rector of St. Ann's. The first 
rector was the Rev. Nathaniel Bann. 

3. St. Thomas's, Ardwick, was, I believe, the next in the 
order of consecration. When it was founded in 1741, and 
enlarged in 1777, Ardwick was a little village separated 
from Manchester by at least a mile of cultivated fields. In 



ST. MARY'S CHURCH. 1 19 

1 8 15, the Rev. J. Cooke was the incumbent, and after him 
the Rev. C. D. Wray, having as curate the Rev. W. Words- 
worth. In 1829 the Rev. Nicholas William Gibson was 
Mr. Wray's curate, and he afterwards became incumbent 

4. Trinity Church, Salford, built in the Gothic order 
of architecture, had been founded by Humphrey Booth, a 
prosperous merchant of Salford, in 1635. ^^ was, how- 
ever, taken down and rebuilt in 1752, so that the present 
edifice is not 130 years old. The incumbent, fifty years ago, 
was the Rev. Samuel Booth, the father of the present rector 
of Chorlton-cum- Hardy. 

5. St. Mary's Church, a Doric edifice, was founded in 
1753, by the Warden and Fellows of the Collegiate Church, 
the foundation stones being laid by the Revs. Messrs. 
Assheton, Foxley, and Moss. In 1829, the Rev. John 
Gatliffe was rector, and the Rev. R. Basnett, curate. The 
church was originally built with a very high spire, which 
was generally admired, but which, being considered unsafe, 
was taken down some years since. For seventy years after 
it was built, the church had on the sxmmiit of its spire a gilt 
ball and cross. In 1822, the rod which supported them was 
so much bent by a violent gale, as to become dangerous, 
and remained so for some months, to the terror of the con- 
gregation. At length, an enterprising and ingenious artisan, 
named Philip Wotton, in view of thousands of spectators, 
ascended to the top of the spire, and succeeded in safely 
landing both ball and cross. The ornamental pulpit, which 
the church contained fifty years ago, was the gift of the con- 
gregation to the rector, the organ having been the gift of 
Mr. Holland Ackers. 



1 20 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

6. St. Paul's, Turner Street, was consecrated in 1765, 
but in thirteen years the congregation had so much increased 
that the church had to be enlarged. The Rev. J. Piccope 
was the incumbent in 1829. Though respectably dressed, 
he was not as clerical in his appearance as clergymen now 
are, and might have been easily mistaken for a dissenting 
minister of that day. I was present one Sunday morning 
at the service, and remember that there was a good congre- 
gation. The church is now converted into business premises, 
and in its place a much finer edifice has been erected in 
Oldham Road, near New Cross. 

7. St. John's Church was founded by Edward Byrom, 
in 1768, and consecrated the following year, when the 
Rev. John Clowes was presented by the founder as the first 
rector. He was rector in 1829, and resided in Warwick- 
shire, having two curates to attend to the spiritual wants of 
the parishioners. The Rev. Robert Dallas was the first of 
these ; he resided in Quay Street, and at the same time held- 
the office of Master of the Lower Grammar School The 
Rev. Wra. Huntingdon was the other; he resided in 
St. John Street. Mr. Dawson, who lived at the cottage which, 
with its garden, once occupied the ground on which the 
Concert Hall and the adjoining warehouse now stand, was 
associated with Edward Byrom in building St John's 
Church. Some dispute, however, arising, Mr. Dawson 
withdrew after he had paid for a portion of the building 
materials. He purchased the picture, by Annibal Caracci, 
of " The Descent fi*om the Cross " in Italy, which is now 
over the communion table of St. Peter's Church, intending 
it for St. John's in the first instance, but, on the occurrence 



XEV. JOHN CLOWES. 1 2 1 

of the dispute, he presented it to St. Peter's. A remarkable 
history of longevity stands connected with the history of 
this church, inasmuch as the two first rectors held the office 
for 107 years. Mr. Clowes died in 1831, at the age of 
eighty-seven, having been rector for sixty-two years, and 
Mr. Huntingdon, who was appointed to succeed him, died 
four or five years ago, having been connected with the 
church as rector and curate for more than fifty years. Mr. 
Clowes, the rector of St. John's, must not be confounded 
with the clergyman of the same name previously mentioned, 
who was one of the Fellows of the Collegiate Church. The 
Mr. Clowes of St. John's was the fourth son of Mr. Joseph 
Clowes, barrister, and was educated at the school of the 
Rev. John Clayton, in Salford, who was a friend of John 
Byrom and of John Wesley, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. Soon after he was made rector of St. John's he be- 
came acquainted with the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, 
whose theological teachings he imbibed; and, strange to 
say, he was allowed to retain his position and yet to devote 
all his energies to spread those doctrines both by the press 
and in the pulpit. 

8. St. Thomas's Chapel, Pendleton, was originally built 
at the expense of Mr. Samuel Brierley, and was consecrated 
1776, when the Rev. James Pedley, assistant master of the 
Grammar School, was appointed incumbent, residing in 
Gravel Lane. The present St. Thomas's Church was built 
in 1830, and consecrated in 1831. The Rev. William 
Keeling was the incumbent fifty years ago. 

9. St. James's Church was built by the Rev. Cornelius 
Bayley, D.D., in 1788, his house being in Charlotte-street. 



122 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS A GO. 

For some time after the church was built, it was the practice 
of the Wesleyans to assemble at Oldham-street Chapel on a 
Sunday morning at nine o'clock, and hold a service which 
lasted an hour and a quarter, after which they adjourned to 
Dr. Bayley's church and formed a considerable portion of 
his congregation. 

10. St. Peter's, built by Wyatt, was also founded in 
1788 by the Rev. Samuel Hall, who had been curate at 
St Ann's, when he lived in Greengate. He was the first 
rector, and afterwards resided in Oxford Road. After him 
the Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., became incumbent, who 
had previously been curate of Trinity Church, Salford, and 
head master of the Grammar School In 1829 Dr. Smith 
was rector of St. Ann's, retaining the office of head master 
of the Grammar School, which he held for some years. 
In 1824 the Rev. Nicholas Germon was the curate at 
St Peter's, and second master at the Grammar School, and 
in 1829 was rector of St Peter's, retaining his office in the 
school I have stated already that St. Peter's was first 
built without a steeple, which was added some years after, 
and was built by Mr. Heap. As just intimated, the painting 
over the communion table, by Caracci, was purchased in 
Italy and presented to the church by Mr. Dawson. 

11. St. Michael's, Angel Street, was the third church 
built during the year 1788, and is stated to have been 
founded by the Rev. Humphrey Owen, one of the chaplains 
of the Collegiate Church. Fifty years ago the Rev. William 
Marsden, B.D., was the incumbent; he succeeded the 
Rev. M. Wrigley, and resided many years in Quay Street. 
Mr. Marsden subsequently became vicar of Eccles, and was 



REV. WILLIAM NUNN. 123 

one of three brothers — George, John, and William. John 
was a com dealer, in York Street, in 1829, and a Wesleyan, 
whilst George was a very popular Wesleyan minister, who 
began his ministry in 1793, and died in 1858. Mr. W. 
Marsden had the living of Eccles presented to him, it was 
said, because he voted at the first Manchester election 
after the Reform Bill for Mark Philips and C. Poulett 
Thompson. 

12. St. Clembnt^s, Stevenson Square, was built in 
1 793> by the Rev. Edward Smyth, and was licensed but 
not consecrated. Mr. Smyth resided in Back Lane, near 
the church, at first; but in 18 10 was living at Chorlton 
Hall, near to Grosvenor Street. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. William Nunn, in 181 8, who was incumbent for 
twenty-two years, and died in 1840. He was well known 
as a minister, from the fact of his preaching Calvinist 
doctrines very strongly, but was greatly respected by all 
classes. This was shown by the large number who attended 
his funeral. When a young man, I frequently heard him 
preach, and was amongst the throng who witnessed his 
burial. His son is the incumbent of St. Thomas's, Ardwick. 

13. St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill, was built in 1794, by 
the Rev. C. W. Ethelstone, one of the fellows of the Col- 
legiate Church. He was the incumbent in 1829. At that 
time he had for his curate the Rev. Peter Hordem, who 
was also librarian at the Chetham Library from 1821 
to 1834, and succeeded the Rev. R. H. Whitelock in 
the curacy of Chorlton-cum-Hardy. Mr. Hordem was 
the father of Lady Ellen Frances Lubbock, the wife of 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart, M.P. for Maidstone; she 



124 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

died a few months since, having been married in 1856. 
Mr. Hordern was the son of the Rev. Joseph Hordem, at 
one time curate of Prestwich and vicar of Holy Trinity 
Church, Shaw, near Oldham. Mr. Ethelstone was succeeded 
by his son in the incumbency of St Mark's. 

14. St. Stephen's, Salford, was built in the same year, 
by the Rev. Nicholas Mosely Cheek, of Dale Street In 
181 1 the Rev. Ebenezer Booth was the incumbent, and in 
1820 the Rev. Melville Horn was his curate. In 1824 he 
had a second curate, in the person of the Rev. E. B. Shaw. 
In 1829 Mr. Booth was still the incumbent, and no less a 
person than the Rev. Hugh Stowell, who then had lodgings 
in Bolton Street, was his curate. Shortly after this a 
church was built for Mr. Stowell, in the Crescent, Salford, 
to which he removed. 

15. St. George's, St George's Road, though built in 
1797, was not consecrated till 18 18. It was opened for 
divine service on the ist of April, 1798, but was for a short 
time, it is said, occupied by ministers of Lad^ Huntington's 
connexion. In 181 1 Samuel Bradley, who resided in 
Faulkner Street, was the incumbent; and in 1824 the 
Rev. William Johnson, residing in Oldham Street, held the 
appointment. Fifty years ago the Rev. James White was the 
incumbent — the brother of Henry Kirke White, the poet 

16. St. Luke's, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was built by the 
Rev. Edward Smyth, in 1804, who resided close by, at 
Chorlton HalL The church was licensed but not con- 
secrated. Its first minister was the Rev. Abraham 
Hepworth, LL.B., who kept an academy at Barrowclough's 
Buildings, Ardwick^ his residence being at first in Rosamond 



REV. DR. BURTON. 1 25 

Street, then in Rusholme Lane, and afterwards in Grosvenor 
Street. In 1829 he still retained the incumbenqr, but had 
given up the school 

17. All Saints', Oxford Road, was founded in 1820 
by the Rev. Charles Burton, LL.D., father of the present 
incumbent He was the son of Mr. Daniel Burton, of the 
firm of Daniel Burton and Sons, calico printers, of Rhodes, 
near Middleton, whose warehouse was in High Street In 
1829 Dr. Burton lived in York Street, Chorlton Row (as 
Chorlton-on-Medlock was then called), where he kept an 
academy. He was not only connected with an eminent 
Wesleyan ^unily, but began his career as a Wesleyan 
minister, and had a brother, James Daniel Burton, who was 
one. The brother was stationed in Manchester, about sixty- 
five years ago, as a supernumerary. Charles, afterwards 
Dr. Burton, when a young man, was appointed to the Maccles- 
field, Leek, and Buxton Wesleyan Circuits, and while in the 
latter, an old friend of mine heard him preach at the Wes- 
leyan Chapel, Chapel-en-Frith. He married the daughter 
of a wealthy gentleman in the Potteries, whose fortune, with 
his own, supplied the means for his college course, and of 
building All Saints* Church. He was considered a young 
man of great promise, and no doubt he would have attained 
a high position amongst the Wesleyans had he remained 
one. He was a believer in the near approach of the millen- 
nium, and many years ago lectured on the subject He was 
a good Hebrew scholar, hence the text in Hebrew over the 
south entrance to the church, " This is none other than the 
House of God." He lived to a good old age, had a very 
clerical appearance, wore knee-breeches and black cloth 



126 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS A GO. 



gaiters to the end of his days, and walked with a firm step, 
which indicated the vigour and robustness of his constitu- 
tion. Some years ago the church was on fire, when the 
roof was destroyed. 

1 8. St. Matthew's, Campfield, erected in the Gothic 
style, is built upon the site of the ancient town of Man- 
cuniimi, and was founded in 1822. A short time previously 
an Act of Parliament was passed, known as Peel's Act, by 
which a large sum of money was granted for the purpose of 
building churches in this neighbourhood, commissioners 
being appointed to manage the fimd. Out of this money 
the commissioners granted ;£'i 4,000 towards the erection- of 
St Matthew's Church, which was constituted a District 
Parish Church. It is a fine specimen of modem Gothic 
architecture, possessing an elegant lantern tower and spire, 
and was about the first public work designed by the late 
Sir Charles Barry (then Mr. Barry), who was the architect 
of the Houses of Parliament, and also of the Manchester 
Athenaeum and the Unitarian Chapel in Upper Brook Street. 
In 1829, the Rev. Edward Butterworth Shaw was the incum- 
bent, living in Byrom-street ; and the Rev. E. Dudley 
Jackson, the curate, living in Irwell Street The Rev. 
William Kidd* was the incumbent here before he obtained 
the living of Didsbury. Mr. Dudley Jacksont is now the 
rector of St Thomas's Church, Heaton Chapel, and is the 
author of one or two volumes of verse. 



* Mr. Kidd was killed at the Didsbury Railway Station on the i8th 
of December, 1880. 

f Mr. Jackson has also passed away since these lines first appeared in 
print 



REV. DR. HOOK. 127 

19. St. Philip's, Salford, was consecrated in 1825, and 
was built by the aid of a grant of ;£"! 4,000 out of the same 
fund. The first incumbent was the Rev. Oswald Sergeant, 
son of Mr. Sergeant, of the firm of Sergeant, Milne, and 
Sergeant, solicitors, and clerks to the magistrates. Sub* 
sequently Mr. Sergeant was appointed one of the Fellows of 
the Collegiate Chiurch, and afterwards, on that church 
becoming a Cathedral, one of the Canons, being a colleague 
of the Rev. Dr. Parkinson. 

20. St. George's, Hulme, was founded in 1826, and 
consecrated in 1828. The same parliamentary grant was 
made as in the last instance; but as the building cost 
^20,000, ^6,000 was raised by private subscription. The 
first incumbent was the Rev. Joshua Lingard, who lived in 
Moss Lane, and was the brother of Mr. Thomas Lingard, 
agent to the old Quay Company. 

21. Though St. Andrew's, Travis Street, was being 
built in 1829, and was not consecrated for a year or so 
after, it may be as well to name it It was another of what 
have been called "Peel's Churches," a similar amount 
of ;£'i4,ooo having been granted by the commissioners 
towards its erection. It was consecrated in 1831, and the 
JRev. George Dugard was the first incumbent I once had 
the pleasure of hearing the Rev. Dr. Hook, before he was 
dean, preach a most eloquent sermon in this church, his 
text being ^'I perceive tlmt in all things ye are too 
superstitious." 



1 28 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XI, 

PLACES OF WORSHIP. — INDEPENDENT CHAPELS. 

"PIFTY years ago there were eight Independent Chapels 
in Manchester. These were severally situated in 
Cannon Street, Grosvenor Street (Piccadilly), Mosley Street, 
Rusholme Road, Jackson Street, Chapel Street, Salford, 
Windsor Bridge, and Lees Street, Ancoats. 

Cannon Street Chapel. — ^The history of Independency 
in Manchester dates from the seventeenth century, when 
the Rev. John Wigan, with others, formed an Independent 
Church in the buildings now known as the Chetham College 
in 1649. In the year 1672, a small and inconvenient room 
in Cold-house Lane (now called Thomley Brow) was 
licensed for the ministry of the Rev. Henry Newcome, who 
came to Manchester in 1656 to succeed Richard HoUing- 
worth at the Collegiate Church, but who, on the passing of 
the Act of Uniformity in 1662, vacated his post. In 1761 
an Independent Church was formed there under the ministry 
of the Rev. Caleb Warhurst, the congregation increasing so 
much that in a short time it became necessary to look out 
for a more commodious place of meeting. A suitable situa- 
tion was found at the upper end of what was then known 
as Hunter's Croft^ Hunter's Lane, now called Cannon 



REV. TIMOTHY PRIESTLEY. 129 



Street, running on the south side of it into Hanging Ditch, 
near the comer of which streets John Byrom's house then 
stood A chapel was built there, a little back from the lane^ 
two cottages standing between. It appears that the Rev. 
John Newton, the friend of Cowper, and one of the authors 
of the Olney Hymns, was present at the opening in 1762, 
not to take any active part in it, but " to see some ministers 
and friends with whom he was acquainted." Mr. Warhurst 
lived with a Mr. Clegg, in Turner Street, and was only 
pastor of the church three years, as he died in 1765. For 
three years the church was without any minister, at the end 
of which time the Rev. Timothy Priestley, brother of the 
late celebrated Dr. Priestley, succeeded to the pastorate. 
There were, however, continual feuds between the pastor 
and his deacons. Dr. Halley tells us he was charged with 
irreverently ascending the pulpit stairs with his hat on his 
head, and with making packing-cases on Sunday nights. As 
to wearing his hat on the pulpit stairs, he seems to have 
treated the charge as an impertinence unworthy of notice ; 
and'as to the packing-cases, while the deacons kept him so 
miserably poor, he thought it was his duty "to provide 
things honest in the sight of all men,*' as well as to remember 
the Sabbath day. Notwithstanding these things the church 
prospered, and he remained its minister for nineteen years, 
during which time the chapel was enlarged by the removal 
of the two cottages and its being brought to the front of 
Hunter's Lane. Mr. Priestley on resigning his charge went 
to London, when he was succeeded by the Rev. David 
Bradbury, from Ramsgate, who had not a very happy time 
of it in consequence of disputes with some of his members, 

F 



1 30 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

" "II H«^BBaa^^B^_^HM^^^I ■■ ■ - I III I « I ■ ■ III 11 —^■^■^■M^^^^M^^^M.^ 

who were Scotch, and who wished to appoint ruling elders. 
The result was that a division took place, when several 
members left the church, and assembled for public worship in 
a building in St. Andrew's Lane, near Church Street. In 1 788 
these seceders built Mosley Street ChapeL Mr. Bradbury, 
after many unhappy disputes and a large secession of 
members, resigned his charge and left the neighbourhood in 
1795. I^ t^^t y^^i^^ t^^ Rcv« William Roby, from Wigan, 
succeeded to the pastorate of Cannon Street Chapel, which, 
owing to his efforts, soon became too small, and it became 
necessary to build a larger chapeL An eligible site was 
found in Grosvenor Street, Piccadilly, and a chapel was 
built, which was opened for divine worship in December, 
1807, when the church, consisting of 226 members, with its 
pastor and deacons, removed to it. At first it was intended 
to utilize Cannon Street Chapel as a branch of the Grosvenor 
Street one, but ultimately, with Mr. Roby's consent, it 
remained a distinct place of worship, and was enlarged in 
1828. Amongst those who remained as worshippers at 
Cannon Street may be named the ancestors of Messrs. 
S. and J. Watts, of Portland Street, who then carried on the 
retail drapery business, in Deansgate. Fifty years ago the 
Rev. Samuel Bradley was the minister of Cannon Street, 
having been previously that of Mosley Street ChapeL He 
began his ministry at Cannon Street in 1827, and resigned 
it in 1844, having married a member of the Bellhouse 
family, who attended his ministry whilst at Mosley Street. 
His nephew, the late Mr. S. M. Bradley, the surgeon, was 
well known. In i860 the chapel was sold for ;£'2,8oo, and 
is now converted into business property, being occupied by 



/ 



REV, WILLIAM ROSY. 131 

Messrs. W. and R. Lee. The church and congregation 
have erected large and commodious premises in Chorlton 
Road, to which they have removed. Their increase under 
the care of the Rev. J. A. Macfadyen, who became the 
pastor in 1863, presents a history which, though very 
interesting, is beyond the scope of these reminiscences. 
The marvellously complete and unique organization of the 
church is clearly exhibited in the "Year Book" of the 
church, compiled by Mr. Charles Bailey, the brother of 
Mr. John Eglinton Bailey, F.S.A., the learned author of 
"The Life of Thomas Fuller/' and many other works. 

Grosvenor Street. — We have seen that Grosvenor 
Street Chapel, Piccadilly, was built in 1807, and that the 
Rev. William Roby, with the greater part of his flock, re- 
moved to it from Cannon Street. He was the minister of 
Grosvenor Street Chapel fifty years ago, but died in the 
following year. Dr. Halley says he was a man of pleasing 
simplicity, and affected none of the formalities of a clergy- 
man, while the style of his preaching retained something of 
the clerical character. Churchmen and Dissenters who 
loved the Gospel, loved to hear William Roby preach it 
He preached to an exceedingly sympathetic congregation, 
which earnestly co-operated in forwarding his designs, 
whether of a philanthropic or a strictly religious nature. 
His efforts to promote the erection of places of worship in 
less favoured districts were only equalled by his zeal in 
providing means of instruction for young men who pro- 
posed to enter the ministry. Through his instrumentality, 
an institute was founded for this purpose, in Leaf Square, 
Pendleton, and afterwards at Blackburn, but which was 



132 MANCHESTER FII'TY YEARS AGO. 



eventually developed into the Lancashire Independent 
College, at Withington. From Grosvenor Street Chapel, in 
the year 181 7, there were sent out as missionaries Robert 
Hampson, to Calcutta; John Ince, to Malacca; Samuel 
Wilson, to Greece ; and to South Africa, Robert Moffat, 
the father-in-law of Dr. Livingstone. In the year 1821 
Thomas Hughes was sent by Mr. Roby to Hoxton College, 
and afterwards became the pastor of the Independent 
Chapel at Stoke Newington. In the same year Elijah 
Armitage, the brother of the late Sir Elkanah, was sent out 
with his wife and family to the South Sea Islands, to 
evangelize the heathen and teach them the cotton manu- 
facturing and other industries; and others were sent out to 
other places. While Mr. Roby was preaching at Grosvenor 
Street, the Rev. Joseph Smith, a very popular preacher, 
had collected a large congregation in Mosley Street Chapel, 
and from these two congregations were formed several 
others, as at New Windsor ; Jackson's Lane, Hulme, since 
removed to Stretford Road; and Rusholme Road. In 
18 1 8 nineteen members were transferred from Grosvenor 
Street to Salford, and formed the nucleus of a church in 
Chapel Street Mr. Roby was assisted by three laymen, or 
what the Wesleyans would call local preachers, who con- 
ducted the services in certain country chapels, which were 
under his care. These were, Jonathan Lees, smallware 
dealer and property agent, St Mary's Gate ; John Powers, 
woollen draper, Market Street ; and Robert Powell, cashier 
to Leese, Kershaw and Callender. Mr. Lees sometimes 
occupied the pulpit of Grosvenor Street Chapel, in the 
absence of Mr. Roby. Amongst the principal persons who 



MR. ROBY'S CONGREGATION. 



133 



attended Mr. Roby's ministry were the following: The 
three partners in the firm of Fletcher, Burd, and Wood, the 
first of whom became a magistrate ; the firm afterwards 
becoming Samuel Fletcher, Son, and Co., of Parker Street. 
Mr. Fletcher's connection with Roby Chapel extended over 
a period of fifty years. Mr. Burd became an alderman, on 
the establishment of the Corporation. There were also 
amongst the worshippers Mr. Samuel Brooks, the banker ; 
Mr. Lewis Williams, cotton spinner, London Road ; Messrs. 
Rymer and Norris, solicitors, Norfolk Street; the family of 
the Armitages, one of the brothers afterwards becoming Sir 
Elkanah; Benjamin Joule, brewer, father of the present 
Dr. Joule and of J. St. B. Joule, J.R, of Southport; James 
Kershaw, afterwards M.P. for Stockport, and his brother- 
in-law James Sidebotham, recently deceased ; Thomas and 
David Ainsworth; Stephen Sheldon, grocer, Shudehill; 
Mr. (now Alderman) George Booth, and his brother Hugh ; 
Isaac Shim well, smallware dealer, St. Mary's Gate*; and 
S. T. Porter, tutor to Benjamin Joule's two sons, who 
became the minister first at Westhoughton, and after, co- 
pastor with the Rev. Dr. Wardlaw for a few years, at Glasgow. 
Other members of the congregation were the late Alderman 
Rumney; Thomas Wright, the Prison Philanthropist; 
Mr. John Griffiths, a hatter in Deansgate; Mr. Edward 
Lewis, solicitor, who became a deacon, and was a member 
of the congregation for nearly fifty years; Mr. Hugh 
Sheldon; Mr. S. Goodwin, silk manufacturer; Mr. John 
Holt, lead merchant; Mr. David Fletcher, Mr. John 
Griffiths, Mr. John Acton, and Mr. George Beaumont, 
a woollen draper. It was Mr. Rob/s custom to preach to 



134 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

the young on the evening of the first Sunday in the new 
year. At the conclusion of this service, on the first 
Sunday evening in January, 1830, he was carried home to 
his house, in Aytoun Street, in an exhausted condition, 
and died in a few days, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. 
Miss Maria Jane Jewsbury, who then lived in Grosvenor 
Street, Oxford Road, penned some verses on the occasion, 
beginning, " I never knew him, but I knew his worth." 

MosLEY Street Chapel. — We have seen that this chapel 
was built in 1788, principally by some Scotch seceders firom 
Cannon Street. The chapel was enlarged in 181 9. The 
first minister was the Rev. Mr. Kennedy, whom the seceders 
invited from Scotland, but his stay was a very brief one. 
His successor was the Rev. Joseph Smith, from Rotherham 
College, who became very popular, and married a lady of 
considerable property. He shortly after relinquished his 
charge and entered the cotton trade, residing till his death 
at Striangeways Hall, but continuing to attend the chapel. 
The next minister was the Rev. Samuel Bradley, who held 
the pastorate for some years, and eventually became the 
minister of Cannon Street Congregation. His successor 
was the Rev. Robert Stevens M'AU, who was the pastor of 
the church fifty years ago, and whose house was in Arlington 
Place, Oxford Road, next to that of Mr. Richard Potter, 
afterwards M.P. Mr. M'AU was a minister at Macclesfield 
at the time he received the pressing and unanimous invita- 
tion of the Mosley Street church and congregation to become 
their pastor. He had been a student in the Edinburgh 
University, where he obtained his degree of M.A. with 
such distinction that the Senate afterwards spontaneously 



DR. M'ALL. 



'35 



conferred on him the degree of LL.D. without his previous 
knowledge. Mosley Street Chapel stood on the right-hand 
side of Mosley Street going from Market Street, at the 
second comer of Charlotte Street, the first one being 
occupied by the Assembly Rooms, which, like the chapel, 
was a plain brick building. The principal entrance to the 
chsipel was by means of a colonnade situated in Charlotte 
Street, there being also a door in Mosley Street The 
chapel itself was what it is the fashion with our aesthetic 
friends to call a bam. But, bam or no barn, it was a very 
comfortable place of worship, far more so than many places 
which make great pretensions, but in which you can neither 
see nor hear the preacher from certain positions. There 
are many places of worship of a similar type in various 
parts of the country, which have sacred and pleasant 
associations, and which are revered and loved by those who 
worship in them. During the ministry of Dr. M'All at 
Mosley Street Chapel it has been stated that there were to 
be seen more carriages drawn up at the chapel at the close 
of the service than at any other church or chapel in 
Manchester. The congregation often contained Church- 
men and Dissenters of all creeds, who could appreciate 
the highest style of pulpit oratory. I remember once 
passmg just when the congregation was coming out, and 
being amazed at the number of carriages and coaches, 
and at the crowd of people. I can call to mind one 
occasion of my forming a part of the congregation when 
Dr. M'All preached on a Sunday morning. The subject 
of the discourse was the training of children, and I 
well recollect how strongly he pleaded against corporal 



136 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

punishment, arguing that the rod spoken of by Solomon in 
another passage must not be taken literally. It was my 
privilege to hear Dr. M'All preach his very last sermon. 
This took place at Oldham Street Chapel, on the evening of 
Easter Monday, 1838, when he preached the annual sermon 
to the Wesleyan Missionary Society of the Manchester 
district and to a crowded congregation. His text was 
from Isaiah : *' Mighty to save." He preached two hours, 
pausing when half way through, the Rev. William Bunting 
giving out a hymn, which was sung by the congregation. 
Of his preaching it has been truly said " that his reputation 
for eloquence was only surpassed by the reality. His 
accurate scholarship, his cultured mind, his striking person, 
his natural dignity, and his elegance of gesture, added many 
charms to his close reasoning and his fervid oratory.'' The 
following gentlemen wilh their families used to attend the 
ministry of Dr. M*A11: James Holt Heron, cotton merchant, 
whose house was in the Crescent, Salford, with his son, the 
present Sir Joseph Heron, and the rest of his family; 
Dr. J. Phillips Kay, afterwards Sir James Phillips Kay- 
Shuttleworth; Thomas Harbottle, who was almost a giant in 
size ; J. S. Grafton, father of the present Frederick William 
Grafton, M.P., and his brother; Mr. John Roberton, the 
eminent siugeon ; Dr. Jarrold ; Richard Roberts, chairman 
of the Bank of Manchester ; W. R. Callender, father of the 
late M.P. for Manchester; J. B. Clarke, of the firm of 
George Clarke and Co., cotton spinners; Thomas H. Bick- 
ham and three sons; Wood and Wright, calico printers, 
Clayton Vale; William Woodward, wholesale grocer; 
William Newall, grocer (Newall's Buildings) ; John Latham^ 



DR. M' ALL'S CONGREGATION. 



137 



cotton spinner; Hugh Warburton, afterwards councillor; 
Rev. Joseph Whitworth, father of the present Sir Joseph ; 
Robert Barge, calico printer ; Daniel Procter ; James Dil- 
worth, cotton merchant; Joseph Midwood, manufacturer; 
John Fildes, afterwards M.P. for Grimsby; William, now 
Alderman Sharp; James Lamb, cabinet maker; Thomas 
and Henry Boddington; Thomas Roberts, of Roberts, 
Dale, and Co., Combrook; Thomas Hunter, of the firm of 
J. C. Harter and Co., drysalters. Chapel Walks; Rev. 
Barzillai Quaife, tutor to William Romaine Callender, jun., 
afterwards M.P., and Samuel Pope Callender, afterwards 
a deacon at Zion Independent Chapel, the two sons of 
W. R. Callender, sen. ; John and James Edwards, the former 
being a prominent member of the Anti-Com-Law League ; 
Thomas Shimwell, now a partner in the firm of E. Potter 
and Co., calico printers ; Joseph Ramsey, of High Street, 
who was secretary of the Juvenile Society; Henry Forth, 
afterwards of the firm of Forth and Marshall, commission 
agents, and William his brother ; John Bradshaw, agent for 
Newall's buildings and for other property belonging to 
Mr. Newall, and who was also the dispenser of the poor's fund 
in connection with the church. He had three daughters, 
the eldest of whom became the wife of Mr. W. P. EUerby, 
and the youngest of whom was drowned when the 
"Emma" was capsized There was also Henry Pope, whose 
three daughters were married to George Hadfield, 
W. R Callender, sen., and Thomas Harbottle. The present 
Samuel Pope, Q.C., is the grandson of Henry Pope, and 
was the nephew therefore of the late Messrs. Hadfield, 
Callender, sen., and Harbottle. The Rev. R. M. Davies, 



138 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

now an Independent minister at Oldham, was then a 
young man connected with the church, and was sent to 
study for the ministry at the Blackburn Academy (as it was 
then called), and afterwards at the Withington College. 
There was another young man who was a member of the 
congregation about this time, whose name ought not to be 
omitted That is John Cassell, of the firm of Cassell, Petter, 
and Galpin, the eminent publishers. He was about this 
period a carpenter, having some of the habits of other 
working men ; but one evening was induced to attend a 
temperance lecture in Oak Street Deeply impressed by 
what he heard, he became from that night a total abstainer. 
Fired with zeal in a cause which he believed would prove 
a blessing to his fellow-workmen, he shortly afterwards left 
the joiner's bench and became a voluntary temperance 
missionary, and joined the church, and, I believe the 
Sunday-school, at Dr. M'AlFs. Furnished with a watch- 
man's rattle, he used to go from village to village and invite 
the people to his meetings, often suffering great privations 
in his work. Ultimately he got to London, where he met 
two good men who discovered the nobleness of his character 
and his ability, clothed him in a respectable suit, and sent 
him forth as a lecturer. By his love of reading and his remark- 
able spirit of perseverance his mind and manners rapidly 
improved, and he gradually lost his rough provincialism. 
Having married, he became possessed of a sum sufficiently 
large to commence to print — first temperance tracts, then a 
monthly periodical, and then a weekly paper, and became 
widely known as the editor of the Working Maris Friend. 
His publications soon became too gigantic for one man to 



MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY. 1 39 



manage, and he entered into partnership with the eminent 
printers Messrs. Petter and Galpin. Some years afterwards, 
when spending a Sunday in Manchester, he went to the 
Simday-school Vith which he had formerly been connected, 
and in an address to the scholars he alluded to his former 
connection with the school He died in 1865, at the early 
age of forty-eight. After the decease of Mr. Roby the 
following persons left Grosvenor Street Chapel and became 
seat-holders at Mosley Street : James Kershaw, afterwards 
M.P. ; James Sidebotham ; Joseph Thompson, granjifather 
of the present Alderman Thompson; Elkanah, afterwards 
Sir Elkanah Armitage ; William EUerby, stationer. There 
was a Young Men's Mutual Improvement Society in con- 
nection with Dr. M'Airs chapel, which used to meet in one 
of the vestries upstairs, the entrance to which was in Back 
Mosley Street When a young man, on the invitation of 
one of the members, I joined it Its president was the 
Rev. Francis Beardsall, a Baptist minister, who afterwards 
went to America, and amongst its members were Mr. James 
Lamb, Mr. W. P. EUerby, Mr. John Fildes, then cashier to 
Messrs. Barge, calico printers, and afterwards M.P. for 
Grimsby; and R. M. Davies, then quite a young man, 
employed in a Manchester house. In due course he 
became the Rev. R. M. Davies, and received a call from 
the congregation of an Independent church at Oldham, the 
minister of which he remains, I believe, to this day. At 
this time the com laws were not abolished, but the subject 
was exciting a good deal of attention; and being, as I have 
said, a young man, when it came to my turn to read a paper 
before the society, I made an attempt to prove that the 



140 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

abolition of those laws would prove the ruin of the country. 
Referring to the time of which I am writing, one cannot 
help saying ** there were giants in those days," for 
Manchester was often visited by several eminent Independent 
ministers from other places, who were deservedly very 
popular preachers, and who often filled the pulpits, prin- 
cipally of Grosvenor Street and Mosley Street, on special . 
occasions. Amongst these were William Jay, of Bath ; John 
Angell James, of Birmingham ; Dr. Winter Hamilton, of 
Leeds; Dr. Raffles, of Liverpool; Dr. Harris, of Cheshunt; 
James Parsons, of York; John Ely, of Leeds; Thomas 
Binney, of London ; and Dr. Liefchild, of London. When 
Dr. M'All left home he frequently had his pulpit supplied 
by Dr. Hamilton, of Leeds, and would make an announce- 
ment to that effect, saying, " My noble friend. Dr. Winter 
Hamilton, will supply my place." It has been my privilege 
to hear the whole of these preachers in Manchester. I 
never willingly missed an opportunity of hearing James 
Parsons, whose sermons had a peculiar charm for me. From 
a defect in his vocal organs he had a very weak voice, and 
was only heard when there was perfect stillness in the chapeL 
There seemed to exist a tacit understanding between his 
congregation and himself, the former preserving the most 
complete stillness during the sermon, until Mr. Parsons, at 
some suitable point in his discourse, made a pause, and 
thus gave his audience liberty to cough and clear their 
throats, of which they invariably availed themselves. To 
anyone hearing him for the first time, the effect of the whole 
congregation simultaneously being seized with a coughing 
fit, which as suddenly subsided when the preacher was 



DR. M'ALVS PREACHING. 



141 



ready to begin afresh, was very singular. But his hearers 
got accustomed to it. William Jay, of Bath, I heard 
at the opening of Ducie Chapel, Cheetham Hill Road. 
Dr. Winter Hamilton I heard one Sunday evening at 
Dr. M*Airs chapel preach from the words, "Was Paul 
crucified for you ? " Dr. M'All died in the very zenith of 
his popularity on the 27th of July, 1838, at the age of forty- 
six, and was buried in Ru^holme Road Cemetery. There 
was a large concourse of people at his funeral, amongst 
whom I was present. His body was first taken to the chapel, 
where there was a service, and an address given by the 
Rev. John Ely. At the grave an oration was delivered by the 
Rev. John Angell James. Dr. Raffles preached the funeral 
sermon on the 5th of August following. On the monument 
erected to Dr. M'Airs memory he is described as "of com- 
manding and attractive bodily presence, of mental powers 
acute, brilliant, and profound, and gifted with an eloquence 
seldom surpassed." Mr, Alderman Joseph Thompson has 
kindly furnished me with a few additional particulars con- 
cerning Dr. M*A11 and his chapel, and Roby chapel, which 
are worth recording. The doctor preached long sermons, 
and the deacons, remembering the Sunday-school, tried to 
limit them, but in vain. One expedient tried was a gilded 
ball, which was to be released at twelve o'clock by the 
deacon who sat below, and set oscillating. It was tried 
once, and failed. The ball was let go, and swung backwards 
and forwards, but the preacher stopped it with his hand, 
and went on as if nothing had happened. John Owens, 
the founder of Owens College, formerly attended Mosley 
Street Chapel, and had a large square pew. When 



142 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Dr. M*A11 became so popular, and attracted such crowds, 
the half-empty square pew was regarded with covetous 
eyes by the deacons, who greedily snapped up every spare 
square inch of sitting room. Mr. Owens was asked to be 
so good as to allow part of his pew to be let to others, but 
he was so offended as to leave the place, and after for a 
time joining the Unitarians, found his way to St. John's 
Church. Mr. Thompson's grandfather was superintendent 
of the Sunday school connected with Roby chapel, in 
1825, or earlier. He kept a diary, in which he recorded 
his experiences of the difficulties of his office, and doubted 
his fitness for the post because the young teachers would 
go out of town, leaving their classes unprovided with 
substitutes. How many superintendents are there at the 
present day who could echo the same complaint! The 
diary evidences how earnestly and prayerfully he watched 
over his teachers and elder scholars, and how steadily he 
visited the sick and soothed the dying. He had a son, 
Joseph, who died about 1837, who seems to have been a 
notable man in his day. He was a capital man of business, 
so much so that he was appointed liquidator of a firm of 
calico printers at the age of twenty-two, Mr. Kershaw 
saying he would withdraw his opposition if Joseph 
Thompson, jun., would act as liquidator. He was a 
fair musician, and had an organ, which was presented by 
Mr. Alderman Thompson's father to the Chorlton Work- 
house. He joined in violin and violoncello quartetts and 
quintetts, Moses Hughes taking part therein. After 
Mr. Roby died, he was the only person allowed to sit in 
his chair, in which he read the scriptures to the widow. 



REV. JAMES GRIFFIN. 143 

The chair is that in which Mr. Roby sat when his portrait 
was taken, and was bought by the grandfather. It is now in 
Mr. Thompson's possession. I have heard from another 
source that the gilded ball Mr. Alderman Thompson 
speaks of was intended to strike a little bell; that the 
apparatus was made by Peter Clare ; and though made at 
Dr. M'All's suggestion, it utterly failed in its design. The 
Doctor became so absorbed in the flow of his own 
eloquence that he seemed to treat it as a slight imperti- 
nence, and took no notice of it beyond stopping its motion 
with his hand, but would go on without let or hindrance 
till one, and sometimes till half-past I am told also that 
John Owens had a solitary sitting in the gallery of the 
chapel, previous to his occupying the large square pew 
downstairs. 

RusHOLME Road Chapel was built principally through 
the efforts of the late George Hadfield, afterwards M.P. for 
Sheffield, and was opened for worship in 1825. The first con- 
gregation was composed mainly of persons from theGrosvenor 
Street and Mosley Street chapels. The Rev. James Griffin, 
a thin but interesting young man, became the pastor, under 
whom the congregation and church flourished. Besides 
Mr. Hadfield, amongst the worshippers there were to be 
found James, the father of Mr. Aldennan Thompson; 
the Hopkinson family, including the present alderman; 
Dr. Henry Brown ; Henry Waterhouse, architect ; Thomas 
Crighton, machinist ; Mr. Melland, surgeon ; John Parry, 
lately deceased; Thomas Coward; Edward Wood; Charles 
Cutting ; and Stanway Jackson. It happened that a certain 
day in September, 1829, had been fixed both for the 



144 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

ordination of Mr. Griffin and for the wedding of Mr. James 
Thompson. When this became known, Mr, Thompson 
put the wedding off till the following day, so as to be able 
to attend the ordination. MV. Griffin often referred to it, 
and regarded it as the greatest compliment ever paid to 
him. Mr. Griffin for some years resided at Richmond 
Terrace, Stretford Road, during which he was a guardian 
of the poor for Stretford, which at the time was a part of 
the Chorlton Union. Mr. James Thompson was also a 
guardian in the same union, and was its chairman for some 
years before his death, which occurred in i860. 

Jackson Street Chapel, Hulme. — I am not able to 
say in what year this chapel was built Fifty years ago 
there was no stated minister attached to it, but shortly 
afterwards the Rev. James Gwyther was chosen as its 
pastor. He laboured very assiduously, and with such 
success that, shortly it became necessary to seek for more 
commodious premises. Amongst the congregation at this 
time were the late Edward Goodall, of King Street, and his 
sister. A larger and more handsome structure was erected 
on the Stretford Road, which was named Zion Chapel, to 
which the church and congregation removed Mr. Gwyther 
remained their pastor till the infirmities of age compelled 
him to give place to a younger man, when the Rev. Edward 
Simon succeeded him. 

Chapel Street Chapel. — ^We have seen that in 18 18, 
nineteen members were transferred from Grosvenor Street, 
to form the nucleus of a church in Chapel Street, Salford, 
which was built near the end of New Bailey Street Its 
first minister was the Rev. John Addison Coombs, who 



REV. JAMES PRJDDIE. 145 

retained the position fifty years ago. He was ordained in 
February, 1820, on which occasion there was no laying on 
of hands. Dr. Winter, the uncle of Dr. Winter Hamilton, 
after the ordination prayer, ascended the pulpit to give the 
charge, and began by lamenting and blaming the omission. 
A large and flourishing congregation was gathered in the 
course of time by Mr. Coombs' ministrations, which in- 
cluded the late Mr. James Carlton, who then lived in 
Strangewa)rs, and shortly afterwards in Broughton Lane; 
John Dracup, draper, Chapel Street ; James Hilton Hulme, 
solicitor, of King Street, whose house was at Broughton ; 
Thomas Gasquoine, cotton merchant. Bank Parade ; 
Mr. M'Clure, of Acton Square; Mr. Edge, the surgeon; 
and Joseph Ward, now of Southport, who afterwards 
attended the ministry of Dr. Halley. 

Windsor Bridge Chapel. — The minister of this chapel 
in 1829 was the Rev. James Priddie. He was Mr. Rob/s 
assistant in 18 16, on the occasion of his undertaking a 
fortnight's preaching excursion to the populous towns and 
villages within a distance of ten miles of Manchester, thus 
preparing the way, as at Ashton and Oldham, for the esta- 
blishment of new churches. In this he was greatly assisted 
by Mr. Priddie. He subsequently resigned his position at 
Windsor Bridge and accepted a call to Halifax. He was 
succeeded at Windsor Bridge by the Rev. George Tayler. 
Mr. (now Sir John) Hawkshaw, C.E., who, I am told, has 
the scheme in hand for connecting France and England 
by means of a submarine tunnel, when engineer of the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, was a member of this 
congregation. The Rev. John Clunie, LL.D., who had a 



146 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

good boys' school in Leaf Square, was also for many years 
a member of the congregation, and when necessity arose 
conducted the services. 

The chapel in Lee Street, Ancoats, had no stated 
minister fifty years ago. 

At the time of which we are speaking there were several 
Independent ministers in other parts of Lancashire, one 
of the most eminent of whom was the Rev. William 
Alexander. He originally came from Scotland and became 
the pastor of the Independent congregation of Prescot, 
then of Leigh, and afterwards of Churchtown, near 
Southport He was a friend of William Roby, and much 
resembled him in spirit and in laborious zeal, frequently 
walking thirty miles in one day, sometimes preaching four 
times on a Sunday, and sometimes twice out of doors. He 
died at the patriarchal age of ninety-two, in the enjo3rment 
of all his faculties. He was the father of the Rev. John 
Alexander, of Norwich, and grandfather of Mr. John 
Fletcher Alexander, the agent of the Liberation Society 
here, who was himself educated for the ministry. 



ORIGIN OF METHODISM. 147 



CHAPTER XII. 

PLACES OF WORSHIP. — ^WESLEYAN METHODIST CHAPELS. 

TV /f" ETHODISM (to use its original name) was probably 
^ introduced into Manchester between the years 

1733 and 1738. In the first of these years, Wesley had 
visited Manchester and preached three times in three 
different churches on one Sunday, one of them being the 
Old Chiurch. On the i6th of March, 1738, he and 
Charles Kinchin, another member of the Holy Club at 
Oxford (so called in derision), rode into Manchester late 
at night, having ridden from Stafford that day. The next 
day they spent with John Clayton, incumbent of Trinity 
Chapel, Salford, another of the little band, "by whom," says 
Wesley, " and the rest of our friends here, we were much 
refreshed and strengthened." The day after, Wesley and 
Kinchin officiated at Trinity Church in the morning, and 
St. Ann's in the afternoon, Mr. Hoole, the rector having 
been taken suddenly ill. The Rev. Benjamin Gregory 
observes on this : " It seems clear that before a class 
meeting was formed in London there existed in 
Manchester, if not a Methodist society, at least a 
Methodist circle. One of these * friends' was doubtless 
the celebrated Dr. Byrom, the poet and man of science, a 



148 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Fellow of the Royal Society, author of 'Christians, awake'/ 
and translator from the French of the noble hymn, 
'O thou who camest from above.'" This was twenty 
years before Manchester began to export its manufactures, 
and twenty-one years before the townspeople ceased to be 
obliged to have all their com ground at the Irk mill. 

The first evidence of the existence of a " Methodist 
Society" in Manchester is given in a letter dated 1747, 
from John Bennett to Wesley, who says: "Some young 
men of Manchester (that spoke with Mr. Charles when 
he was with us last) have begun a society, and took a 
room, and have subscribed their names in a letter to 
Mr. Charles, desiring you will own them as brethren, and 
visit them on your return." Their number was very small, 
for when Richard Barlow, the first Methodist here whose 
name is known, joined them, they were but fourteen or 
fifteen. The room which these young men had taken 
was a small apartment built upon a rock on the bank of 
the Irwell, on the north side of Blackfriars Bridge, at the 
bottom of a large yard known as the Rose and Crown 
yard, and which was filled with wood-built thatched 
cottages. The house containing the preaching-room was 
three storeys high. The ground floor was a joiner's shop ; 
the rooms in the middle storey were the residence of a 
newly-married couple; and the preaching-room was the 
home of a poor woman, who there plied her spinning-wheel, 
while her husband in the same apartment flung the shuttle. 
Christopher Hopper, one of the early Methodist preachers, 
speaking of a service he conducted there, says: "I preached 
in an old garret that overhung the river near the bridge; 



BIRCH JN LANE CHAPEL. 149 

the coals were in one corner of the room, the looms in 
another, and I was in danger of breaking my neck in 
getting up to it When the congregation was collected 
the first evening it did not consist of more than from 
twenty to thirty persons." Such was the beginning of 
Wesleyan Methodism in Manchester. 

The next important step in its progress was the building 
of a chapel in Birchin Lane, at the back of High Street, in 
1750. The building was standing in 1829, and was then 
occupied as a warehouse by Mary Bealey, the well-known 
bleacher, and equally well-known as belonging to a family 
of eminent Wesleyans, to which reference has been made in 
a former chapter. Before the chapel was ready to receive 
the congregation, however, it had increased so rapidly that 
the old room near the river would not contain it, and fairly 
trembled under the weight so as to produce considerable 
consternation. In the emergency the same building which 
had received Newcome and his congregation before Cross 
Street Chapel was built, proved a refuge for these early 
Methodists, who obtained the use pf the Cold House 
Chapel for a time. 

Amongst the first members connected with Birchin 
Lane Chapel were Thomas Fildes, grandfather of 
Mr. James Fildes, of Spring Gardens, and originator of 
Sunday Schools in Manchester, referred to previously ; 
Mary Bromley, for seventy years a Methodist, who died in 
1826, at the age of eighty-nine; Adam Oldham, a felt 
maker, one of the first trustees of Birchin Lane Chapel, who 
lived in a house on the site now occupied by the Albion 
Hotel; Richard Barlow, who for sixty-five years rose at 



150 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



half-past four in summer and five in winter ; Mr. Brierley, 
who met in Peter Kenworth/s class, and was in its early 
days leading singer at Oldham Street Chapel, and afterwards 
a magistrate; John Mosley, a hatter in Millgate; and 
Mrs. Bennett, the first female class-leader in Manchester. 

Manchester, which at the present day contains thirteen 
Wesleyan circuits, in 1752 was only part of what was 
called the Cheshire circuit, and which included Lancashire, 
Cheshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and part of Yorkshire. 
The contributions of. the members of the society in 
Manchester towards the support of the ministry in one 
quarter of that year only amounted to £,2. 3s. sd. In 
1765 Manchester became the head of a circuit, the first 
ministers who were appointed to it being James Oddie, 
John Oliver, John Murray, and Isaac Waldron. 

Oldham Street Chapel was opened by John Wesley 
on Good Friday, the 30th of March, 1781. He writes in 
his journal : " Friday, March 30. I opened the new 
chapel at Manchester, about the size of that in London. 
The whole congregation behaved with the utmost 
seriousness. I trust much good will be done in this place. 
Sunday, April i. I began reading prayers at ten o'clock. 
Our country friends flocked in from all sides. At the 
Communion was such a sight as I am persuaded was never 
seen in Manchester before, eleven or twelve hundred 
communicants at once; and all of them fearing God." 
This building has always been looked upon by Wesleyans 
as next in importance and interest to City Road Chapel in 
London, and by Manchester Methodists it has been 
regarded aUnost in the same light as the Old Church is by 



WESLEYAN MINISTERS. 151 

Episcopalians. There is a tradition amongst Wesleyans 
that John Wesley regretted it was built so far out of town. 
Little did he dream that in less than a hundred years it 
would be seriously discussed by the Conference whether 
it should be sold, because it was too near the centre 
of the town ! To name the ministers who have been 
appointed by the Conference to labour in the Oldham 
Street circuit would be to name those who have been 
the most eminent in the Connexion. Amongst them 
are found the names of Adam Clarke, Jabez Bunting, 
Robert Newton, Samuel Bradbum, Thomas Jackson, 
James Everett, Joseph Benson ; John Gaulter, whose son 
was a druggist in Piccadilly; Joseph Fowler, father of 
Mr. Henry H. Fowler, the Liberal member for 
Wolverhampton; James Wood, grandfather, and Robert 
the father, of Mr. Bateson Wood, solicitor of this city; 
John Pipe, whose uncle was a rich man, and who, having 
made a will in favour of his nephew John, threatened to 
disinherit him on his becoming a Methodist, and died 
before he could execute his threat, John's two sons, Isaac 
and William, being in partnership as silversmiths in Market 
Street in 1829 ; Edmtmd Grindrod, whose daughter became 
the wife of Mr. W. C. Rippon, of the Manchester and 
Liverpool District Bank ; Miles Martindale, for some years 
governor of Woodhouse Grove School, near Leeds, where 
the author was educated; George Marsden, brother of a late 
vicar of Eccles, before referred to ; John Stephens, father 
of the late Rev. William Rayner Stephens, at one time a 
notorious political agitator; John Rigg, father of a 
former editor of the Watchman newspaper, and of 



152 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Dr. James H. Rigg, the well-known principal of 
Westminster Training Institution, and ex-president of the 
Conference ; and William Edward Miller, who became one 
of the most enthusiastic, energetic, and devoted of ministers. 
He was the son of Dr. Edward Miller, a man of literary 
taste, refined manners, and great eminence as a professor 
of tnusic, and who was the popular organist of Doncaster 
Church for fifty years. He was the instrument of 
developing that profound astronomical talent which 
distinguished the late Sir William HerschelL The son, 
when a young man, followed his father's profession, and 
became ail accomplished player on the violin. He went to 
India, and having heard that in the court of Tippoo 
Saib an exquisite instrument was in use by one of 
the Sultan's band, and having pushed his way to 
Seringapatam, he so enchanted the sovereign by his 
performance as to obtain possession of the prize. On 
his return to England it became the idol of his soul. 
When he became a Methodist, he was afraid it might 
be a source of temptation, and with unexampled firmness 
he laid it aside — though at the time he was esteemed the 
second, if not the first, performer in England — ^with the 
purpose never to touch it more, a resolution he kept to the 
day of his death. The violin is now in the possession of 
Mr. James Fildes, of Chorlton-cum-Hardy. Mr. Miller 
became one of the most earnest and popular preachers in 
England. His son was one of my schoolfellows at Wood- 
house Grove School. In 1829 the ministers of Oldham 
Street Chapel were John Burdsali, Abraham Stead, Samuel 
Dunn, and John Lomas. Burdsali lived at the comer of 



REV. SAMUEL DUNN. 



153 



Dale Street and Spear Street, and Dunn in Spear Street. 
From the hands of Samuel Dunn I received my note of 
admittance on trial into the Methodist Society, which is 
signed by him, and which I still retain. He was a disciple 
of Dr. Adam Clarke, inasmuch as he professed to hold his 
views on the " Sonship of Christ" In consequence he was 
not ordained for many years, until he abandoned them, 
which was after Dr. Clarke's death. He was a Cornish 
man, and had an impediment in his speech which prevented 
him sounding the R. Although he stood by Everett in his 
dispute with the Conference at a later period in reference 
to what were called the "Fly-sheets," and was expelled 
with him and Griffiths as members of the Conference, he 
took the Conservative side in politics. During his appoint- 
ment to Oldham Street Chapel political feeling ran very 
high in Manchester, and he had noticed the name of 
Mr. Eli Atkin, who was then a member at Oldham Street, 
on the committee of some association formed to promote 
parliamentary reform. Mr. Dunn made it his business to 
see Mr, Atkin, in order to persuade him to have nothing to 
do with politics, and especially with the Liberal party. 
Mr. Dunn is still living in the enjoyment of tranquillity and 
peace after a somewhat stormy life, and is now reconciled 
to the Conference. During one of the open sessions of 
the Bradford Conference of 1878, when the public were 
admitted, I had the pleasure of seeing him on the platform, 
shaking hands with many of the preachers around him. 
The Oldham Street Circuit fifty years ago embraced 
Cheetham Hill and Oldham Road and the district between; 
Grosvenor Street and Oxford Road Chapels having been 



1 54 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

built a few years previously, the more wealthy portion of 
Oldham Street congregation had deserted it for the two 
former places. The congregation of Oldham Street Chapel 
at that time included Mr. John Roberts, the stationer, 
of Market Street, whose pew was in front of the gallery 
opposite the preacher, and which was kept locked, so 
that, as the chapel was often crowded in those days, 
he and his family could always gain access to it; 
Mr. John Brogden, father of Mr. Alexander Brogden, M.P., 
and his good-looking wife, who sat a few pews behind 
Mr. Roberts; James Morris, afterwards a partner in 
Satterfield's, and his mother, whose pew was near the 
last-mentioned; Joseph England, a well-known painter 
of Oxford Road; Alexander Braik, silk and shawl dyer, of 
Oldham Street, the predecessor of Mr. John Berrie, and 
who, with his wife, were good representatives of old 
Methodism; William Pollard, of Oldham Street, a tailor, 
and one of the earliest teetotalers, as well as a local 
preacher ; Micah Rose, said to be one of the best and 
most obliging of tax collectors ever known, a native of 
Castleton in the Peak; Mr. John Hull, a tall, thin, venerable 
man, the representative of Mary Bealey, the bleacher, and 
whose eldest son married Mrs. Roberts' youngest daughter ; 
Eli Atkin, now of Newton Heath, then of Dale and Atkin, 
druggists. Swan Street ; Mark Abbey, baker, of Swan Street; 
William Dentith, druggist, of Market Street, who, with his 
apprentices, occupied a large square family pew downstairs 
near the pulpit, the next to it being that of Hugh Greaves, 
father of the late George Greaves, surgeon ; James Fildes, 
wholesale grocer, father of Mr. James Fildes, of Chorlton- 



JAMES WILKINSON. 155 

cum-Hardy; James Redfem, of Market Street, with his 
father and brother ; Mr. Millward, father of Mr. Millward, 
of Newton Heath; Mr. Samuel Stocks, father" of 
Mrs. Thomas Farmer, whose husband was a well-kno\vTi 
and wealthy Wesleyan and a liberal contributor to its 
funds, who died a few years ago ; and Mr. W. R. Johnson, 
a friend of my master's, a partner in the firm of 
Sedgwick, Son, and Johnson, drapers, St. Ann's Square, 
and afterwards a partner in the house of Alexander Henry 
and Co. He retired on a handsome fortune, and died a 
few years since near Alderley Edge. Fifty years ago Oldham 
Street Chapel contained no organ, but the orchestra 
consisted of two violoncellos, a double bass (sometimes two), 
and a bass horn. Mr. Thomas Swindells, of Heaton Moor, 
who played the violoncello many years, still survives. The 
leading singer was a fine old fellow, with a capital voice, 
. James Wilkinson. A few years later Robert Newton was 
appointed to the circuit, and frequently preached at 
Oldham Street on a Sunday evening, the service begining 
then at six o'clock. He was always in the pulpit before 
the time, seated and waiting for the clock to indicate that 
moment, when he would rise and give out the first hymn. 
He was very fond of that beautiful hjmin of Scheffler's, 
translated by Wesley, beginning, " O God of good, the un- 
fathomed sea ! " with which to begin the service. I do not 
remember anything finer of the kind than Newton's giving 
out of this hymn, followed by Wilkinson's setting to it the 
grand old tune, known as Marienboum, a crowded congrega- 
tion joining in singing it. I need not say that Robert Ne^vton, 
with his large, bold, and handsome features, splendid 



1 56 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

voice, and commanding presence, was one of the 
most popular orators of the day. It used to be 
seriously related of him that one evening he was 
preaching in Wakefield, and that a lady who was in the 
habit of attending the theatre, at the solicitation of a 
friend, went to hear him. After she had heard him give 
out his hymn, she became convinced that she was listening * 
to no other than John Kemble. She went home and 
assured her husband that Jack Kemble was in the pulpit, 
and induced him to return with her. He did so, the 
result being that both husband and wife became members 
of the Methodist Society. Newton was gifted with a 
robust constitution, and for at least thirty years the whole 
of his time except Sundays was spent in travelling, mostly 
on the top of a coach, from place to place, making 
missionary and other speeches, and preaching for various 
objects. In this respect he was known from one end of 
the kingdom to the other. To return to James Wilkinson, 
he kept a music shop nearly opposite the chapel in Oldham 
Street, and next door to the smallware shop of Mr. James 
Varley, the father of Mrs. Linnaeus Banks (who had 
another in Market Street). The family appear to have 
been musical, his son William being a teacher of music, 
and his grandson, whose name was Gregory, being an 
accomplished violinist, and one of the early members of 
Charles Hallo's orchestra. At that day the Wesleyan 
Schools on the Wednesday of Whit-week used to per- 
ambulate the streets, and assemble on Ardwick Green, 
where they sang several hymns, accompanied by a trumpet 
played by Peter Duckers, James Wilkinson standing in the 
centre and leading them. 



REV. CLELAND KIRKPATRICK. 157 

Irwell Street Chapel. — ^The whole of Manchester 
and Salford was included in the Oldham Street Circuit 
till 1 81 3, when Salford was separated from it and made 
a second circuit The only Wesleyan Chapel then 
existing in Salford was Gravel Lane, which was built in 
1790. Irwell Street Chapel, which subsequently became 
the head of the circuit, was not built till 1826. The 
first ministers appointed to the circuit in 1813 were 
Cleland Kirkpatrick, Thomas Dowty, and William Jones. 
Kirkpatrick, before he became a minister, was in the 
Royal Navy, and in an engagement with Paul Jones, the 
dashing American officer, during the War of Independence, 
lost one of his arms, which was substituted by a false one. 
Kirkpatrick's religion had not destroyed his sailor-like love 
of fun, for, on going to a village in a new circuit, 
arrangements were made for him to stay all night at the 
house of one of the members. He was shown to his room 
by the servant girl, who remained a moment or two to 
arrange the bed, during which he took off his coat, 
unfastened his false arm, and laid it on the table. 
Perceiving the girl's attention was arrested, and that she 
looked very bewildered at the operation, he went to the 
looking-glass and pretended to imscrew his head. This 
was too much for the girl, who flew downstairs almost 
head first, exclaiming, " Lors a' mercy, missis, the preacher's 
taken his arm off, and now he's a screwing his head off !" 
In 1829 the ministers of the Salford circuit were 
Jabez Bunting, Robert Wood (before referred to), and 
John Kirk. Bxmting was bom in Manchester, his father 
being a tailor. A short time previously his parents resided 



158 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

at Monyash, in Derbyshire, where one of the early 
Methodist ministers preached one night, when on his way 
to set sail for New York, he being one of the two first 
ministers who introduced Methodism there. Mrs. Bunting, 
who was expecting to become a mother, heard him preach 
from the prayer of Jabez, i Chronicles, c. 4 v. 10. She 
resolved that if she should be the mother of a son, his 
name should be Jabez, which came to pass. After being 
an assistant to Dr. Percival, F.R.S., of King Street, he 
entered the Wesleyan ministry in 1799, the same year 
in which Robert Newton also entered it. The late 
Mr. Robert Henson, of the firm of Broadhurst, Henson, 
and Co., told me he heard Mr. Bunting preach one of 
his first sermons, in a small room in Salford when quite 
a yoxmg man. Since the death of Wesley no minister in 
the Wesleyan body attained such an eminence as he did, 
or was able to wield such an influence for the good of 
the Connexion. It was oflen said that had his lot been 
cast in Parliament nothing could have prevented him 
being prime minister. He and Robert Newton were 
the only two ministers who have been presidents of the 
Conference four times. He was a friend of my father's 
and I was firequently thrown into his society. I remember 
meeting him at the house of Mr. John Roberts, the 
stationer, when the conversation turned on the slender 
attendance at the week-night services at the chapeL 
Mr. Roberts said the reason no doubt was that the 
congregation got such long sermons on the Sunday it 
satisfied them for the week. "Nay, my friend," said 
Bunting, " it is just the opposite ; finding that people will 



JABEZ BUNTING'S TACT. \ 59 

. ' » 

not come to the week-night services, when we do get them 
on a Sunday we therefore keep them a little longer." As 
an instance of this tact, I may be allowed to give the 
following anpcdote. On one occasion, when he was 
President of the Conference, there was a vacancy in what 
is called "the Legal Hundred," that is, the hundred 
ministers who form the legal Conference in accordance 
with Wesle/s poll-deed, such vacancy to be filled in this 
instance by seniority. There were two ministers equally 
eligible, Mr. Walker and my father, both having begun the 
ministry in 1804. Mr. Bunting put it to the vote which of 
the two should be elected. On counting the votes he 
announced them to be equal, and added, " which of you 
brethren will give way?" My father instantly rose and 
said : " I will, Mr. President" " Then, Brother Slugg," he 
said, "I give you my casting vote;" and my father was 
elected amidst the applause of his brethren. Amongst 
other ministers appointed to the Irwell Street Circuit were 
William Atherton, father of the late Sir William Atherton, 
Attorney-General; Thomas Squance, one of the early 
missionaries to India ; William Bramwell, Charles Attmore, 
and James Townley. Amongst the persons who formed 
the congregation of Irwell Street fifty years ago were 
Mr. Alderman Davies, of Salford, and his father; 
Mr. James Duke, silversmith, of the Market Place, his 
house being in St. Stephen's Street; Mr. John Morris, 
auctioneer (whose widow is still living, and whose pew 
contained several bonny girls, his daughters); 
Mr. George Peacock, draper, Deansgate, whose three sons 
are prosperous merchants at the Cape of Good Hope; 



l60 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

• — — — . » 

Peter Drummond, draper, Deansgate, father of 
Dr. Drummond, and my brother's master; William Hill, 
of the firm of Smith, Hill, and Co., drapers, Millgate, 
who, as I have before stated, was boroughreeve of Salford 
afterwards ; John Dale, of Dale and Hume, hat manufac- 
turers. Water Street ; Mr. and Mrs. Fynney Johnson, who 
had a large glass shop at the St. Mary's Gate end of 
Deansgate, where they kept open house for Wesleyan 
ministers; and Mrs. Crowther, the widow of the 
Rev. Jonathan Crowther, a coadjutor of John Wesley's, 
and President of the Conference in 1819. She received 
her ticket of membership firom the hand of Wesley himself 
in 1790, and died in 1869, at the extreme age of ninety- 
five years. She had handsome features and a dignified 
though not a haughty bearing, and in her later years 
presented a pleasing picture of a fine old English lady. 
Her youngest son, Mr. Joshua Crowther, accountant, 
of this city, having been in the same form with me 
at Woodhouse Grove School, Mrs. Crowther became 
the first fiiend I had on becoming an apprentice. 
I fi-equently visited her family on a Sunday, and 
accompanied them to Irwell Street Chapel in the evening, 
and well remember all whose names I have mentioned. 
The chapel was a large and handsome structure, possessing 
a very fine mahogany pulpit and reading desk below. I 
remember Robert Newton one Sunday morning reading 
prayers, after which Jabez Bunting preached, during which 
Newton remained in the desk just beneath Bxmting. I placed 
myself in the gallery, right opposite, that I might enjoy the 
sight of two such eminent men sustaining such relative 



THE RE V, WILLIAM A THERTON. 1 6 1 

positions, which to me was most interesting. Irwell Street 
Chapel had a burial ground attached, the chief rent of 
which, added to that of the ground on which the chapel 
was built, and the interest of a large debt left on the 
building, formed a heavy burden on the trustees for many 
years. A few years since a noble and successful effort was 
made to provide for the payment of the chief, and to pay 
off the mortgage. 

• Gravel Lane Chapel we have seen, after Oldham 
Street, is the oldest Wesleyan chapel in Manchester. It 
was built in 1790. Fifty years ago the principal seat- 
holder was Mr. John Downes, an extensive hat manu- 
facturer, near St. Mar/s Church. He married a sister of 
Mrs. Mary Bealey, the bleacher, and of Dr. Warren's wife, 
his house being in Strangeways. When I was an apprentice 
we used to do business with him. He was one of the most 
precise and exact men of business I ever knew. The father 
of the late Sir William Atherton used to preach in this 
chapel, and was what is called a memoriter preacher. 
Every sentence was carefully prepared beforehand and 
fitted into its place, like stones for a building. He was, in 
consequence, generally in a very nervous state whilst 
preaching, and used to lay hold of anything convenient 
and grip it fast. For this purpose, two good-sized knobs 
were screwed into the inside of the front of the pulpit of 
Gravel Lane Chapel, and are there to this day, so that he 
could lay hold of one or both. Some idea of his style may 
be formed from the following illustration I once heard him 
give. He was speaking at a missionary meeting, and 
said: "Some of you will say, you come to us and tell us 

G 



1 62 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

that the gold and the silver and the cattle on a thousand 
hills are all the Lord's; and then you come to us at 
another time and begin to beg for the Lord ; how is it ?" 
Said he : " I'll tell you how it is ; the gold and the silver are 
the Lord's, but he has lent it out, and many of you have 
some of it, and are paying so little interest for it that if you 
don't pay better interest the Lord may call it all in, both 
capital and interest" I have his autograph, with scores of 
others of old Wesleyan ministers. Under his name he has* 
written: "A man severe he was, and stern to view; I 
knew him well, and many others knew." A not very inapt 
description of himself. 

Bridgewater Street Chapel was the third Wesleyan 
chapel built in Manchester. It was opened somewhere 
about 1800, but did not become the head of a circuit till 
the year 1827, having been previously a part of the Oldham 
Street one. Amongst those who worshipped therje were 
Mr. Daniel Sandbach, a largie tanner in Lloyd Street ; Mrs. 
Mary Brewer, of Bridgewater Street, mother of Mr. John 
Brewer, of Wheelton, Brewer, and Buckland, Mr. Wheelton 
being the Sheriff of London imprisoned by order of the 
House of Commons, before referred to ; Mr. James Seweil, 
cotton spinner, who is interred in the burial ground at- 
tached to the chapel, and one of whose family is the wife of 
Mr. Richard Haworth, J.P. ; and Mr. Robert Barnes, father 
of the late Mr. Robert Barnes. Mr. Barnes the elder was an 
accountant, having his office for nearly twenty-five years at 
No. 2, Palace Street, his residence being at one time in 
Berwick Street, Chorlton Row, then in Faulkner Street, and 
finally at Newton Lodge, Oldham Road. He is buried in 



MR, ROBERT BARNES. 1 63 



the ground attached to the chapel, against a wall which 
divides the ground from Bridgewater Street. In the vestry 
of the chapel is a well-executed portrait in oil of him 
in a good state of preservation, presented by the late 
Mr. Barnes. He died November 29, 1824, aged fifty-nine 
years. The late Mr. Robert Barnes bequeathed j£s,ooo 
to the trustees of the chapel in commemoration of his 
father, in order to provide for the ground rent and put the 
chapel and minister's house in good repair, making it a 
condition that the minister should always reside in the 
house. There is a very handsome mural tablet by Bennison 
and Son erected in the chapel to Mr. Barnes* memory, and 
recording the bequest. Fifty years ago the two sons of the 
elder Mr. Barnes, Thomas and Robert, were in partnership 
as cotton spinners in Jackson's Street, having removed from 
Oldham Road, where they first began. They were very 
successful and acquired a large fortune. At the death of 
Thomas, the elder brother, who was a bachelor, Robert 
inherited his property and carried on the business on 
his own account He subsequently sold the business to 
W. R. Callender and Sons, and shortly after the sale told 
a friend of mine that for many years he had made a yearly 
profit of ;^8,ooo or ;£^9,ooo. He was an alderman of 
Manchester, and mayor in the years 1851 to 1853. 

Swan Street Chapel. — ^At the beginning of the present 
century there were a number of pits of water, known as the 
Shudehill Pits, at the upper end of Shudehill, extending 
into what is now Swan Street. On a part of their site a 
Wesleyan chapel known as Swan Street Chapel was built in 
i8o8, but which was converted into shops and dwelling- 



164 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



houses in 1823. I have heard my father refer to the fact 
of his having preached in the chapel. About this time 
Oldham Street Chapel was so full it was impossible to get 
a sitting. 

Chancery Lane Chapel, Ardwick. — In 181 7 a build- 
ing was erected in Chancery Lane, Ardwick, the upper 
part of which was used for a chapel and the lower for a 
Sunday school. When opened, the congregation included 
Mr. JamesWood,of WoodandWesthead; Mr. Francis Marris, 
of Marris, Son, and Jacksons ; the father and his family of 
Mr. John Napier, afterwards of the firm of Napier and 
Goodair, spinners and manufacturers, of Manchester and 
Preston, now of Plymouth Grove ; and others of the more 
wealthy Wesleyans who began to reside on the southern 
side of the town. On the first Sunday of the school being 
opened a goodly number of scholars presented themselves, 
as well as teachers, amongst the latter of whom were a 
young man and his sister, the former being appointed 
teacher of the alphabet class. He lives to this day to witness 
the great development of Methodism during the last sixty- 
three years, and to be able to devote the leisure of a serene 
old age to the discharge of many active duties in connection 
with its operations. I allude, of course, to the venerable 
Mr. John Napier. 

Grosvenor Street Chapel was built in 1819 and 
opened in 1820. The Revs. Jabez Bunting, Richard 
Watson, George Marsden, and John Stephens were the 
ministers who officiated on the occasion. Notwithstanding 
handsome subscriptions and collections, a debt of ;£^5,ooo 
was left on the premises, and remained nearly forty years, 



GROSVENOR STREET CONGREGATION. 165 

when successful efforts were made to remove it At the 
same time funds were found for the erection of large and 
commodious day and Sunday schools on the site of what 
was the minister's house annexed to the chapel, the entire 
property being now free from all encumbrance. Amongst 
the first worshippers . here were James Wood, with his 
interesting family ; Edward Westhead, with his three sons — 
J. P. Westhead, some time M.P. for York; Edward, still 
living at Surbiton, in Surrey, who married the daughter of 
George Royle Chappell ; and John, long since deceased, 
who married a daughter of James Wood ; John Marsden, 
brother of the Rev. George Marsden, and of a late vicar of 
Eccles ; Francis Marris and his son John ; George Royle 
Chappell, with his fine family of daughters ; Robert Barnes, 
with his excellent mother ; Samuel Stocks, the father of the 
late Mrs. Farmer ; William Allen, father of the member for 
Newcastle-under-Lyme ; Robert Henson, a former partner 
of Mr. Broadhurst, the first City Treasurer; John Gom 
Baker, cotton merchant, Crow Alley; John Harrison; 
Mrs. Fogg; Thomas Townend; Luke. Gray, manufacturer; 
Joshua Rea and his partner ; John Lomas, of High Street ; 
George Lomas ; Joseph Hardy, drysalter, Ardwick ; 
Charles Beswick; W. R. Johnson; William Burd, calico 
printer, and afterwards the first and indefatigable agent of 
the Star Life Insurance Society; and Mr. John Napier. 
There was another member of the Grosvenor Street con- 
gregation whom I remember, and who, though not a man 
of wealth or worldly position, deserves honourable mention, 
affording proof that there are other gifts than wealth which a 
man may contribute to any good cause which he espouses, 



1 66 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

and which are stfll more valuable. The Rev. Mr. Dale, 
the Congregationalist mmister of Birmingham, in his admir- 
able address to the Wesleyan Conference, which was held 
in Birmingham, spoke of the great importance of what is 
known as the class-meeting, and exhorted all Wesleyans to 
fidelity to their principles in this respect ; pointing out how 
largely their success depended upon it. William Silkstone, 
the man I speak of, was one of the most devoted and 
successful class-leaders I ever knew. Although an over- 
looker in Wood and Westhead's mill, and, as such, occupied 
from early to late, yet for a number of years he had the 
charge of three large classes, numbering between one and 
two hundred members, and visited his absentees weekly, 
looking after their temporal and spiritual wants. After a 
long life of devoted labour he passed peacefully away, 
highly esteemed and greatly loved by the many that knew 
him. A mural tablet is erected to his memory in Grosvenor 
Street ChapeL I must not omit to mention the name of 
Mr. George Grundy, who has been a member of the Society 
and organist at Grosvenor Street for nearly fifty years, and 
is still found at his post every Sunday. 

Oxford Road Chapel was built in 1826, and at the 
same time Ancoats Lane Chapel, the trustees being the same. 
In addition to Messrs. James Wood, Edward Westhead, 
G. R. Chappell, Robert Barnes, and Robert Henson, who 
left Grosvenor Street and came to Oxford Road, the 
following worshipped there fifty years ago : John Femley, 
T. P. Bunting, John Sandbach (father of the late 
John Sandbach), John Heyhurst, John Mason, and 
William Carter, of Ormond Street The ministers of the 



REV. RICHARD WATSON. 167 

Grosvenor Street circuit at that time were Richard Watson, 
John Sumner, John Hannah, and William M. Bunting, son 
of Jabez Bunting. The repute of Richard Watson still 
exists as one of the greatest divines the Wesleyan body 
ever possessed, as well as a most eloquent preacher and 
speaker. I once was in his company, when a boy, my father 
having been invited to speak at a missionary meeting at 
Rochdale, at which Watson was to speak. I walked over 
from Bacup with my father, and met him at the house of 
Mr. Booth, the druggist I remember him sitting on one 
side of the fire, and smoking from a long pipe. He was 
spare and tall, but had the head of a Socrates. Fifty years 
ago the Grosvenor Street circuit extended from Droylsden 
on the east to Northenden and Chorlton-cum-Hardy on the 
south-west, and included also Openshaw, Bradford, Ancoats, 
Oxford Road, and George Street, Hulme. In 1846 it was 
divided, Oxford Road becoming the head of a circuit, 
which was itself divided in 1867, Radnor Street becoming 
the head of the new circuit. 

Chorlton-cum-Hardy. — Methodism appears to have 
been introduced into this little village at a very early date. 
It is said to have been introduced by a Methodist soldier 
in 1770, who came to Manchester with a few friends, and 
who, dressed in his uniform, preached on the village green. 
In 1800, class meetings were established in Chorlton, 
before which time services were held at a thatched cottage 
inhabited by John Johnson, behind the present National 
Schools, and in a bam at present occupied by Mrs. Higgin- 
botham. The first chapel was erected in 1805. It was a 
small square building, in which the women sat on one 



1 68 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

side and the men on the other. This gave place to a 
larger structure (now used as a Sunday school) in 1827, 
built at a co*st of ;^69o. The present chapel was erected 
eight years ago at a cost of ;^5,6oo. The Sunday school 
was opened in 1805, there being no other in the village at 
that time. It is worthy of mention that the early race of 
Methodists in Chorlton, before they had a chapel of their 
own, used to attend the early service at Oldham Street, 
which began at seven a.m., on the Sunday. Amongst them 
was Jeremiah Brundrett, the grandfather of the present race 
of Brundretts, which includes the wife of our friend 
Mr. John Rowbotham, lately the valued committee clerk 
of the Corporation. 

Cheetham Hill. — Methodism was introduced into 
what was then the village of Cheetham Hill through 
the instrumentality of Mr. Samuel Russell, the partner of 
Mr. Sowler, the grandfather of the present proprietor of 
the Courier. Mr. Russell was the father of the wife of 
Mr. John Napier, and in the first instance opened his 
kitchen as a Methodist preaching-room about the year 
x8o8. Such accommodation was soon found to be 
inconvenient and insufficient. He next built a room 
over his coachhouse, where the services were held for 
some years. This, too, in time became too small, and the 
first chapel was built in the village, which, since the 
erection of the present large and handsome one, has 
become the mortuary chapel of the cemetery there, which 
contains so many of the Wesleyan dead. This has been 
the principal Wesleyan place for burial for one or two 
generations, and on that account is, to an old Methodist, 



»* 



CHEETHAM HILL CHAPEL. \ 69 

an interesting spot. The old chapel was opened in 181 7, 
by Dr. Adam Clarke. Mr. Russell, who may be con- 
sidered the fether of Methodism in the place, was just 
permitted to see the accomplishment of that which he so 
desired, for he died shortly after the opening of the chapel. 



1 70 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



. CHAPTER XIII. 

PLACES OF WORSHIP. — UNITARIAN CHAPELS. 

TN the tabular statement which I have given of the 
number of churches and chapels existing in Manchester 
fifty years ago, the number of Unitarian Chapels is stated 
to be four. One of these, however, was in the suburbs. 
Hence there were only three Unitarian Chapels in 
the town — namely, in Cross Street, Mosley Street, and 
Greengate. 

Cross Street Chapel is the oldest Dissenting place of 
worship in Manchester. The present chapel is the second 
built on the site, the first having been erected in 1693 for 
a Presbyterian congregation collected by Henry Newcome. 
This gentleman was not a Fellow, the Rev. C. W. Bardsley 
tells us, but a stipendiary curate of the Collegiate Church, 
which he crowded to overflowing by his simple and earnest 
discourses. In 1662, the Act of Uniformity was passed, 
and Newcome vacated his post. He preached his last 
sermon as an Episcopalian in Bowdon Church, whilst stajdng 
with Lord Delamere at Dunham Park. After officiating for a 
time in the Cold House Chapel already referred to, which 
was licensed for him, he became the minister of the first 
Cross Street Chapel as already stated. Jane Meriel, the 



CROSS STREET CHAPEL. 171 

wife of Edward Mosley, of Hulme Hall, helped to build 
the chapel, and became Newcomers patroness to the time of 
his death, and many individuals of rank were amongst his 
constant hearers. It is said of him, ''that great men 
courted his acquaintance, and to the meanest Christian he 
was a most cordial friend." In 17 15, on the birthday of 
James the Third, a Jacobin mob which paraded the streets, 
led on by Thomas Syddall, the peruke maker, proceeded 
to the chapel in Cross Street, smashed its windows and 
doors, overturned its pews and pulpit, and almost destroyed 
the place. Parliament granted ;^i,5oo for its restoration, 
and it was enlarged again under the popular ministry 
of Dr. Barnes, in 1788. During the latter part of 
Mr. Newcomers life he was assisted in his work as a pastor 
and teacher by Mr. Chorlton, a fit coadjutor of Newcome, 
who died in 1 705. After his death Mr. James Coningham, 
who had been educated at Edinburgh, accepted an 
invitation to become co-pastor with Mr. Chorlton, in 1700. 
One of the most noted of the early ministers of this chapel 
was Mr. Joseph Mottershead, who was educated at Atter- 
clifTe, near Sheffield, under Timothy Jollie, and was 
ordained when only twenty. He died in 1771, at the age 
of -eighty-three, having been the minister of Cross Street 
chapel fifty-four years. His assistant was Mr. Seddon, who 
married his daughter. The latter was succeeded by 
Mr. Gore, and Mr. Mottershead by Mr. Ralph Harrison, 
whose only daughter married Thomas Ainsworth, and 
became the mother of William Harrison Ainsworth. She 
died in 1842. In 1780, Mr. Gore was succeeded by 
Dr. Thomas Barnes, whose popular style attracted a large 



172 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

congregation, and who died in 18 10, having been pastor 
of the church thirty years. He was succeeded by 
Mr. John Grundy, the uncle of our worthy ex-mayor, who 
excited considerable attention by a course of lectures on 
Unitarianism, which were published in two volumes octavo. 
He afterwards removed to Liverpool, and died near Brid- 
port in 1843. The Rev. John Gooch Robberds, bom at 
Norwich, and educated at the York College, became 
Mr. Grundy's coadjutor on the death of Mr. Harrison. 
The Rev. John Hugo Worthington became the colleague 
of Mr. Robberds, until cut off by death when very young. 
He was succeeded by the Rev. William Gaskell. 
Mr. Robberds and Mr. Gaskell were the ministers in 1829. 
Mr. Robberds was held in high esteem by his congregation 
on account of his many fine qualities. Amongst other 
accomplishments, he had an extensive acquaintance with 
various ancient Eastern languages. He died in 1854, his 
wife surviving him twenty years. She was the daughter of 
the Rev. William Turner, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was 
perhaps held in even greater esteem than her husband. 
A simple but beautiful tablet, with brass plate attached, 
recording the virtues of husband and wife, is aj05xed to the 
west wall of the chapel. Mr. Gaskell was bom at 
Warrington, and still lives in the enjoyment of the cordial 
respect and affection of his people after a fifty-one years' 
ministry. Mrs. Gaskell died some years since, and is 
buried at Knutsford, where her childhood and youth had 
been passed. An admirable tablet on the east wall of the 
chapel records her well-known talents and refined character. 
The Cross Street congregation has always been remarkable 



C/^OSS STREET CONGREGATION. 173 

for the high social and intellectual position of its members. 
In the year 1829 there were no less than a dozen gentle- 
men who afterwards became members of Parliament, and 
five who became mayors of Manchester, who attended 
either Cross Street or Mosley Street Unitarian chapels. 
The following were members of the Cross Street congrega- 
tion : Benjamin, afterwards Sir Benjamin Heywood, and 
M.P. for the county; James Heywood, afterwards 
M.P. for the northern division of the county; John, 
afterwards Sir John Potter, M.P. for the city, and 
three times mayor; Richard Potter, afterwards M.P. 
for Wigan ; Thomas Bayley Potter, the present M.P. for 
Rochdale; James Aspinall Turner, afterwards M.P. for 
Manchester; Alexander Henry, M.P. for the county; 
J. B. Smith, M.P. for Stirling and for Stockport; and 
Robert Needham Philips; the present M.P. for Bury. Also 
Thomas Potter, Alexander Kay, Ivie Mackie, and Abel 
He3rwood, afterwards mayors of Manchester; Edward 
Holme, M.D., F.R.S., vice-president, and after John 
Dalton's death, president, of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society, of whom there is a portrait in the lecture room of 
the society ; John Edward Taylor, proprietor and editor of 
the Manchester Guardian^ whose house was in the Crescent, 
Salford ; John Touchet, merchant, of Chancery Lane, whose 
house was at No. 29, King Street, and afterwards of Broom 
House; James Darbyshire, John Hall, Scholes Birch 
Henry Marsland, cotton spinner, Marriott's Court ; Samuel 
Marsland, of Nelson Street, Chorlton Row ; Samuel Kay, 
solicitor, of the Adelphi, Salford ; Thomas Robinson, whose 
house was in Bond Street ; Samuel Alcock, executor of 



1 74 MANCHESTER FIPTY YEARS AGO. 

John Owens, founder of Owens College ; William, after- 
wards Sir William Fairbaim ; and John Shuttleworth, who 
was at that time a cotton and twist dealer, and agent to 
W. G. and J. Strutt, of Derby, his warehouse being in 
Newmarket Buildings, and his house in Oxford Road. He 
afterwards was appointed stamp distributor for this district, 
and on the- incorporation of Manchester became an alder- 
man. Fifty or sixty years ago John Shuttleworth and 
Absolom Watkin were perhaps the most effective speakers 
in Manchester, Watkin being the more refined and 
Shuttleworth being possessed of more power and energy. 
It used to be said that as he was wont to give utterance to 
very radical sentiments, the Government appointed him to 
the office of distributor of stamps for this district to induce 
him to keep his mouth shut. He had a brother who at a 
later date was a dissenting minister, and who was also a 
very effective speaker during the Anti-Corn-Law agitation. 
Few strangers who look at the plain uninviting edifice at 
the corner of Chapel Walks, would imagine what a hand- 
some interior it possesses. There is still a very dis- 
tinguished congregation to be found worshipping there. 
The organ is a very fine instrument, presented as a memo- 
rial of two highly respected gentlemen — Mr. John Carver 
and Mr. James Darbishire. The accomplished amateur 
organist who now presides at it is the son-in-law of one of 
these gentlemen, and son of the other. In addition to 
several other tablets is one attached to a pillar in memory 
of Sir William Fairbaim, D.C.L. and F.R.S., and another 
on the east wall in memory of Samuel Jones, the banker, 
and his wife, the uncle and aunt of Lord Overstone. 



MOSLEY STREET UNITARIAN CHAPEL. \ 75 

MosLEY Street Unitarian Chapel stood at the comer 
of Marble Street, on the site now occupied by the establish- 
ment of Mr. H. J. Nicoll, and was built in 1789. The first 
minister was the Rev. William Hawkes, who died in 1820, 
after a ministry of thirty-one years, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. John James Tayler, B.A., who was the minister 
in 1829. A liturgy accommodated to the doctrines of 
Unitarianism was at that time used on the Sunday fore- 
noon. This congregation was also wealthy and influential, 
and devotedly attached to their accomplished young 
minister. The following gentlemen were members of it 
about 50 years ago : George William Wood, M.P. for the 
county, and then for Kendal ; Edmund Potter, afterwards 
M.P. for Carlisle; Robert Hyde Greg, afterwards M.P. for 
Manchester; William Duckworth; Dr. Henry, F.R.S. ; 
Peter Ewart, cotton spinner, whose house was in Cavendish 
Street, Chorltpn Row, both he and Dr. Henry being 
vice-presidents of the Literary and Philosophical Society ; 
George Humphreys, solicitor, whose house was in Oxford 
Road ; Leo Schuster, who lived in Mosley Street ; John 
Kennedy, of Ardwick House ; Henry M*Connell, Leopold 
Reiss, Dr. Ashton, of Mosley Street ; Henry Houldsworth, 
cotton spinner, his house being at Ardwick Green; and 
Edward Baxter, manufacturer, who lived in Mosley Street. 
The chapel was very plain, but, like other square places of 
worship of the last century, well adapted for seeing and 
hearing. The chapel and schoolhouse were sold for 
;^i 0,000 to Mr. John M'Connell about 1834, and the 
handsome chapel by Barry, in Upper Brook Street, built 
for the congregation. Mr. Tayler remained the minister 



1 76 • MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

for a long period, in spite of many inducements to remove, 
but eventually went to London in 1854 to undertake the 
duties of Principal of the Manchester New College. 

Dawson's Croft Chapel, Greengate. This plain and 
unpretending place of worship, situated on the right soon 
after entering Greengate, was opened on Christmas Day, 
1824. In 1829 the Rev. John Relly Beard was its pastor, 
and remained so for upwards of thirty years. He was 
born at Portsmouth, and came from the Manchester New 
College at York. He was a man of great industry and 
considerable learning, and received the degree of D.D. 
from a German University on account of his theological 
acquirements. The new chapel in New Bridge Street, 
Strangeways, was built in 1838, whither the congregation 
removed. Mr. Charles Sydney Grundy, the ex-mayor, has 
been a member of it for many years, both in the old and 
new chapels. Dr. Beard's successor was an intelligent, kind, 
and fine-spirited gentleman, Mr. Brooke Herford, whoce 
removal from Manchester those who knew him best will 
mourn the most. I have a very pleasant remembrance of 
a friendly chat I once had with him in reference to a 
sermon on Inspiration which I heard him preach. It is 
remarkable that each of the four Unitarian ministers named 
undertook his charge here immediately on the completion 
of his course of study at the Manchester New College, and 
retained it at least twenty-five years. Mr. Robberds* 
connection with Cross Street Chapel ended only with his 
life in 1854; Mr. Tayler's pastorate of Mosley Street lasted 
more than thirty years ; Dr. Beard ministered to the same 
people more than thirty years ; and Mr. Gaskell still lives 



PLA TT CHAPEL. I'JJ 



the highly-valued minister of the same congregation after fifty 
years of active service. This absence of change in the 
Unitarian pulpits speaks well for both ministers and people, 
and is certainly in remarkable contrast with general usage. 

The Suburban Unitarian Chapels which existed 
fifty years ago are those of Piatt, Gorton, Dob Lane, 
Blackley, Monton, and Stand. They may be called extra- 
parochial, being outside the boundaries of the borough, 
but are old enough and near enough to claim our notice. 
The particulars are mainly furnished by Mr. F. W. Holland, 
of Hyde Road. 

Platt Chapel, Rusholme. — In 1829 the Rev. William 
Whitelegg was the minister of this chapel, his house 
being in Chatham Street, Greenheys. He commenced his 
ministry there in 18 10, and remained till his death in 
1865, so that he was the minister of this chapel for 
fifty-five years, affording another proof how little given to 
change in their ministers the Unitarians are. Mr. Whitelegg 
at the same time held the office of secretary and 
librarian to the Portico Library and Newsroom in Mosley 
Street. This little chapel had an aristocratic appearance, 
looking like an appendage to Platt Hall, the residence 
of the Worsley family. In the rear used to be a sort of 
transept, fitted up with fireplace and dignified looking 
chairs, forming a grand pew for the great people at the 
hall at the time they attended this place of worship. 
The chapel had been built by a Mr. Worsley on the site 
of an older one erected at a cost of jQgSy ^^ ^^ J^^ 
1690, for Mr. Finch, who had been turned out of Birch, 
a domestic chapel near the place. Finch died in 1704 



I 78 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

and was succeeded by Robert Hesketh. After him the 
Revs. Messrs. Whittaker, Haughton, Meanley, and Checkley 
occupied the pulpit previous to Mr. Whitelegg. There 
was a private walk from the hall to the chapel, where it 
was said the Mrs. Worsley of the day could gather a 
hundred varieties of roses on her way. Piatt Chapel 
fifty years ago was but a dreary place, but has been 
greatly altered and improved. It is now well attended 
by a respectable congregation. 

Gorton Chapel. — In 1829 the Rev. C. D. Hort was 
the minister of this place, many of his principal hearers 
being members of the Grimshaw family. The building 
was one of the many old-fashioned dissenting chapels 
which then existed, being about 150 years old, and stood 
in a large graveyard. It is now replaced by the 
magnificent Brookfield Chapel, which was built at the 
sole expense of Mr. Richard Peacock, of Gorton Hall. 

Dob Lane Chapel, Failsworth. — This old place of 
worship, like the one at Gorton, has recently disappeared, 
and in its place a spacious modem chapel has been 
recently erected. It forms a little exception to the re- 
mark made on a previous page, and at the time of 
which we are speaking changed its ministers pretty often. 
About fifty-two years ago Mr. George Buckland was 
the minister, and in about two years he was succeeded 
by Mr. Joseph Ashton, whose successor in two years more 
was Mr. James Taylor. The latter gentleman was a mem- 
ber of an old Manchester family, related to the Heywoods, 
the Percivals, and others of high respectability. One of the 
earlier ministers of this chapel was the Rev. Lewis Loyd, 



BLA CKLE Y CHAPEL. 179 

the father of Lord Overstone and brother-in-law of 
Samuel Jones, the banker, referred to in the account of 
Cross Street ChapeL Mr. Grindon, in his interesting book 
on "Manchester Banks and Bankers,"* tells us that one of 
the sixty-seven Lancashire ministers ejected from their 
livings under the Act of Uniformity was the vicar of 
Newton, and he it was who established the original Dob 
Lane congregation, though the old chapel itself was 
not erected till about 1698. The ancestors of several 
Manchester families now in high position were once 
members of the congregation — ^the Bayleys, for instance, 
one of whom became the wife of Mr. (afterwards 
Sir Thomas) Potter. 

Blackley Chapel. — The minister of this place was also 
one of the ejected, for whom the seceders built this chapel 
in 1662, described as long since draped with ivy, in a neigh- 
bourhood once famed for its thrushes. The pulpit of this 
quiet little chapel, now occupied by the Rev. J. Freeston, 
was occupied fifty years ago by the Rev. William Harrison. 
He was the son of Ralph Harrison, referred to already as 
the colleague of Dr. Barnes at Cross Street Mr. Harrison's 
family were eminent for their musical talents, Ralph being 
the composer of ** Warrington," and many other admirable 
hymn-tunes. William Harrison was the minister of this 
chapel for a very long period. Like that at Piatt, it is now 
in excellent order, and is too small for its congregation. 

MoNTON Chapel, near Eccles, standing on an open 
green, with a spacious burial ground, and backed by 
beautiful trees, was a pleasing sight The old chapel has 
been replaced by the splendid Gothic one which stands 



l8o MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

nearly on the same site. Mr. Silas Leigh, a young man in 
1829, recently deceased, is said to have contributed more 
than ;^i 3,000 towards its erection ; and he and his sisters 
built, at their sole expense, the excellent school buildings 
adjoining. Monton Chapel had a very isolated position 
with respect to other places of worship, there being none 
nearer than Eccles or Swinton in one direction, and in a 
westerly one none nearer than perhaps eight or ten miles. 

Stand Chapel in 1829 was under the charge of an 
estimable young minister, the Rev. Arthur Dean, who 
had also charge of the endowed school in the village, I 
believe he did not live long after this period, and has been 
succeeded by the Revs. John Cropper, P. P. Carpenter, 
and others. Mr. Robert Philips, father of Mark Philips, 
once M.P. for Manchester, formerly lived in King Street, 
and after his removal attended this chapel with his 
daughters. Both Mark Philips and his brother 
R. N. Philips, M.P. for Bury, when residing at the Park, 
Prestwich, were members of the congregation. Stand 
Chapel, like Monton, was for a century or more the only 
place of worship in the neighbourhood. All Saints' Church, 
Stand, having been built in 1826. 



FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE. \ 8 1 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PLACES OF WORSHIP. — ^VARIOUS. 

r^ EORGE FOX, the founder of the Society of Friends, 
^^ visited Manchester in the year 1647, when quite a 
young man. There was no meeting of Friends established 
in Manchester, however, for eight or ten years after, and 
where the meeting was first held is not certain. It was 
probably not far from Jackson's Row, for it is known that 
many members of the Society used to live in former days 
in Cupid's Alley and the neighbourhood. Certain it is 
that three of their number became the owners of a piece of 
land at the comer of Deansgate and Jackson's Row, in 
1673, where twenty years later, the first meeting-house of 
which anything is known was erected. It appears that the 
land was originally purchased for a burial-ground, the first 
known interment in which took place in 1675, ^.nd the last 
in 1847. The land being required by the Corporation for 
the improvement of Deansgate, in 1877 the remains of 
the Friends who had been there buried were, in the 
most reverential way possible, removed from thence to 
the Friends' Cemetery at Ashton-upon-Mersey. The burial 
ground in Jackson's Row was the oldest in Manchester, 
excepting the one surrounding the Cathedral 



1 82 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

The chapel erected in 1693 in the course of time became 
too small, and in 1732 a larger one was built on the same 
site. This remained till 1795, when the meeting was 
removed to a new building erected on the site of the 
present meeting-house in Mount Street, but which fronted 
the street which now runs at the back of the chapel, and 
known as South Street This again becoming too small, a 
fourth meeting-house was erected about 1829 or 1830, 
designed by Richard Lane, the architect. It fronted 
Mount Street, and still remains. Mr. Lane wisely built the 
meeting-house much too large for present requirements, 
and made arrangements for throwing a partition across 
when a smaller space is required, as in the case of ordinary 
religious meetings, leaving a second room at liberty for 
other purposes. During the building of it the Friends 
worshipped in a room in Dickinson Street, known as the 
Diorama. 

My earliest recollections of the Friends' meeting-house 
are connected with the great Anti-Slavery agitation. The 
part which the members of the Society took in that 
agitation will always be one of their titles to honourable 
recognition and remembrance. It is true that John Wesley 
denounced slavery in the last century as well as many 
other philanthropists, but no religious body came to the 
front so early as the Quakers. They kept that position 
till the ;£2o,ooo,ooo was voted for the emancipation of 
every slave in the British dominions. When others 
slumbered they were up and doing; when the flame of 
zeal was dull they fanned it; and they were the most 
active members as well as the most liberal supporters of the 



GEORGE THOMPSON. 183 

Anti-Slavery Society. That society was most fortunate in 
securing the services, as their advocate, of one of the most 
accomplished orators of the day, Mr. George Thompson. 
Whenever he visited Manchester the Friends' Meeting- 
house was always thrown open to receive the audience 
which his eloquence attracted. His denunciation of 
slavery was most withering, and his protest against the 
practice of buying and selling human beings was over- 
whelming. I never missed an opportunity of hearing him. 
This was before the Free Trade Hall was built ; neither 
was there then any other room in Manchester, except 
the Com Exchange, so convenient for the purpose. I 
well remember the pleasurable impression made on my 
first visit to the place, and how I enjoyed listening to 
Mr. Thompson's fervent but polished oratory. The scene 
of certain " potent, grave, and reverend seigniors," sitting 
in a long row behind the lecturer, and the crowded chapel, 
the audience being sometimes moved to tears and some- 
times to laughter, are present to the eyes of my mind 
now, whilst the tones of the lecturer's voice seem to be 
sounded in my ears. I believe Mr. Thompson came from 
Yorkshire, and was originally a Wesleyan local preacher. 
He was elected M.P. for the Tower Hamlets, and even- 
tually went to America, where he was once or twice mobbed 
by the slavery party. He died about two years ago. His 
daughter married Mr. Frederick Nosworthy, now of 
Liverpool. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Alderman King 
for the following list of families who attended the Friends' 
Meeting-house about fifty years ago : Thomas Edmondson, 



1 84 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

inventor of the railway ticket system ; Dr. Dalton and his 
friend Peter Clare; Isaac Crewdson, of Ardwick Green; 
Joseph Crewdson, of Crewdson and Worthington ; Thomas 
Crewdson, the banker; and Wilson Crewdson, of Dacca 
Mills — four brothers ; Thomas Hoyle, of Mayfield, and his 
three sons-in-law — William Neild (afterwards Alderman and 
Mayor), Joseph Crompton and Alfred Binyon, all of the 
firm of Thomas Hoyle and Sons ; Thomas and Edward 
Binyon, of St. Ann's Square, with George Robinson, after- 
wards their partner ; Samuel Eveleigh, hat manufacturer, of 
Openshaw ; Joseph Eveleigh, furrier and hat manufacturer, 
of Oldham Street, afterwards a sharebroker, and a botanist 
of some position in his day ; Samuel Satterthwaite, furrier, 
at one time in the Town Council ; Thomas D. Crewdson, 
Alderman, and nephew of the Crewdsons named previously; 
James Hall and James Hall, jun., dyers, Salford; 
Ishmael Nash, tea dealer and money changer, of Smithy 
Door and Charles Street ; Isaac Stephenson, sen. and jun., 
com factors ; John King, father of the present Alderman 
King, St. Ann's Square ; David Dockray, Rusholme Road, 
formerly in the Manchester trade; George Danson, 
chemist, Piccadilly; J. H. Cockbain, silk mercer, Picca- 
dilly; William G. Ansell, chemist, St Mary's Gate; 
Joseph, John, and Joseph Rooke, jun., manufacturers of 
iron liquor, Scotland Bridge ; John Raleigh, Oldham Street, 
and Joseph his son, fustian manufacturers; George 
Bradshaw, originator of Bradshan^s Railway Guide; 
John A. and Joseph A. Ransome, surgeons ; John Femely, 
M.D. ; William Boulton, merchant; Benjamin Pearson, 
blanket manufacturer; John Windsor, F.R.S., surgeon; 



CONG REG A TION OF FRIENDS. 185 

John Rothwell, dyer, Water Street; William White, 
surgeon, St. John's Street; John B. Brockbank, builder; 
John Robinson, accountant ; John Wadkin, sen. and jun., 
the latter a smallware manufacturer; Henry Wadkin, 
sewing cotton manufacturer, at one time in the Tovm 
Council ; Nathaniel Card, one of the originators, if not the 
originator, of the United Kingdom Alliance; Matthew 
Corbett, builder, Pendleton; Peter Taylor, cotton mer^ 
chant. Back Square; Michael Satterthwaite, bootmaker, 
Salford; John Robinson, draper, Oldham Street; David 
Holt, cotton manufacturer (referred to previously) ; Joseph 
FlintofF; John Goodier, calenderer, Poolfold ; William and 
Jonathan Labrey, tea dealers ; William Fowden, merchant ; 
John Harrison, printer. Market Street, and his partner 
Joseph Crosfield, the latter being afterwards at the District 
Bank; Godfrey Woodhead, Smithy Door (who died at 
Huddersfield, at the age of seventy-two, a little while ago) ; 
Josiah Merrick, merchant, and his son Roger; Robert 
Barker, confectioner. Smithy Door; Charles Cumber, for 
many years master of the Friends' School, Mount Street ; 
Alexander Morris, draper. Smithy Door; John CoUinson 
and George Simpson, brewers, Newton Heath; Isaac Nield, 
fustian manufacturer; James Nodal, schoolmaster. Camp 
Street, and his sons Aaron and John Nodal, Aaron being 
subsequently one of the first three councillors elected for 
Ardwick Ward, and an active member of the Anti-Com- 
Law League; John Thistlethwaite, confectioner, Oldham 
Street ; Henry Nield, confectioner, Deansgate and Bridge 
Street; James Thompson, cotton spinner; Henry 
Waterhouse (still living), father of Mr. Crewdson Waterhouse ; 



1 86 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Edward Corbett, surveyor, son of Matthew Corbett already 
mentioned; John Storey, grocer, Gartside Street; John 
Bradshaw, watch and clock maker, Deansgate; William 
Johnson, surveyor ; John Worthington, of Crewdson and 
Worthington; Thomas Atkinson; Benjamin Binyon and his 
partner, Peter Taylor, of Hollinwood, twine manufecturers ; 
and Deborah, Hannah, and Ann Binyon, sisters of the 
Messrs. Binyon. 

A secession in the body took place in 1837, in the 
December of which year the so-called Evangelical Friends' 
Meeting-house was opened in Grosvenor Street, Chorlton- 
on-Medlock (now used as a Baptist chapel). The leader 
in the secession was Mr. Isaac Crewdson, who held views 
on some points at variance with the general body of the 
Friends. He was followed by several members of eminence 
in the town ; and the controversy and secession eventually 
led to the families of the Neilds, the Windsors, the 
Ransomes, the Simpsons, and many others leaving the 
Society altogether. 

After the building in Jackson's Row ceased to be a place 
of worship it was. used by the Friends as a school, which 
was at the beginning of the present century presided over 
by Mr. John Taylor, the father of Mr. John Edward Taylor, 
the founder and former editor of the Manchester Guardian. 
Until recently the Friends' Meeting-house in Mount Street 
was the only one in the district, but owing to so many of 
the members now residing in the suburbs, two smaller 
meeting-houses have been built of recent years, one at Sale 
and one at Eccles. 



HEV. WILUAM GADSBY. 187 

Baptist Chapels. — Of these, in 1829 there were three in 
Manchester — one in St George's Road, one in York Street, 
and one in George Street There had been one in Fleet 
Street, but it had then ceased to exist The first minister 
of York Street Chapel, which was built in 1807, was the 
Rev. W. Stephens ; and he was succeeded by the Rev. John 
Birt, who was the minister in 1829. The chapel held its 
own for many years against the advancing tide of business 
requirements, but a few years ago it succumbed, and has 
now disappeared, a handsome structure having been built in 
Moss Side West with part of the purchase money. The 
George Street Chapel was built more recently, and has also 
ceased to exist many years ago. In 1829 its minister was 
the Rev. Thomas Upcraft, who was succeeded shortly after 
by the Rev. John Aldis. The chapel stood on the same 
side of the street as the Literary and Philosophical Society's 
rooms, nearer to Piccadilly. 

Gadsby's Chapel. — At the time we are speaking of the 
Rev. William Gadsby, or as he was familiarly called^ 
Billy Gadsby, was at the height of his popularity. His 
chapel was at the left-hand side of St George's Road, going 
from Shudehill. It was built in 1789, and Mr. Gadsby 
began his ministry at it 1806, when about thirty-three years 
of age. I find his name in Pigot's Directory for 181 1, 
entered as "minister of Anabaptist Chapel, St George's 
Road." In 1815 he was living at 175, Oldham Road; in 
1820 at Lees Place, Ardwick; in 1824 at 20, Great Ducie 
Street; and in 1829 at Cheetham Crescent, Cheetham Hill. 
I remember something of his appearance, which was 
not clerical according to the notions of the present day. 



1 88 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

He was rather over the average height, wore knee breeches — 
frequently both they and- his stockings being coloured — 
and an unstiifened white neckerchief tied in a bow. His 
face had a somewhat quaint and humorous expression, 
and his countenance was rather florid. The valley of 
Rossendale fifty years ago contained several Baptist chapels, 
and when my father lived at Bacup, Mr. Gadsby frequently 
preached in one or other of these chapels. He was very 
popular in the district On these occasions he used to let 
fly his envenomed arrows at the Arminian doctrines of 
Methodism, which are so much opposed to the Calvinism 
he preached. I do not care to repeat the sayings which it 
was currently reported he had uttered, some of them both 
coarse and bitter beyond belief Every Tuesday evening 
he preached in his own chapel, when the congregation 
consisted generally of the members of his church. On 
these occasions he laid aside all controversy and the style 
which he adopted sometimes when in the presence of a 
mixed congregation, and talked to his flock as a father to 
his family. The only time of my hearing him was on such 
an occasion, when his discourse was a beautiful and 
experimental exposition of divine truth. He died in 1844, 
having been the minister of the chapel thirty-eight years. 

Lloyd Street Presbyterian Chapel. — Fifty years 
ago this was the only Presbyterian place of worship in 
Manchester. Its ministers were the Rev. Dr. Jack and 
his assistant, the Rev. William (afterwards Dr.) M'Kerrow, 
then a young man. Dr. Jack living in Lloyd Street and 
Mr. M'Kerrow in Oxford Road. I was in the chapel once, 
having been dining one Sunday with a Scotch fnend in 



• ROMAN CA THOUC CHAPELS. \ 89 

Oxford Road, when I went with him in the afternoon and 
heard Mr. M'Kerrow preach. The chapel was of the usual 
type of the chapels built in the last century, and stood at 
the comer of Lloyd Street and Mount Street The Scotch 
Kirk in St. Peter's Square was built shortly after this, and 
has been since removed to Bloomsbury. I remember 
Dr. Chalmers preaching at the old Mechanics' Institution 
in Cooper Street, and making a collection for the new 
chapel in St Peter's Square. The old chapel in Lloyd 
Street has been pulled down some years, and in its place a 
handsome structure has been erected in Brunswick Street, 
Chorlton-on-Medlock, where Mr. M^Kerrow ministered 
many years. He has so lately passed away, and was so 
deservedly and universally respected, that it is needless to 
make further reference to him. 

Roman Catholic Chapels. — In 1829 there were three 
Roman Catholic chapels in Manchester—one in Granby 
Row, at which the Revs. James Crook and John Parsons 
officiated; one in Rook Street, behind Mosley Street, at 
which the Revs. Joseph Sherwood and Thomas Maddocks 
officiated; and one in Mulberry Street, Deansgate, at 
which the Revs. Henry Gillow, Daniel Heame, and 
John Billington officiated. The eldest of these chapels 
was the Rook Street one, which was erected rather more 
than a hundred years ago, and was enlarged in 1832, 
but which is now numbered amongst the things which 
have passed away, the site being covered with warehouse 
property. Who the first minister was I do not know ; but 
in 1780 the Rev. Rowland Broomhead was appointed 
to it^ where he remained without a colleague forty years^ 



I go 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



and died in 1820, aged seventy years, being buried at 
St. Augustine's, Granby Row. The next Roman Catholic 
chapel erected was the one in Mulberry Street, which was 
opened in 1794. In 1811 the Rev. Edward Keny on was 
the minister of this chapel, and for some years after ; in 
1820 the Revs. Thomas Lupton and Joseph Carr officiated; 
and in 1824 the Revs. Henry Gillow and Michael Trapps. 
This chapel is still in existence, and it has three ministers 
attached to it. Granby Row Chapel was opened in 1820, 
the building (of which John Palmer was architect) costing 
;£'io,ooo. The first ministers were the Revs. John Ashurst, 
Joseph Sherwood, and Thomas Rigby. Forty or fifty years 
ago high-class sacred music was not as accessible as now, 
and when an Italian opera company visited Manchester it 
was customary for the members of it to sing at the Roman 
Catholic chapels on Sunday, and for a charge to be made 
for admittance. I remember going to Granby Row Chapel 
one Sunday evening, when quite a young man, with a 
friend, and paying half-a-crown for admittance to hear an 
Italian named, I think^ Donzetti, sing. At the time of what 
is known as the "potato famine," which preceded the 
abolition of the Corn Laws, there was great distress 
amongst the poor, particularly in the St. George's and 
Oldham Road Districts. The Rev. Daniel Heame was 
then located at the chapel in Livesey Street, Oldham Road; 
and in the same street lived the Rev. John Smith, a 
Wesleyan minister. These two men set a noble example 
by uniting themselves together in the work of Christian 
charity by house-to-house visitation and the distribution of 
relief without distinction of sect or creed. 



THE JE WISH SYNA GOGUE. 191 

The Jewish Synagogue, fifty years ago, was situated in 
Halliwell Street, Long Millgate, nearly opposite the shabby 
footbridge at present leading to the Victoria Railway 
Station. At the end of the last century the number of 
Jews in Manchester was very small indeed, and their 
synagogue was a little upper room situated in Garden 
Street, Withy Grove, which remained till about the year 
1 810. At this time amongst the worshippers there was the 
great Rothschild, then an unknown young man, about 
twenty-five years of age. He had established himself in 
Manchester as a merchant in the last years of last century, 
his warehouse being first in Brown Street, and his house in 
Downing Street, Ardwick. In Pigot's Directory for 181 1 
his firm appears as "Rothschild Brothers, merchants, 
5, Lloyd Street;" but in that for 1815 the name is wanting, 
the presumption being that he had left Manchester 
previously. About the year 18 10 the upper room used as 
a synagogue was abandoned for a small building in 
Ainsworth's Court, Long Millgate, opposite what was so 
long known as the " Poet's Comer,'* and approached by a 
flight of wooden steps. The reader at this synagogue was 
Israel Lewis. After the battle of Waterloo and the pro- 
clamation of peace, there was a great influx of Germans 
and others into Manchester firom the Continent, amongst 
whom was Mr. Emanuel Mendel, the father of Mr. Sam 
MendeL Many of these immigrants were Jews, who of 
course increased the size of the Jewish congregation very 
much, so that it became necessary to provide larger 
premises. Accordingly, in 1825 the Synagogue in Halliwell 
Street was opened, having for its rabbi the Rev. Abraham 



192 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Abrahams. Fifty years ago it was a respectable looking 
place, externally very much resembling many other places 
of worship at that time existing. I once ventured to peep 
inside during divine worship and remained for a short time» 
during which I received the most polite attention from a 
gentleman near me. 

Christ Church, King Street, Salford. — Fifty years 
ago the late Mr. Joseph Brotherton was the minister of 
this chapel, his house being at that time in Oldfield 
Road, eight doors from the Oldfield Road doctor. 
Amongst Swedenborg's earliest disciples were the 
Rev. John Clowes, rector of St John's (before referred 
to), and his curate, the Rev. WiUiam Cowherd. The 
former, as is well known, never left the Church of 
England, but the latter decided to cast in his lot with 
the followers of Swedenborg in forming a new church. 
Cowherd laid the foundation of the New Jerusalem 
Church in Yates Street (now called Peter Street) in 1792. 
After preaching there some time differences arose amongst 
his congregation as to forms of church government and 
other matters, and in 1800 he built, at his own expense, 
the above-mentioned chapel, the roof of which fell in in 
less than five years. He was a man of considerable 
powers as a preacher, of scholarly habits, and extensive 
reading. He demanded, as a condition of membership, 
abstinence from flesh meat and intoxicating beverages, 
but many of his adherents did not accept this part of 
his creed. The nickname of " Beefsteak Chapel " was 
frequently applied to the chapel in former days. In 
connection with it Cowherd had a large and commodious 



JOSEPH BROTHERTON. 193 

school, capable of accommodating one hundred boarders- 
He died in 181 6, aged fifty-seven, and on his tombstone 
was inscribed at his own request the words, " All feared, 
none loved, few understood." Joseph Brotherton, who 
was originally a cotton spinner and manufacturer, though 
the recognised minister of this chapel, never assumed the 
title of Rev., and in one of the two directories of the 
period of which we are speaking he is styled " gentleman." 
For twenty years he represented Salford in Parliament, 
and was ever an active and earnest worker in the 
accomplishment of the various social reforms which 
marked the first half of the present century. In 1868 
the old chapel in King Street was relinquished, and in 
its place a new one was opened in Cross Lane, Salford, 
of which the present minister is the Rev. James Clarke. 
There were two other places of worship in Manchester 
in 1829 also called Christ Church — one in Christ Church 
Square, Hulme, near the Cavalry Barracks ; and the other 
in Every Street, Ancoats. The earliest of the two chapels 
was the one in Hulme, at which in 1815 the Rev. J. Clarke 
was minister. He was succeeded by the Rev J. Schofield, 
or, as his name was sometimes spelt, Scholefield, who was 
the minister in 1820. After him the Rev. T. B. Strettels 
was appointed; and after him the Rev. J. Gaskell, who 
became its minister about the time we are speaking of. 
• Mr. Gaskell retained the post many years, and became 
one of the guardians of the Chorlton Union. On the 
building of Every Street Chapel, somewhere about 1823, 
Mr. Schofield was appointed its minister. He became a 
popular quack doctor and a notorious Chartist, being a great 

H 



194 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



friend of Henry Hunt, to whom a monument is erected in 
the burial ground connected with the chapel. Reference 
has been made to him previously. 

Although Cowherd, the founder of Christ Church, had 
embraced the doctrines of Swedenborg, the three chapels 
just named have not been regarded as strictly Sweden- 
borgian. The members of that body designate their 
chapels "New Jerusalem Chapels," of which there were 
two in 1829 — one in Peter Street, opened in 1793; and 
one in Bolton Street, Salford, opened in 1813 — which 
remain without addition to the present day. If one may 
judge from this, no increase has taken place in the body 
during that time. In 1802 the Rev. R. Jones became the 
minister of Peter Street Chapel, and remained so till his 
death, in 1832. I was once in the chapel, and heard the 
Rev. J. H. Smithson preach on the resurrection of the 
body. I was also once in Bolton Street Chapel, having 
been attracted by the announcement of the subject of the 
discourse. Over the door was the inscription Nunc licety 
words which Swedenborg said he saw written over a gate in 
the spiritual world, signifying that now it was allowable to 
enter into the mysteries of faith. As Mr. Hindmarsh, a 
former minister of this chapel, and Cowherd differed on the 
subject of vegetarian practice, the inscription was said to 
mean that it is allowable to eat flesh meat. Hence, the 
term " Beefsteak Chapel," which was sometimes jocularly 
applied to the old King Street Chapel, was a sarcastic 
nickname originally given to the Bolton Street one. The 
minister in 1829 was the Rev. D. Howarth, who succeeded 
the Rev. R. Hindmarsh. 



BARRISTERS. 



195 



CHAPTER XV. 

LAWYERS AND MAGISTRATES. 

n^HERE were in 1829 five barristers who had offices in 
Manchester, viz., Mr. Robert Brandt, whose house 
was at Pendleton ; Mr. John Frederick Foster, the police 
magistrate, his house being in Mosley Street ; Mr. Edward 
Jeremiah Lloyd, whose rooms were in King Street; 
Mr. James Norris, chairman of the Quarter Sessions, his 
rooms being in St. James's Square ; and Mr. John Walker, 
who resided in the Crescent, Salford. Mr. George Condy, 
who it will be remembered, became a friend of Horatio 
Miller's, came to Manchester about a year afterwards. He 
became editor and joint proprietor of the Manchester and 
Salford Advertiser^ and a Commissioner in Bankruptcy. It 
was said of him at the time of his death that he was an 
accomplished scholar; that there was hardly a branch of 
literature or art which he did not appear to have studied ; 
and that, as a critic of music, painting, or drama, he had 
few equals. 

One firm of solicitors in business in 1829 was Eccles, 
Cririe, and Slater, to whom the late Mr. Stephen Heelis 
was articled. In 18 10 the firm was Sharpe, Eccles, and 
Cririe, in King Street They then removed to Red Cross 



196 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Street, now known as Cross Street; and about 1822 
Mr. Sharpe retired and Mr. Slater was received as a 
partner. Mr. Edward Bent was then in practice in King 
Street. Thomas and Joseph Nadin were also in practice 
in offices adjoining the Queen's Theatre. They were sons 
of Joe Nadin, the former deputy constable, and were the 
chief shareholders in the theatre. 

The principal town's business was conducted by the firm 
of Sergeant, Milne, and Sergeant, in St James's Square, 
Mr. Oswald Milne being clerk of the magistrates acting for 
the division of Manchester, and sitting at the New Bailey. 
John Frederick Foster was the stipendiary, but was 
designated the '^police magistrate," and was assisted by 
six other magistrates, viz., Mr. James Brierley, of Ardwick; 
Mr. R. Fielden, of Didsbury; Mr. Ralph Wright, of 
Flixton ; the Rev. C. W. Ethelstone, of Smedley ; Mr. John 
Greaves, of Pendlebury; and Mr. Isaac Blackbume, the 
distributor of stamps in Brown Street. Mr. Wright was the 
same gentleman of whom it was said that having engaged a 
coachman, with whom he had agreed that he should be 
allowed to take vegetables out of the garden, he found him 
once taking home some potatoes, and had him apprehended, 
contending that they were not vegetables. The son of William 
Sergeant was named Oswald, and entered the Church, in 
1829 possessing the curacy of St Philip's, Salford. He 
was afterwards transferred to be one of the Fellows at the 
Old Church. Mr. Oswald Milne's brother John at that 
time was coroner for the hundred of Salford. William 
Smalley Rutter, who became coroner at the death of 
Mr. John Milne, was previously employed as clerk to 



MR, JAMES CROSSLEY. 197 

Oswald Milne, at the New Bailey. Mr. Alfred Milne, who 
was the late chairman of the Quarter Sessions, was the son 
of Oswald Milne. 

Our venerable and respected fellow-townsman Mr. James 
Crossley, shortly before the time we are speaking of, 
became a member of the firm of Ainsworth, Crossley, and 
Sudlow, in Essex Street, his house being in Cheetwood. 
Mr. John P. Aston, of this city, served the latter part of his 
time to Mr. Crossley, whilst his brother Mr. Edward Aston 
served his time with Mr. James Barrett. The first time I 
saw Mr. James Crossley, was at a meeting called one 
forenoon at eleven o'clock in the large room behind the 
York Hotel, next to the Town Hall, in King Street The 
object of the meeting was to organize an opposition to the 
incorporation of the town, and Mr. Crossley being called 
upon to speak, said that you might as well on meeting a 
strong, robust-looking individual in the street lay your hand 
on his shoulder, look him in the face, and say, " My good 
fellow, you look very ill; let me advise you to send for 
your doctor," as talk of incorporating the town. 

Mr. James Chapman, the first borough coroner, was then 
practising as a solicitor in Fountain Street, having been in 
practice for ten or twelve years. For some time we had 
two coroners and two inquests for the borough, 
Mr. Chapman holding one in virtue of his appointment 
under the Corporation, and Mr. Rutter holding a second 
under his appointment as coroner for the county, in the 
belief that Mr. Chapman's appointment was illegal On 
one occasion Mr. Chapman summoned Mr. Rutter before 
the magistrates on a charge of assault in connection with 



1 98 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS A GO. 

an inquest, the latter being held to bail to answer the 
charge at the sessions. The 'year following the validity of 
the charter of incorporation was confirmed by the judges. 

Mr. George Hadfield, the solicitor, afterwards M.P. for 
Sheffield, was in partnership with Mr. Grave, the firm being 
Hadfield and Grave, their office being next door but one to 
Mr. Chapman's, in Fountain Street. Mr. Hadfield began 
practice prior to 181 5. Mr. Alexander Kay, afterwards 
Mayor of Manchester, was then in practice as a solicitor in 
Brown Street, having had his office previously in Exchange 
Street. He resided with his father, Alexander Kay, a 
cotton merchant in St. John Street, where he had resided 
since he began practice about the year 181 3. 

Mr. John Makinson, the father of the present Salford 
stipendiary, had his office then in Brown Street, but in 
1830 removed to Market Street near to the end of 
Pall Mall, where he remained many years. He married 
the daughter of the Rev. Jonathan Crowther, one of 
Wesley's later coadjutors. Mr. Crowther's eldest son was 
connected with the press, and became reporting agent for 
the Times for Birmingham and the district He was the 
brother of Mr. Joshua Crowther, the accountant, and died 
many years ago. During my apprenticeship I became 
acquainted with James Johnson, an articled pupil of 
Mr. Makinson's, our acquaintance ripening into close 
friendship. He was the son of Mt. John Johnson, of 
the firm of Johnson and Sharrocks, wire drawers, of 
Dale Street, and brolher of Mr. Richard Johnson, of the 
firm of Johnson, Clapham, and Morris, who still carry on 
the same business in connection with the same premises. 



MR. THOMAS POTTER. 



199 



My friend married a daughter of Mr. Angus of London, 
a large landed proprietor in Australia before the discovery 
of goldfields there. After he had married his health began 
to fail, and being advised to leave England and settle in 
Australia, he set sail with his wife and two children, died 
on the passage when off the Cape of Good Hope, and 
was buried in the great blue sea. 

Mr. Thomas Potter then had his office in Princess 
Street, and had for an articled pupil a little before this 
time Percival Bunting, son of the celebrated Rev. Dr, 
Bunting. Afterwards he had for an articled pupil the 
son of one and grandson of another celebrated Wesleyan 
minister, Bateson Wood, whose grandfather, the Rev. James 
Wood, was another of Wesley's coadjutors, and filled the 
office of President of the Conference in the year 1800, 
and again in 1808. The Rev. Robert Wood, the son of 
the latter, and father of Mr. Bateson Wood, was a very 
popular minister amongst the Wesleyans, and was stationed 
in Manchester several times, the last occasion being in 
the Grosvenor Street circuit in the years 1835 to 1837. 
Professor Williamson married his daughter. Mr. Potter 
began practice in Clarence Street, Princess Street, about 
181 7, and afterwards removed to the same premises in 
Princess Street which he had in 1829, and which are still 
occupied by Mr. Wood, who before Mr. Potter's death 
became his partner. In the list which I gave of some 
of Horatio Miller's friends, I omitted the name of 
Charles Wood, the solicitor, Brazenose Street. He began 
practice at the commencement of the century in Hulme 
Street, but soon removed to the former street During my 



200 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

apprenticeship his daughter Rose recovered ;^3,5oo from 
a gentleman in London for breach of promise of marriage. 

There was one gentleman in practice fifty years ago who 
was in practice in the last century, namely, Mr. John Owen, 
who was originally in King Street, but after a while removed 
to Gartside Street. The following, who were also in busi- 
ness fifty years ago, were so at the beginning of the 
century : — Higson, Bagshaw, and Higson, of King Street ; 
Henry Cardwell; Cooke and Beever, Mr. Cooke's father 
being in Greengate as a solicitor in the last century; 
Robert Ellis Cunliffe, whose house was at first in Princess 
Street; and John Thomson. Other principal attorneys 
were Atkinson and Birch, of Norfolk Street; Kay and 
Darbyshire, Marsden Street; and Aldcroft Phillips, of 
King Street 

In addition to the names of those attorneys who were in 
business in 1829, and who had been so at the beginning of 
the century, I must mention that of Duckworth, Denison, 
and Humphreys. In 1794 Mr. George Duckworth was in 
practice at 38, Princess Street; and in 1810, at the same 
address, was the firm of Duckworth, Chippindall, and 
Denison; whilst in 1829, at 38, Princess Street, was the 
firm of Duckworth, Denison, and Humphre)rs. There was 
a Jeremiah Buckley in practice in Brown Street in 1829, 
who was so at the beginning of this century. Mr. William 
C. Chew was practising in Swan Street fifty years ago, 
whilst the firm of W. C. Chew and Son are still there. 

I must not forget the celebrated Jack Law, who, fifty 
years ago, was in partnership with Richard Coates in 
Piccadilly. He had a large practice in the police courts, 



JOHN LAW. 20 1 



and possessed those qualifications which best enabled him 
to cross-examine a witness with effect. I once heard him 
cross-examine a woman in an affiliation case, and well 
remember its terrible severity. I omit repetitions and 
flourishes. He produced a letter and inquired who had 
written it. "My brother," said the woman. "And it is 
just as true that your brother wrote that letter as that 
which you have just sworn; the one's as true as the 
other?" "Yes." "Now, then, did not a man called 

H P write that letter?" "Yes." Of course the 

case was dismissed. John Law was in practice in St Ann's 
Churchyard at the beginning of this century, and had a 
brother David, who in 1794 kept the Crown and Thistle in 
Half Street. Mr. John Law's opponent was generally 
Mr. Edward Foulkes, of the Star Yard, who had been in 
practice there since the year 1808. Solicitors do not seem 
to have increased in number to the same extent as some 
other trades and professions, for whilst fifty years ago there 
were 127, I believe there are not more than 280 now. 



202 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XVL 



THE POST OFFICE. 



HTHE earliest intimation which we have of the existence 
of a post office in Manchester is furnished by 
Mr. J. Owen, who tells us that the London Gazette in 
1687 gives the name of Edward Holland as the postmaster. 
In the next century we hear of Thomas Illingworth as 
filling the office. It has been stated that in 1721 
letters were forwarded three times a week to London, 
and that it then required eight days for an interchange 
of communication. In 1790 Manchester paid ;£^i 1,000 
in postages, being a larger amount than was paid in any 
other provincial town, the whole of the business being 
transacted by Mrs. Willat and two clerks. This lady 
succeeded her husband, John Willat, on his decease, in 
1772, of whom it was said that he was second to none in 
this part of the kingdom in the knowledge of his profession. 
Mrs. Willat died in 1801, and is buried with her husband 
in St. Ann's Churchyard, where their gravestones may be 
seen. She was succeeded by Mr. James Harrop, printer, 
bookseller, stamp distributor, medicine vendor, and post- 
master, at 40, Market Place. In 1 804 he resigned the office 
of postmaster, when the Rev. Richard Hutchins Whitelock 



POST OFFICE CLERKS. 2O3 

was appointed. He resided at Chorlton-cum-Hardy, of 
which place he was incumbent, being vicar of Skillington, 
in Lincolnshire, at the same time. He resigned the office 
of postmaster rather more than fifty years ago, and died in 
1833. His successor was Mr. Robert Peel Willcock, a 
relative of Sir Robert Peel, who on his death was replaced 
by Mr. John St Lawrence Beaufort, the present post- 
master. So that there have been only two appointments 
made to the office in seventy-five years, viz., from 1805 to 
1880. 

Fifty years ago the Post Office was a low, shabby-looking 
building, at the back of the Exchange, on the opposite side 
of Ducie Place, to which locality it had been removed in 
1808. In a short time after this the Exchange was enlarged 
at the back, when the Post Office was removed into the 
Exchange, occupying the hinder portion. In 1840 it was 
removed to Brown Street, where it now stands. 

The history of the Post Office will show the progress 
which the town has made very accurately. We have seen 
that in 1790, just ninety years ago, the business of the Post 
Office was conducted by a lady and two clerks. In 1829 
it required the aid of the postmaster and eight clerks to 
manage it. In 1879 ^^ fewer than 244 clerks were 
employed by the office. In 1829 there were twelve letter- 
carriers and three country messengers ; last year there were 
244 letter-carriers and 187 messengers. So that, including 
338 telegraphists, the number of persons employed in the 
Manchester Post Office at the close of 1879 was 1,013. 
The names of the eight clerks employed in 1829 were 
Thomas Knowles, chief assistant; Henry Andrews, first 



204 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

clerk and agent for newspapers, and clerk of the roads for 
the Chester District; Charles Jones, Samuel Brown, 
William Hayes, Charles Reynolds, Edward Wilson, and 
John Eldershaw. Of these I knew Andrews, Wilson, and 
Eldershaw, the latter being a very corpulent man. It was 
announced that "orders for all the London newspapers. 
Packet, London Shipping, and Army and Navy Lists are 
received at the Office and attended to by Mr. Andrews." 
This was then the principal Agency for supplying London 
newspapers. Eventually this business was conducted by 
Mr. Eldershaw, and after a time was given up by the Post 
Office, when it was continued by Eldershaw on his own 
account Edward Wilson was originally the schoolmaster 
and parish clerk at Chorlton-cum-Hardy in the time of 
Mr. Wliitelock, the incumbent, who, before he gave up the 
office of postmaster, appointed Wilson one of the clerks. 
The names of the letter-carriers were Thomas Sumner, 
James Ellison, Edward Lowe, Thomas Watts, William 
Hetterly, James Heywood, Matthew Sumner, William Owen, 
Samuel Davies, John Barnes, George Barnes, and John 
Buxton. Thomas Sumner was the inspector of the 
letter-carriers, and delivered letters in the Market Street 
district He was a jovial little man, and had a deep 
and sonorous voice, which qualified him for the post 
he filled on Sundays as clerk to Mr. Piccope, the incumbent 
of St Paul's. The twelve districts then were Market 
Street, Cannon Street, King Street, Mosley Street, Millgate, 
St John's, Knott Mill, Ardwick, Ancoats, St George's, 
Windsor, and Salford. The three messengers were 
despatched to Pendleton and Eccles, Cheetham Hill and 



RATES OF POSTAGE. 



205 



Radcliffe, Longsight and Gorton. There was not a 
single sub-office in the whole of Manchester and Salford, 
but there were four receiving-houses— one in Downing 
Street, one in Ancoats, one at New Windsor, and one at 
Knott Mill — at which letters were called for twice a day. 
The office was open every day from eight till ten, except on 
Sundays, when no letters were delivered from ten to twelve ; 
it then was open till half-past one, and again at the delivery 
of the Birmingham and London letters about half-past four 
or five. 

This was the day of high postages, when every London 
letter cost elevenpence at least, and every Liverpool one 
sevenpence. The rates of postage for single letters were as 
follows : — 

s. d. 

Not exceeding 15 miles o 4 

Above 15 miles 9Jid not exceeding ao o 5 

20 ,, ,, 30 o 6 

30 »i II 50- o 7 

50 „ „ 80 o 8 

80 „ „ 120 o 9 

120 „ „ 170 o 10 

170 „ „ 230 o II 

230 „ „ 300 I o 

And one penny for fevery excess of one hundred miles. 
Letters to and from Scotland were charged an additional 
halfpenny. These were the rates, as I have said, for single 
letters, which were to be written on a single sheet of paper, 
no matter how large, and which must be folded up without 
the aid of any kind of envelopes, such things being alnfost 
unknown at that day. If a letter should contain a loose 



2o6 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

piece of paper, however small, it was charged double 
postage, and if treble or quadruple the charge was in 
proportion. So that every letter as it passed through the 
office had to be carefully examined, and as many senders 
of enclosures were adepts at concealment, the letter had 
frequently to be held up before a lamp for examination. If 
suspected it was charged double or treble postage, which 
must be paid before delivery, the burden of proof that it 
was only single being with the recipient A notice was put 
up at the office that overcharges on letters were allowed 
from ten to four. I was occasionally sent whilst an 
apprentice with a letter which had been wrongly charged 
double. The clerk was generally reasonable, who on 
making himself acquainted with the contents, and on a 
declaration being made to the effect that the letter was 
only single, would return the extra charge. It will be seen 
what an amount of labour was involved in the despatch of 
letters under the old system, for not only had each letter to 
be examined for the purpose just stated, but the clerk had 
to make up his mind what the postage would be, and 
then mark it with pen and ink in large characters 
on the direction. This was one of Rowland HilFs argu- 
ments in favour of a uniform postage to be paid by means 
of a stamp — that the cost would be proportionately 
diminished. 

The privilege of franking letters, which belonged to 
members of the two Houses of Parliament, was very 
extensively used; in fact in many instances was greatly 
abused. The franking was done by the member writing 
his name in one comer of the directions, a practice which 



FOREIGN MAILS. 



207 



is still often adopted, although the privilege is abolished. 
Invoices in those days were always sent with the goods — 
in the case of a pack, sewn under the direction; of a 
hamper, laid on the top of the straw under the lid; and 
of a cask, nailed under the cardboard direction. Many 
great and needless delays in the transmission of the mail 
bags took place. Letters from Manchester or Liverpool 
passing through London to Dover, Brighton, and other 
places, were always kept waiting at St MartinVle-Grand 
for fourteen hours. 

There were only two deliveries a day, at nine a.m. and 
five p.m. Only one mail was despatched daily to and 
from London, leaving Manchester at half-past nine a.m., 
and the one from London arriving here at four o'clock p.m. 
There were two mails to and from Birmingham, one to 
Carlisle, two to York, two to Liverpool, two to Sheffield, 
and one to Ashton, Blackburn, Bolton, Bury, Chester, 
Huddersfield, Oldham, and Knutsford. Fifty years ago 
foreign letters were de^atched to France, Spain, Italy, 
Sardinia, and Turkey, every Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, 
and Thursday; to Portugal every Monday; to Holland, 
Guernsey, Switzerland, Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, and 
Russia every Monday and Thursday; to North America, 
only once a month viz., on the Tuesday before the first 
Wednesday in each month; to South America, Maderia, 
Gibraltar, and the Mediterranean, on the Monday before 
the first Tuesday in each month. Letters for places 
abroad to which there were no regular packets — as 
China, New South Wales, Sierra Leone, and many parts 
of South America — ^were forwarded in sealed ship letter- 



208 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

bags by vessels sailing from London and other ports, and 
were charged is. pjd. for each single letter, which had 
to be prepaid. To France the postage of a single 
letter was is. iid.; to Germany, Russia, Prussia, and 
Denmark, 2s. 5d. ; to the Mediterranean by the Malta 
packet, 3s. 3d. ; and to the United States and all British 
North America, 2s. 3d. 

The Penny Postage Act came into operation in 1S40. 
The prejudice which had to be overcome on the part of 
the Post Office authorities and the legislature before it 
became law are almost incredible. When the Act came 
into operation, and before the invention of the penny 
stampj, a penny envelope was supplied by the Post Office to 
the public, having a very pretentious device engraved 
around the direction, designed by William Mulready, R.A. 
I have one of them now before me, on which Britannia 
is seated on an eminence with a tame old lion crouching at 
her feet, and her arms and fingers extended as far as 
possible, as if she were sending out letters to all the world 
from her finger ends. Right and left of her are assembled 
representatives of the various nations of the world — some 
of them writing letters, well clothed Europeans shaking 
hands with naked savages, surrounded by specimens out of 
WombwelPs menagerie of elephants, bears, and other wild 
animals. The pretentious character of the design caused 
it to be generally ridiculed, and after a time it became 
supplanted by the more sensible penny stamp which has 
continued to the present. 



STAGE COACHES, 2O9 



CHAPTER XVII. 



THE STAGE-COACHING DAYS. 



■pERHAPS in nothing does the Manchester of to-day 
present such a contrast with that of 1829, showing 
the social advancement which has been made in the last 
fifty years, as in the means of locomotion, and the ease 
with which both passengers and goods are now moved firom 
one part of the country to another. Fifty years ago the 
majority of the people rarely took a journey of a score or 
two miles simply for pleasure. The annual visit of husband, 
wife, and children to the seaside, which is now an in- 
stitution, was then a rare exception. All this is due, of 
course, to the development of railways ; so that as I came 
to Manchester at the beginning of 1829, and the Liverpool 
and Manchester Railway was not opened until September, 
1830, I was enabled to witness the last days of the old 
stage coaches, which were then in their hey-day, and I saw 
them in their perfection. I had not been here long before 
I became greatly interested in them, and their proceedings 
presented a new world to me, in which I took the greatest 
delight. I made myself acquainted with their names, their 
times of departure and arrival, and to a great extent the 
names of the coachmen and guards. Living in Market 



2 lO MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Street, through which all the principal coaches passed, in 
whatever part of the premises I was on hearing the sound 
of a coach going up and down the street I knew what 
coach it was, whether it was going out or coming in, and 
the exact time of the day without looking at a watch. To 
see a London coach start or arrive afforded me intense 
pleasure. 

In 1754, we are told, "a flying co^ch left Manchester 
and arrived in London (barring accidents) in four days and 
a half." Six years later a considerable improvement had 
taken place through the instrumentality of John Handforth, 
Matthew Howe, Samuel Glanville, and William Richardson, 
and the journey was performed in three days, "if God 
permit," the inside fare being ;:^2. 5s., and the outside half 
the price. In 1773 it is on record that a coach named the 
Diligence left Manchester for Liverpool at six a.m. ; that 
the passengers breakfasted at Irlam, dined at Warrington, 
drank tea at Prescot, and dropped comfortably into 
Liverpool at nightfall. The journey to Liverpool was 
performed on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and the 
return journey on the alternate days. In 1779 there was 
only one stage coach to London. 

Fifty years ago there were four coach offices from which 
the principal coaches started. The chief of these was the 
Royal Hotel office, which was lately occupied as a druggist's 
shop. All the principal mails started from this office, the 
proprietor of which was Henry Charles Lacy, who was 
also the landlord of the hotel. The other three were, the 
Swan office, occupied by Weatherald, Webster, and Co., 
near to the present site of WooUey, Sons, and Co. ; the 



MAIL COACHES. 2 1 1 



Peacock, occupied by the late John Knowles and his 
father ; and the Star, at the comer of the Star Yard and 
Deansgate. Besides the Mail there were two London 
coaches which started daily from each office, the four- 
horsed coaches each carrying, besides coachman and guard, 
eleven outside and six inside passengers. Two or three of 
them were only pair-horsed coaches, and as the Mail carried 
very few passengers, and as the coaches were not invariably 
full, it is probable that not a hundred persons then 
travelled from Manchester to London daily. 

The four principal mail coaches, viz., those from London, 
York, Birmingham, and Liverpool, were timed to arrive at 
the Royal Hotel each day at four p.m. To me their arrival 
was a matter of great interest, and I embraced every 
opportunity of witnessing it. To see them drive into the 
Royal Hotel yard one after the other, almost to a minute, 
was an unfailing delight. I have seen the London mail 
coming at full speed down Piccadilly, whilst I have heard 
the horn of the guard of the York mail as it came down 
Oldham Street; then the Birmingham mail, which came 
down Oxford Road, turning out of Mosley Street ; whilst 
the Liverpool mail, which had deposited its bags at the 
Post Office, behind the Exchange, as it came up Market 
Street; all arriving nearly at the same time. The front 
part of the old yard at the Royal Hotel, which went into 
the back street, is now built up, but the shape of the arch 
yet remains. The London mail started from the Royal 
Hotel at twenty-five minutes past nine a.m., and arrived at 
the Swan-with-Two-Necks, Lad Lane, at seven the next 
morning, thus occupying twenty-one hours and thirty-five 



212 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

minutes in the journey. Its route was through Macclesfield, 
Leek, Ashbourne, Derby, Leicester, Northampton, and 
Dunstable. The Defiance, which started from the same 
office, occupied twenty-two hours and a quarter in the 
journey, but some of the London coaches occupied twenty- 
four hours. Some time before the railway to London was 
completed, a coach was started which, by changing horses 
more frequently, completed the journey in seventeen hours* 

The mail coaches were invariably painted dark red and 
black, and each had ifour horses and both coachman and 
guard, the latter being dressed in a red coat, and a- hat 
having a broad gilt hatband, and he generally wore top- 
boots. There was only one seat behind, which the guard 
occupied ; he was generally provided with a brace of pistols 
placed within reach. His horn was always a plain long tin 
one, which sounded but one note and its octave, but in the 
open country could be heard a great distance. It was 
blown to give the horsekeepers notice to be ready to change 
horses and to arouse in the night the keepers of the toll- 
bars, who were generally quick-eared and had the gate 
open when the mail arrived. The guards were often very 
respectable men; and I remember one on the Carlisle 
mail which passed through Garstang, where my father once 
resided, who had been to college, and was known on the 
road as "The Collegian." 

The most popular London coaches were the Defiance 
from the Royal Hotel, the Telegraph from the Star, the 
Independent firom the Swan, and the Peveril of the Peak 
from the Peacock. One of the guards of the Telegraph 
was a tall, well-built man named Pretty. He had been a 



THE PEVERIL OF THE PEAiC. 



213 



musician in the Grenadier Guards, and always attracted 
much attention as the Telegraph proceeded up Market 
Street, by his splendid playing of the bugle. The Peveril 
of the Peak used also to attract a good deal of notice on 
account of four handsome piebald horses attached to it as 
it left the Peacock at noon. In the midsummer of 1828 
I paid a visit with my mother to some relatives near 
Dunstable, and we returned to Lancashire by the Peveril 
of the Peak, which was then only a pair-horsed coach. We 
joined it at a place called Market Street, near Dunstable, 
at about ten o'clock p.m. I well remember the night was 
wet, and the inside of the coach being full, my mother was 
obliged to travel outside, and sat next to the driver. Being 
then only a two-horsed coach it had no guard, and I sat 
behind. 

At some small town through which we passed, about 
three or four o'clock in the morning, we changed horses 
and had a horse put in which backed the coach against a 
garden wall. It was a beautiful morning, and I had a lady 
companion who was charmed with the beauties of the sky ; 
whilst I, a timid lad, was full of fears as to the safety of the 
coach. However, we got oif all right, and came to 
Manchester through Derby, Matlock, and Buxton — a 
magnificent drive — and we arrived about four o'clock. 

In 1829 the Red Rover had not begun running to 
London, but started a year or two afterwards. It became 
a very popular coach, known as a " Patent Safety," as it 
was supposed that it would not upset if the axle-tree should 
break, inasmuch as it did not reach from wheel to wheel in 
a straight line, but was bent downwards towards the 



214 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



ground Its chief proprietors were Weatherald, Webster, 
and Co., and it started at 8 p.m. I travelled by it to 
Birmingham in August of 1836, and remember getting to 
Stone at two o'clock in the morning, and finding a cottage 
near to the place of changing horses, which was open, 
where coffee and toast were supplied, and a good fire kept 
up, for the accommodation of the passengers of the many 
coaches which passed through the place during the night. 
The ride through the Black Country in the dead of the 
night, when the darkness was here and there illuminated by 
the lurid flames which the various furnaces shot forth, 
accompanied by curious noises, was very impressive and 
suggestive. A vivid imagination would not have had much 
difficulty in picturing Dante's Inferno. 

There were about thirty coaches a day to Liverpool by 
way of Warrington, one of the most popular being the 
Doctor, driven by Tom Coxson, a man who had one leg 
shorter than the other. It used to leave Liverpool at 
five a.m., arriving here at nine ; returning at six p.m., and 
arriving at ten. The man who was reputed to be the best 
driver out of Manchester was Jerry Scott, the driver of a 
Leeds coach. 

It was the practice in those days to secure a place on an 
important coach beforehand, generally the day before, and 
sometimes even two or three days. A " way bill " was sent 
with the guard, or, if none, by the coachman. 

There were generally five coachmen and five guards to a 
London coach. The coachman used to drive one coach 
out about forty miles and another in on the same day, 
whilst the guard went through. He used, for instance, to 



GUARD OF THE PEVERIL. 2 1 5 

leave Manchester on a Monday, arrive in London on 
Tuesday, leave there on Wednesday, arrive here again on 
Thursday, rest on Friday, and start again on Saturday. 
Both coachmen and guards, not only on the London 
coaches but on all others, expected a fee on finishing the 
journey. The usual fees on a journey to London were a 
shilling to each coachman and half a crown or five shillings 
to the guard. Many of them were most respectable men. 
One of the guards of the Peveril of the Peak was one of 
the Labreys, whose brothers were tea dealers. I remember 
Horatio Miller, my master, who had travelled with him 
from London, saying that he had been struck with the 
shape of his head and face, and that he would make one of 
the best FalstafTs he had seen. The resources for stowing 
away luggage were very limited, and necessarily the size and 
style of the trunks and boxes which passengers then took 
with them were in striking contrast with the contents of the 
luggage van of a railway train of the present day. 

Accidents happened to stage coaches, and persons were 
sometimes killed owing to the upsetting of the coach. 
I well remember, when a boy at school, the sensation 
caused there by the intelligence of the death of the father 
of a schoolfellow from this cause, when three Wesleyan 
ministers, the Rev. John James, father of the Rev. Dr. 
James, late of this city, the Rev. E. B. Lloyd, and the 
Rev. George Sargent, left Halifax by coach to attend the 
Wesleyan Conference at Sheffield. On going down a hill 
known as Shelley Bank, near Huddersfield, the coach was 
upset, all the passengers being thrown to the ground, 
and Messrs. Lloyd and Sargent were killed. Sometimes 



2 1 6 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

there was opposition between two coaches, when there 
was generally a strife between the coachmen who should 
keep first on the road. A good deal of excitement was 
created all along the route amongst those who lived by 
the roadside, and amongst the inhabitants of the small 
towns and villages, as the coaches passed, as to which 
took the lead, every person having his favourite coach. 
The dexterity with which the horses were changed on 
these occasions was amazing. There was generally a man 
to each of the four horses, which stood ready harnessed, 
the coachman never leaving the box, and the word 
"right" was given in two or three minutes, and some- 
times less. When home for my holidays once at Garstang, 
I remember the North Star and Royal Bruce coaches 
passing through to Kendal and changing horses each 
afternoon, and on one occasion the coachmen got off 
their boxes and began fighting, but of course were stopped 
by the passengers. 

Having heard that there was an old coachman of the 
Peveril of the Peak, named Watmough, living at Wilmslow, 
I lately went over to see him. Though eighty-two years 
of age I found him as lively and vigorous as most healthy 
men are at seventy, and for his age very erect He was 
living in a good house in comfortable circumstances, and 
in reply to a remark fi-om me as to his health said: 
" Other drivers when they felt cold used to drink brandy 
and water, and then shortly would want another glass, 
but I never drank anything but water." His father was 
an officer in the Blues, retiring on full pay after 37 years' 
service, and young Watmough also had a commission in 



AN OLD DRIVER OF THE PEVERIJL 



217 



the Scot's Greys, which he sold previous to his marriage. 
He became fond of horses and of driving, and took up 
the occupation of driving a stage-coach simply from the 
love of it. He at first drove the Lady Nelson in opposition 
to the Lord Nelson to Nottingham. Eventually a coalition 
was effected, and a coach was run by the two opposing 
parties called simply the Nelson. On this Mr. Watmough 
was transferred to the fast coach before referred to, which 
was timed to reach London in 77 hours, running at the 
rate of 1 1 miles an hour. He and a driver named Taylor 
had to drive to Derby, and they agreed each to take the 
coach to Derby and back on alternate days, so that 
each might avoid lodging in Derby, and sleep at home 
every night Poor Taylor was afterwards pitched off the 
coach and killed, near Macclesfield, leaving a wife and 
seven young children. Watmough not liking the route of 
the coach, and preferring the one taken by the Peveril of 
the Peak, made an exchange with one of the coachmen 
of the Peveril, known as " Ned White," and continued 
to drive the latter for ten years. Instead of having five 
coachmen to London, the Peveril had only three; and 
Watmough drove it as far as Loughborough, horsing the 
coach and driving his own horses for two or three 
stages. The rate at which the Peveril travelled was 
10 miles an hour. 

In driving through Longsight he once met with a serious 
accident ; he was pitched off the box and the coach fell upon 
the lower part of his body. His right thigh was dislocated 
and pushed into the region of the ribs. He had three 
medical men in attendance upon him — Dr. Bardsley and 



2 1 8 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Messrs. Jesse and Harrison — and it was with difficulty that 
the dislocation was reduced. His arm was also injured, 
but he was able to resume his duties in three months. 
I can remember Mr. Watmough's features very well, having 
so often when a lad watched him as he sat on the box, reins 
in hand, waiting for the guard's ** All right." 

One of the most famous coachmen who used to drive a 
coach out of Manchester to the Potteries, was a man 
known as Bob Hadley. He was the son of a large coach 
proprietor in Coventry, and was an eccentric and amusing 
fellow. Being full of fun, anecdote, and sometimes of 
practical joking, he was a general favourite. At one time 
he was guard on a Birmingham coach, when he wore a red 
hat with a brim about ten inches wide, and a bright scarlet 
coat. Afterwards he became the driver of the before- 
mentioned coach to the Potteries, when he wore sometimes 
a white and at others a black hat with an outrageously 
broad brim, and a suit of a most extraordinary pattern — 
a very large check of such dimensions as to attract the gaze 
of the multitude. As an illustration of the speed attained 
by stage coaches, I may say that I have before me a 
printed card, recounting the performance of a coach named 
UHirondelle, from Birkenhead to Cheltenham on the ist of 
May, 1833, William Greeves being the guard. It appears 
to have left Birkenhead at 49 minutes past 5 a.m., and to 
have arrived at Cheltenham at 28 minutes past 3 p.m., per- 
forming the whole journey of 131 miles in nine hours and 
39 minutes, averaging about 13 miles an hour. The card 
exhibits a list of the eighteen places through which the 
coach passed, with the times of arrival at each place. 



GUARD OF THE LORD NELSON, 2 1 9 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

TRAVEL AND GOODS CARRIAGE BY ROAD AND CANAL. 

T^HE names of other coaches to London were the 
Herald, the Hawk, the Tally-Ho, the Bruce, the 
Express, the Bang-up, and the Traveller. To Carlisle there 
were the Invincible, the Sir Walter Scott, and the North 
Briton ; to Leeds, the Cornwallis, the Pilot, the Duchess of 
Leeds, the Highflyer, the Umpire, and the Defiance ; to 
Chester, the Victory and the Dart I remember taking a 
journey by the Victory in 1829 or '30, starting from the 
Royal Hotel at a quarter before six a.m., through Altrincham, 
Bucklow Hill, and Northwich, to a village called Kelsall, a 
little this side of Chester, where my master had a small 
property, and where he sent me to serve some legal notice 
on one of his tenants. To Buxton, there were the Royal 
Buxton, the Duke of Devonshire, and the Lady Vernon ; 
to Nottingham, the Champion and the Lord Nelson, the 
latter of which used to drive to the Palace Inn, and which 
had for its guard one of the tallest, handsomest, and best 
built men I ever saw, wearing a white neckerchief, black 
coat, and top boots. I recollect seeing him once lift 
a corpulent lady down from the top of the coach with the 
same ease with which I should lift a child from off a table. 



2 20 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

To Southport there was only one coach to cany all the 
visitors to that place, except those that went by the passage 
boat as far as Scarisbrick, which left the Duke's Quay in 
the summer every morning at six. The coach was named 
the Pilot, and left the Buck and Hawthorn, St Ann's 
Street every day (except Sundg^y) at twelve. What few 
passengers found their way to Blackpool from Manchester 
fifty years ago travelled by the Union, the Butterfly, or 
the Duke of Manchester to Preston, whence they were 
transferred to a pair-horsed coach which went every evening 
in the season to Blackpool I remember making my first 
journey there by this coach, soon after the railway was 
opened to Preston. 

On the first of May there was always a grand turn-out of 
stage coaches, which formed a procession through the 
principal streets, the coachmen and guards making them- 
selves and their horses as fine as they could. Many of the 
horses had new harness on that day. On the King's 
birthday all the mail coaches that could be spared formed 
a procession in a similar way, the guards generally having 
their new red coats on. The procession on the King's 
birthday always included the military, and was a very grand 
affair. In the evening the gentlemen of Manchester in 
those days used to dine together at the Exchange room, 
the price of the dinner tickets being a guinea, which 
included wine. 

In these old coaching days, before the railway system 
was developed, the mode of travelling adopted by the 
"nobility and gentry" was that of "posting," which was 
a recognized institution all over England. On the principal 



POSTING. 221 



roads, at intervals of twelve or twenty miles, were inns 
known as posting-houses, where a number of suitable horses 
and postboys were kept. These latter were sometimes 
grown-up boys and sometimes men of small stature and 
light weight. When a gentleman was about to take a 
journey in this way he would employ his own travelling 
carriage, or else hire a postchaise, and, on starting, would 
apply to a posting-house for horses and a postboy to drive 
him to the next posting-house on his route. At the second 
posting-house he would engage fresh horses and a boy to 
the next, and so on to the end of his journey. Generally 
the postboy rode one of the horses as a postillion, and was 
dressed in a short jacket reaching to the waist, frequently 
red, and sometimes blue, or occasionally brown, plentifully 
adorned with small bright buttons on the breast He wore 
buckskin knee-breeches and top-boots with spurs, and a 
velvet skull-cap with a peak. Where there was more than 
one posting-house in a small town, each proprietor had a 
distinctive colour for his postillions' jackets. Scores of 
these houses were ruined by the introduction of railways. 
In some instances their proprietors were able to retire, but 
others were not so fortunate. The usual number of horses 
to a vehicle was two, but very wealthy and very grand 
people used four, with two postillions. I well remember, 
when at Garstang in the summer, that the number of these 
equipages which used to pass through on their way to the 
lakes and to Scotland was very large. 

When an apprentice, I recollect being in Eling Street one 
Sunday afternoon, and seeing a carriage and four of this 
kind proceeding up the street at a very rapid pace, and 



222 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



noticed a gentleman with dark piercing eyes leaning his 
head in. one comer. Lad-like, I ran as hard as I could to 
see where the carriage stopped, and saw it stop at the 
Albion. Though too late to see its occupant step out, I 
learnt that he was Kean (the elder), who had posted from 
Liverpool, where he had been fulfilling an engagement, 
and was about to fulfil one in Manchester. I have a lively 
recollection also of seeing a carriage and four opposite the 
door of Mr. Lewis, the newsagent, at the lower end of 
Market Street, one afternoon about two or three o'clock. 
Out of it had stepped Mr. Charles Murdo Yoimg, the 
publisher of the Evening Sun, who had posted aU the way 
from London, bringing the joyfiil intelligence that the 
Reform Bill had passed the House of Lords. 

The subject of posting brings to my mind another cir- 
cumstance which it may be interesting to name. When 
Lord Brougham was at the zenith of his popularity he 
posted from London to his seat in the north, and when 
near the end of his journey some slight accident happened 
to his carriage. Somehow the news got to London the next 
day that his carriage was overturned and Lord Brougham 
was killed. The following morning the Times contained 
a long and masterly biographical notice of him, with free 
criticisms on his character and ability as a lawyer and a 
statesman, written by Thomas Barnes, the editor, in his best 
style. So that Lord Brougham enjoyed the unique luxury, 
which is so rarely granted to any man, of reading for himself 
what would have been said of him had he been dead. 

Before leaving the subject of travelling I must not omit 
to mention the ''passage boats" which sailed from 



PASSAGE BOATS. 



223 



Manchester to Runcorn, Bolton, Warrington, Worsley, and 
Wigan. These were fitted up with large deck cabins, 
siuTounded with windows, like the lona on the Clyde, so 
that a person could be under cover and see the country. 
They were each drawn by two or three good horses (on one 
of which a postillion in livery was mounted) at the rate of 
six miles an hour. One of the Runcorn boats started from 
New Bailey Bridge on the river and went by way of 
Warrington, whilst the other went on the canal by way of 
Stretford, Altrincham, Lymm, London Bridge, and Preston 
Brook. Both left here at eight a.m. and arrived at Runcorn 
at four p.m., the fare being 3s. 6d. for the fore cabin and 
2S. 3d. for the after. I once sailed in this way to Runcorn 
on a beautiful summer's day, after their speed was 
accelerated, when we arrived about one p.m. I never 
enjoyed anything of the kind better. I also once sailed 
from Bolton one fine summer's evening, leaving there at five 
and arriving here about seven. The passage the other side 
of Ringley was delightful. 

The great highway for the transport of goods fifty years 
ago was the canal. Amongst the carriers Pickford and Co. 
took the lead both by land and . water. Their canal 
warehouse was on the right-hand side of Dickinson Street 
going from St Peter's to Portland Street The other 
carriers by water to the south had their warehouses at 
Castlefield. Of these I remember Kenworthy and Co., 
Snell, Brice, and Co., Ames, Bach, Green, Heath, and 
Robins, Mills, and Co. There were about thirty such 
carriers at Castlefield. There was also a large canal 
warehouse at the lower end of Deansgate, near to Klnott 



224 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Mill, known as the Severn Warehouse. To Liverpool by 
the Mersey and Irwell there were the Old and New Quay 
Companies, and the Grocers' Company. The water carriers 
to Hull, Leeds, and other parts of Yorkshire had their 
warehouses at the end of Dale Street, where was a large 
open space of ground through which the canal passed, 
surrounded by warehouses, known as the Rochdale Canal 
Yard. The principal carriers to Hull from this wharf were 
John Thompson and Co., the founders of the firm of 
Thompson, M'Kay, and Co., and Bamby, Faulkner, and Co. 
Besides Pickford and Co., one of the great carrying 
concerns of Manchester has been that of Carver and Co., 
which fifty years ago was carried on under the name of 
Carver, Scott, and Co. About the year 1800 Thomas 
Carver was a carrier at Halifax, having one cart. He soon 
after began to send a wagon to Manchester once a week, 
on Tuesday, his son William riding on a pony, and returning 
the same day. In 181 5 his warehouse was in Dale Street, 
but shortly after he removed to a warehouse in Portland 
Place, at the Piccadilly end of Portland Street, and the 
firm became Carver, Hartley, and Co., but in a few years it 
became Carver, Scott, and Co. About 1824 business had 
so much increased that instead of sending a wagon once a 
week, one was despatched every day, and Mr. Carver came 
to reside here, when he built the warehouse at the David 
Street end of Portland Street, with a house for himself in 
David Street. Mr. William Carver continued to reside in 
David Street till about 1844, when he went to live at 
Mount Clifton, near Old Trafford. 
I remember Mr. Faulkner very well as a very gentle- 



THE LOSS OF THE ROTHSAY CASTLE. 225 

manly man, and a friend of my master. He lost his wife 
and two children in the ill-fated Rothsay Castle. This 
steamer, which was very lightly built, and was only intended 
for the navigation of the Clyde, sailed from Liverpool one 
morning in August, 183 1, for Beaumaris, with about 150 
persons on board. When off Abergele a terrible storm 
arose, increasing every moment in violence, so much so 
that the affrighted passengers besought the captain to 
return, and some of them offered him money to do so 
without avail, for he determined to proceed. After being 
subject to the buffeting of the waves many hours, at 
midnight, near Puffin Island, the vessel became a wreck, 
and out of the 150 persons on board only about twenty- 
three were saved. One of these was Mr. John Nuttall, the 
druggist, of Bury, a friend of my master, and from whose 
lips I have heard a narration of the dreadful catastrophe 
and of his rescue. 

The carriage of goods by land was effected by means of 
wagons and carts, of which above one hundred left Man- 
chester, some of them daily and others two or three times a 
week, to various places, as near as Eccles and as remote as 
Bristol and Edinburgh. One of the principal carriers of 
this description was Ann Johnson, a widow, whose husband 
had previously carried on the business, her warehouse 
being in Oak Street. These wagons were large, substantial 
vehicles, having very broad strong wheels, and the goods 
were covered by a hood. They were generally drawn by 
four houses, and were accompanied by a substantial-look- 
ing carter dressed in a " smock-frock." How rare it is to 
see one of these overalls in Manchester now ! It appears 

I 



226 . MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

these wagons were sometimes drawn by six horses, for I 
have one of Ann Johnson's advertisements now before me, 
at the head of which is a woodcut of one drawn by six 
horses. In the advertisement it is stated that the wagon 
for Liverpool leaves every evening at seven o'clock, and 
arrives there at nine the following morning. Her wagon 
for Birmingham left Manchester every Wednesday and 
Saturday evening at eight o'clock, arriving there in two 
days, whence goods for Bristol were forwarded by Gabb 
and Shurmer, arriving there on the fourth day after their 
departure from hence. Goods from London by Pickford's 
boat were in like manner delivered in Manchester in four 
days after leaving London. 

Parcels, as already intimated, were often despatched by 
coach as the quickest means of conveyance ; but another 
means was adopted of carrying them more speedily than by 
wagon but not quite so fast as by coach, and that was by 
Pickford's van. This was a large oblong vehicle, like an 
immense box, on springs, drawn by four horses, with a 
coachman in front and a guard behind. There were two 
which left Pickford's van warehouse in Marsden's Square 
daily, except Sundays, one to London and one to Liver- 
pool The one to London made the journey in thirty-six 
hours. Reminiscences of these vans used to be seen in the 
signs of several public-houses called the Van Tavern. The 
signboards bore faithfully-executed pictures of Pickford's 
van, with horses, coachman, and guard. One of the last 
of these signs which I can remember disappeared a few 
years ago from the comer of a street turning out of 
Chester Road. 



II AIL WA Y TO LIVERPOOL. 2 2 7 



CHAPTER XIX. 

OPENING OF THE RAILWAY TO LIVERPOOL. 

We miss the cantering team, the winding way. 
The roadside halt, the posthom's well-known air, 
The inns, the gaping towns, and all the landscape fair. 

Tl rE can now afford to laugh at the dogmatism of 
those who once declared and " demonstrated " the 
impossibility of the success of railway locomotion. The 
opening of the railway between Manchester and Liverpool 
was effected in the face of the most determined opposition, 
into which as usual a large amount of sentiment was im- 
ported Agriculturists shuddered at the thought of the 
invasion of their peaceful retreats, and the sullying of the 
purity of the fleeces of the sheep by clouds of smoke. 
Members of Parliament in their places declared that 
railways would prove dangerous and delusive speculations, 
and were imknown to the constitution. Medical men 
vividly depicted the horrors and dangers which would 
attend their use. The most strenuous opposition, however, 
came from the proprietors of the Mersey and Irwell 
Navigation, the Bridgewater Canal, and the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, and from the Earls of Derby and Sefton. 



228 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



After a vigorous discussion in a Parliamentary Committee 
for thirty-seven days, the first clauses of the bill were 
negatived by a large majority, and the first bill was with- 
drawn. A second was introduced into Parliament, which, 
being largely backed by public opinion, was more successful 
Amongst other false notions which were current, was a 
vague idea that the development of railways would diminish 
the demand for horses. I well remember how the stationers' 
windows contained caricatures representing, for instance, 
poor half-starved horses looking over the railings at a 
passing train, and holding conversations as to their own 
condition and prospects. 

Despite all this ignorant opposition, the 15th of Sep- 
tember, 1830, arrived, on which day the line was opened 
by the Duke of Wellington. I well remember the day. It 
seemed to me as if the towns by which Manchester is 
surrounded had emptied themselves, and poured their adult 
population into Manchester and the neighbourhood. It 
has been calculated that not less than 500,000 persons 
were congregated along the line, from Manchester to 
Liverpool, to witness the grand procession of engines 
and carriages which was to proceed fi:om Liverpool to 
Manchester. The cort^e consisted of eight engines and 
thirty-three carriages, which contained the directors, their 
friends, and a large number of nobility and gentry. Besides 
the Duke of Wellington, who was then prime minister, 
there were present Sir Robert Peel, home secretary ; Lord 
Leveson-Gower, secretary for Ireland; Prince Esterhazy, 
the Marquis of Salisbury, the Earls of Wilton, Cassilis, 
Glengall, Gower, and Lauderdale; Viscounts Melbourne, 



OPENING OF LINE TO LIVERPOOL. 229 

Combermere, Sandon, Belgrave, Grey, Ingestre, the Bishop 
of Lichfield, Lords Stanley (afterwards Earl of Derby), 
Skelmersdale, Whamcliffe, Fitzroy, Somerset, Delamere, 
Colville, Dacre, Hill, Granville, and Monson; the Right 
Hon. William Huskisson, M.P. for Liverpool ; Sir George 
Murray, afterwards a candidate for the representation of 
Manchester; General Gascoyne, Admiral White, the 
Marchioness of Salisbury, the Countess of Wilton, and 
Mrs. Huskisson. The engines were the Northumbrian, 
North Star, Rocket, Dart, Comet, Arrow, Meteor, and 
Phoenix. The procession occupied both lines of rails, the 
Northumbrian, drawing the state car, moving on the 
southern line of rails, whilst the remaining seven took 
the other line. 

The morning opened most propitiously as to the weather, 
and about half-past ten I set off with my brother and a 
friend to witness the wonderful sight of a train being moved 
without horses. We proceeded along the banks of the 
railway for a mile or two before we found a vacant spot, 
which we occupied, but were soon surrounded by a crowd 
of others. Whilst waiting for the expected procession a 
thunderstorm passed over us. We waited as patiently as 
we could till nearly one o'clock, but still no procession 
came in sight It seemed strange, for the procession was 
to leave Liverpool at ten. The patience of everybody was 
becoming exhausted, when the sound of an approaching 
engine was heard, and there was a cry of "They are 
coming." We were all excited, and every neck was 
stretched to see the procession. Instead of this there 
was a solitary engine — the Northumbrian — with the present 



230 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Earl of Wilton, then a comparatively young man, on board. 
In those days he was often in Manchester on horseback, 
so that I knew him by sight and was able to recognize him 
as he passed on the engine, which was dashing along at full 
speed. In ten minutes it returned, also at full speed, 
carrying, besides the Earl, three or four other gentlemen. 
Everybody was sure that something strange had occurred, 
and by-and-by the news spread that an accident had 
happened to Mr. Huskisson. There being no signs of any 
procession the crowd for the most part dispersed, and I 
retraced my steps homeward. 

It appears that the procession started from Liverpool at 
half past ten o'clock, amidst the shouts of an immense 
throng and the sounds of joyous music, and reached 
Parkside, about seventeen miles from Liverpool, in safety. 
Here the engines stopped to take in fresh water, during 
which process the Duke of Wellington, Mr. Huskisson, and 
other of the passengers left their seats to stroll about. The 
Duke had returned to his seat, when a recognition having 
passed between him and Mr. Huskisson, the latter hastened 
to the carriage of the Duke, and was shaking hands with 
him when a cry was raised that the other train was 
approaching on the opposite rails. Many persons availed 
themselves of the warning, and moved off the line, but 
Mr. Huskisson, who seemed for the moment to lose his 
presence of mind, stepped back on to the other line, and 
was knocked down by the engine, the wheels of which 
passing over his thigh fractured it in a fearful manner. He 
was raised from the ground by the Earl of Wilton and 
others, and being placed in the car appropriated to the 



MR. HUSJCISSON'S FATAL ACCIDENT. 23 1 

musicians, was taken to Eccles, where he found an asylum 
in the residence of the Vicar. The Earl of Wilton and 
Mr. Stephenson proceeded to Manchester on the 
Northumbrian engine as quickly as possible, and on making 
inquiries for surgeons, Messrs. Whatton, Ransome, Garside, 
and White being on the ground, mounted the tender and 
returned with the Earl to Eccles to administer professional 
aid to the sufferer. He expired at nine o'clock the same 
evening, having retained his consciousness to the end. 

The carriages arrived in Manchester about three o'clock 
p.m., and returned to Liverpool almost immediately. The 
various festivities which had been arranged in order to 
celebrate the occasion were abandoned, the Duke spending 
the evening in seclusion with the Marquis of Salisbury. 
The next day he quitted Lancashure, and could not be 
induced to take part in any of the public rejoicings to 
which his presence gave rise, and of which he should have 
been the object. When the accident happened, the Duke 
proposed that they should return to Liverpool without 
finishing the journey ; and it was only on Mr. Bulkeley Price, 
the Boroughreeve, representing to him that the disappoint- 
ment to such a vast crowd as was assembled at Manchester 
might lead to some disturbance, that he replied "There is 
something in that," and consented to go on. 

In the adoption of a new system of travelling, as with 
many other changes, it seemed impossible to jump from old 
practices and habits into a new order of things without 
passing through a transition state. For instance, as there 
had been only two classes of passengers by coach — inside 
and outside — so there were at first only two classes of 



232 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS A GO, 

trains. There were seven trains a day each way, four 
first-class and three second-class. The first-class went at 

7 and 10 a.m., and 2 and 5 p.m. ; and the second-class at 
7-30 a.m., and i and 5-30 p.m. On Tuesday and Saturday, 
which were then the two principal market days, the last 
train left at 6 p.m. In a little while two additional trains 
were despatched. On Sunday, the first-class train left at 

8 a.m. and 5 p.m., and the second-class at 7 a.m. and 6 p.m., 
the time occupied in the journey being one hour and three 
quarters. The fares were, by first-class trains in coaches 
holding four inside, 7s. ; and in those holding six, 5s. ; by 
second-class trains, in glass coaches, 5s.; and in open 
carriages, 3s. 6d. This was the classification adopted by 
the railway company, but we see that virtually there were 
four classes of passengers, and three classes of fares. The 
railway then terminated at the comer of Water Street and 
Liverpool Road, where the booking-office was. The 
company, shortly after the opening, took an office at the 
comer of New Cannon Street and Market Street, where 
passengers could be booked, and whence passengers by 
first-class trains could be conveyed by omnibus, fi:ee, to the 
office in Liverpool Road. There were four of these 
omnibuses provided, each of which had the word 
"Auxilium" painted on it The trains were started by 
the blowing of a hom. 

What I have termed the transition state was marked 
by other peculiarities. As has been stated, when a 
passenger travelled by coach he had to be booked, his 
name being entered in a book and on the way bill. So 
you could not travel to Liverpool without being booked, 



BOOKING BY RAILWAY. 233 

and your name entered. The clerks (one of whom, named 
Mackenzie, I knew) were provided with books made of 
yellow paper, containing foil and counterfoil, on each of 
which your name was written, when one part was torn 
out and given to you. Edmondson's system of tickets had 
riot then been invented. Again, there was nothing like 
the promptitude we now enjoy in starting the trains, owing 
to late arrivals. After a time a notice was issued to the 
effect that "in order to insure punctuality in the time of 
starting, which has frequently been prevented by persons 
claiming to be booked after the appointed time, no 
passenger, unless previously booked, will be admitted 
within the outer door of the station after the clock has 
struck the hour of departure;" and, strange to say, it 
was added, "passengers too late to take their seats or 
otherwise prevented going, may receive back half the fare 
paid, if claimed not later than the day after that for 
which the places were booked." Hence there can be no 
doubt that persons were frequently booked some time 
before the journey was begun. Another striking circum- 
stance was that at first there were no wayside stations 
except at Newton, and the train stayed anywhere on the 
line to suit the convenience of passengers. After a few 
months, sixteen places were appointed at which the train 
stopped, and an announcement was made that "with a 
view to obviate in some measure the inconvenience 
occasioned by the frequent stoppages to take up and 
set down passengers on the road, all short fares, except- 
ing those to Newton, will in future be taken by the 
second-class trains only." The first-class trains were only 



234 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

to stop at Newton. The directors announced that they 
were determined to prevent the practice of supplying liquor 
on the road, and requested the passengers not to alight, and 
added that " the second-class trains would stop at any of 
the sixteen places named, but to avoid delay passengers 
were requested to have the money ready to pay the guardJ* 
Before this regulation as to liquor was issued I took a 
journey to Liverpool in the stand-up boxes, and well 
recollect on the return stopping at Patricroft, opposite to 
an inn on the left-hand side, and seeing a young woman, 
carrying along a large tray of glasses containing liquors 
and cigars, which she supplied to many of the passengers. 

The first-class carriages contained three compartments, 
the middle one resembling the body of a stage coach, 
something like a capital U, whilst before and behind it 
were smaller ones, resembling a post chaise. The carriages 
containing outside passengers were oblong open boxes, 
painted blue, without seats and without roof In a little 
while seats were provided, and after that a roof was 
supplied, supported by iron rods. Just as every stage- 
coach was designated by some name, so during the 
transition stage each first-class carriage was designated in 
like manner. Amongst the names which I remember 
were King William, Queen Adelaide, Duke of Wellington, 
Sir Robert Peel, Earl of Wilton, and William Huskisson. 

It was some time after the opening of the line before 
I could get to see a train in motion. At length, one sum- 
mer's evening when in Oldfield Road, I got on the railway 
embankment, and to my inexpressible delight a train from 
Liverpool passed. 



COMMISSIONERS OF POLICE. 



235 



CHAPTER XX. 

GOVERNMENT OF THE TOWN : CURIOUS OFFICIALS. 

The government of the town was far more democratic 
fifty years ago than it is to-day; for instead of the 
governing body consisting of forty-eight councillors, a 
mayor, and a few aldermen, the town was governed by 
240 of its principal citizens, who were sworn in as 
commissioners. At their head were the boroughreeve 
and two constables. Instead of several hundred blue- 
coated gentlemen perambulating the streets to keep order, 
the town was divided into sixteen* districts, in each of 
which, according to its size, from ten to forty inhabitants 
were appointed as special constables, charged to preserve 
the peace within that district. One of their number was 
appointed the conductor. For instance, in the Oxford 
Street district, which was bounded by Bond Street, 
Brook Street, Mosley Street, and the river Medlock, 
Mr. Thomas Sowler, the proprietor of the Courier^ was 

* Fourteen of these districts are the same which now exist ; but 
there were two others which were designated thus : — "No 15 District 
—(Extra)" and "No. 16 District— (Extra). " To these two districts 
special constables were appointed, as to the others, No. 16 having as 
many as thirty-four. 



236 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

the conductor, and amongst the specials under him were 
James Pigot, jun., the publisher of the Directory, whose 
house was in Marble Street, and Mark Whitehead, the 
calenderer, of Back Mosley Street. Mr. Emanuel Mendel, 
the father of Mr. Sam Mendel, was one of the constables of 
St John's district ; Mr James Bake (afterwards alderman) 
of St. Clement's ; Mr. William Glasgow, millwright, and 
his brothers John and David, of the St Peter's districts. 
Amongst the 240 commissioners were Messrs. Samuel 
Brooks and his brother John, Elkanah Armitage, 
Thomas Bazley, and Hugh Hornby Birley ; John Edward 
Taylor, and Jeremiah Gamett, proprietors of the 
Manchester Guardian; Mark Philips, afterwards M.P. 
for Manchester; Thomas and Edward Binyon, Samuel 
Fletcher, Thomas Fleming, and William Labrey. 

The commissioners divided themselves into the six 
following committees, with the names of the chairmen 
and deputy-chairmen: — (i) Improvement, Gilbert Winter 
and J. Bradshaw; (2) Finance, Benjamin Braidley and 
William Haynes; (3) Watch, Nuisance, and Hackney 
Coach, William Haynes and William Neild (afterwards 
Alderman Neild); (4) Lamp, Scavenging, Fire Engine, 
and Main Sewer, Henry Forth (afterwards of Forth and 
Marshall) and John Barlow; (5) Accounts, Benjamin 
Braidley and John Edward Taylor; (6) Paving and 
Soughing, Thomas Hopkins and George Hall. On this 
last committee were David Bellhouse and Jeremiah Gamett. 
The Surveyors of the Highway were Thomas Fleming, 
Leaf Square, Pendleton ; Charles Ryder, CoUyhurst Hall ; 
Peter Watson, Store Street, Piccadilly; Robert Andrew,, 



STEPHEN LA VENDER. 237 

Turkey-red dyer, Green Mount, Harpurhey ; David 
Bellhouse, Nicholas Street ; Edmund Buckley, iron 
merchant and copperas manufacturer, Mather Street, and 
Richard Warren, gentlemen, Leigh Place, Ardwick. There 
were then only three collectors of the " Highway Ley." 

The deputy constable was Stephen Lavender, whose 
house was near the present site of the Bank of England 
in King Street He succeeded the notorious Joseph Nadin, 
who had been deputy constable twenty years when he 
resigned it. Lavender had been one of the celebrated 
Bow Street officers, and was one of those who were ordered 
to arrest the Cato Street Conspirators. He afterwards 
traced Thistlewood to an obscure lodging, and only escaped 
with his life by flinging himself on the bed in which lay 
Thistlewood, who was in the act of firing a pistol at him. 
He died in 1833, having held the office twelve years, and 
was succeded by Joseph Saddler Thomas. 

All the paid staff which Lavender had under him in 
1829 were four beadles, whose names were Thomas 
Worthington, George Moss, Anthony Jefferson, and John 
Page; seven assistants, and four street-keepers. The 
colour of their livery was brown. Soon after I came to 
Manchester I well remember hearing of a riot in the 
neighbourhood of Ancoats, when one or two factories were 
set on fire. I was passing the Royal Hotel just as 
Lavender was coming up Mosley Street at the head of 
about nine or ten beadles, walking in single file, each 
carrying a drawn cutlass in his hand, and remember seeing 
them cross over from Mosley Street to Oldham Street. Of 
course they would be assisted in quelling the disturbance 



238 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

by the special constables of the district. Fifty years ago, 
when trade was bad and food scarce, as I have before 
remarked, it was the practice of the working classes to 
try and mend matters by rioting, attacking cotton factories, 
smashing the machinery, and often setting fire to them. 
I well remember, when a boy, going through the factory 
of the Messrs. Whitehead at Rawtenstall with my father, 
and one of the firm explaining to him how a mob had 
a short time previously broken into the factory and 
destroyed a large quantity of the machinery. In 1829 
the factories of Mr. Thomas Harbottle, Mr. James Guest, 
and Messrs. Twiss were gutted, and that of Messrs. Parker 
was burnt down. 

The boroiighreeve for 1829 was David Bannerman, who 
then lived in Mosley Street, and the two constables were 
Robert Ogden and John Bentley. Mr. Ogden was a 
cotton spinner, and lived next door to Mr. Houldsworth, 
the M.P., in Portland Place, and Mr. Bentley, who was 
out of business, lived just round the corner in Piccadilly. 
Besides the beadles I have named, other paid officials in 
connection with the town's business were : One keeper of 
each of the four lock-ups in Swan Street, Knot Mill, 
London Road, and Kirby Street; two clerks, one office- 
keeper, one comptroller, one cashier, two inspectors of 
nuisances, and five collectors of gas rents — viz., James 
Booth, Isaac Mawson, George Pratt, William Gleave, and 
Evan Mellor, the four last of whom also collected the 
police rate. 

Our interests at night used to be committed to the care 
of a number of men, some of whom were advanced in 



OLD WATCHMEN, 



239 



years, known as watchmen, but who were nick-named 
"Charleys." They wore broad-brimmed hats having a 
yellow band round each, and brown topcoats. Little 
wooden huts known as watch-boxes, just large enough to 
allow one man to sit in, were provided for them, and were 
placed in quiet comers in each district I remember there 
was one near to our back gates in Cromford Court. It used 
to be said that young fellows returning home late occasion- 
ally upset a watchman in his box by overturning it. Their 
practice, as they went their rounds, was to bawl out the 
hour of the night and the kind of weather which prevailed ; 
as, for instance, " Past twelve, fine starry night" In this 
case they would emphasise the word " past " by elongating 
the sound of the vowel, and clip the " twelve " rather short. 
It was a very comfortable thing if you happened to be 
awake in the night to know how matters were going on 
outside in these respects. 

I have not been able to ascertain the exact number of 
watchmen employed in Manchester in 1829, but have 
ascertained that in 1815 there were fifty-three and ten 
supernumeraries, the wages of the watchmen being as 
follows : From November to February inclusive, thirteen 
shillings per week for ten hours from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m. ; for 
March, April, September, and October, eleven-and-sixpence 
per week, hours from 9 till 5 ; for the four summer months, 
ten shillings per week, hours from 10 till 4. There were 
two police officers at that time, Samuel Foxcroft and 
Jonathan Hem. In 1825 the number of watchmen was 
seventy-four and nine supernumeraries, whose wages had by 
this time been increased five shillings per week.. , . 



240 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

As already stated in an earlier chapter, fifty years ago 
Manchester possessed no police court of its own, the only 
one being in Salford at the New Bailey, which was presided 
over for many years by John Frederick Foster, a barrister, 
who was generally respected, and filled the office so as to 
win universal applause. His salary was ;£^i,ooo per annum, 
which was provided by a magisterial rate levied on the 
inhabitants of the two towns of Manchester and Salford. 
He was assisted by six unpaid magistrates, one of whom 
was Mr. Isaac Blackbume, the distributor of stamps ; and 
another was the Rev. C. W. Ethelstone, one of the Fellows 
of the Old Church. 

Besides those already mentioned Manchester possessed 
several other officers who were employed in the government 
of the town. These were for the most part tradesmen and 
other men of business. There were, for instance, two 
"mise leyers" and one "mise gatherer." There were 
twenty-four "market lookers for fish and flesh," amongst 
them being Thomas Yates, of the Star Hotel; Stephen 
Lavender, and Thomas Skinner Noton. There were 
nine "inspectors of white meats;" amongst them being 
Mr. George Crossley, the governor of the Blue-coat School. 
There were eleven "officers to prevent engrossing, 
regrating, and forestalling," amongst them being Henry 
Charles Lacy, the great coach proprietor and landlord of 
the Royal Hotel. The two officers " for tasting wholesome 
ale and beer " were William Eland, the box-office keeper at 
the theatre, who lived in Brazenose Street ; and Alexander 
Bower, a diysalter, living at the Oaks, Fallowfield. 
Mr. Joshua Ryle, a woollen draper in Old Millgate was* 



CURIOUS OFFICIALS, 24 1 

the " market looker for the assize of bread" There were 
seven "bye-law men," and about the same number for 
^' muzzling mastiff dogs and bitches," amongst whom were 
George Southam, the grocer, and father of the late eminent 
surgeon of that name, and Richard Thelwell, the silver- 
smith in St. Ann's Square, each person being appointed to 
a certain district There were officers "to prevent the 
cutting and gashing of raw hides," and "searchers and 
sealers of leather," the same two gentlemen filling both 
offices, James Travis and John Baggs, and each being a 
boot and shoe maker. There were officers "for distributing 
the rent-charge of CoUyhurst" 

The most Surprising of these appointments was that of 
" scavenger," which was filled by a number of most respect- 
able inhabitants. Amongst them were Mr. Thomas Sowler, 
who was appointed to St Ann's Square and back streets ; 
Mr. Robert Duck, agent for the Sun Fire Office, to Market 
Street; and Mr. Henry Charles Lacy to Shudehill, High 
Street, and back streets. There were about fifteen of these 
officials. The last of these offices was that of " pounder," 
which was filled by Robert Burton. All these appoint- 
ments were made by the Lord of the Manor at his coiut 
leet, which was held in a room over the Shambles in Brown 
Street, the present site of the Post Office. 



242 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XXL 

GAS, WATER, AND HACKNEY COACHES. 

T^HERE are not many things which remind us more 
of the great changes which have taken place in our 
daily surroundings than the price of Gas. Fifty years ago 
its price in Manchester was twelve shillings per thousand 
cubic feet, to-day it is three shillings for gas of nearly 
double its illuminating power. When the Peace of Amiens 
was celebrated in 1802, the front of Boulton and Watt's 
manufactory was brilliantly lighted up with gas, when all 
Birmingham poured forth to view the spectacle, and 
strangers carried to every part of the country an account 
of what they had seen. The news was spread everywhere 
by the newspapers, with instructions how to prepare the 
gas, and coal was distilled in tobacco-pipes at the fireside 
all over the kingdom. A successful instance of such 
experimenting I can well remembet when a very little boy 
some years after. Three years after the illumination by 
gas of Boulton and Watt's manufactory, Mr. Murdoch, a 
Cornish engineer, visited this neighbourhood, and was 
engaged by Messrs. Phillips and Lee to light up their 
factory in Chapel Street, Salford. Their example was soon 
followed by other persons, one of the earliest places thus 



CHARGE FOR GAS. 



243 



lighted being the Police Office situated in Police Street, at 
the lower end of King Street. It is said that the first private 
house lighted with gas here was that of Mr. James Leech, 
who lived in a large house in Springfield Lane, Salford. 
The first gasworks were erected in Water Street in 181 7, 
and the first Gas Act was obtained in 1824. The merit of 
originating the gasworks of Manchester upon the present 
basis, so that from the first they became the property of 
the ratepayers and the profits were appropriated to the 
improvement of the town, is due to the late George 
William Wood, formerly M.P. for the southern division of 
the county, and Mr. Thomas Fleming, sen., through whose 
united efforts this great boon was secured. Fifty years ago 
gas was supplied in two ways — ^by meter and by burner. 
If supplied by meter the price was, as I have said, twelve 
shillings per thousand feet Places of worship, manu- 
factories, inns, and places where the time of burning it was 
irregular were supplied by meter only; but shops and 
places where the gas was burnt at stated and regular 
intervals were supplied and charged according to the 
number and kind of burners used. The burners were 
supplied by the Commissioners, and were of two kinds, 
Cockspurs and Argands. A scale of prices was issued 
embracing three particulars — the number of jets, the height 
of the flame, and the hour of extinguishing the gas. The 
hours for extinguishing the gas were eight, nine, ten, eleven, 
or twelve o'clock, and twelve for all on Saturday evenings. 
No extra charge was made if the light was extinguished 
within fifteen minutes of the time contracted for; but if the 
gas was burnt at any other time, the consumer, if discovered. 



244 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

was fined. All rents by burners were to be paid in advance. 
The department was managed by thirty directors, who were 
chosen from the body of Police Commissioners, ten of 
whom retired annually, when ten others were appointed in 
their stead. Their principal staff consisted of a secretary, 
John Thorpe, jun. ; a superintendent of No. i Station, 
Jacob Davies ; a general superintendent, John Outhett ; an 
inspector, James Crompton ; an office clerk, James Drew ; 
and five collectors. Fifty years ago the gas receipts for the 
year were ;;^20,ooo, and the payment firom the gas profits 
to the Improvement Committee was under ;£ 7,000. The 
receipts for 1879 were ;;^32o,ooo, and the payment to the 
Improvement Committee ;;^S2,ooo. These figures are 
amazing, and most strikingly indicate the difference between 
the Manchester of fifty years ago and that of to-day. 

Water. -^Manchester was not so fortunate in the case of 
its water supply as with that of gas. In the first instance it 
was not taken up by the Police Commissioners, but was left 
to the enterprise of others. The Manchester and Salford 
Waterworks Company was established in 1808, and fifty 
years ago the supply of both towns was in their hands, 
at which time the daily consumption was about 1,400,000 
gallons. The company had small reservoirs at Gorton, 
Beswick, Bradford, and Audenshaw, and their office, which 
I well remember, was a few doors higher up than the 
Albion Hotel, Piccadilly, and next door to the bookshop 
of Mr. William Ellerby. At first the water was supplied 
in stone pipes, for which iron ones were substituted in 
181 7, the stone ones being very liable to burst But the 
name "stone pipe water" continued long after, for I well 



HACKNEY COACHES. 245 



recoUect that this was the name generally used to describe 
the company's water fifty years ago. It was then only 
turned on for about three or four hours each day. In 
Market Street it was turned on generally at noon, and 
was received into a large stone cistern, which stood in the 
yard of the premises where I was, at the bottom of which 
a smaller vessel of porous stone was cemented, which 
served as a filter. The peculiar noise produced by the 
water driving the air out of the pipe before it came on I 
seem as if I could hear now, while my thoughts are carried 
back to those times. 

Hackney Coaches. — Fifty years ago cabs were not 
known in Manchester, and were not introduced into the town 
till ten years after. The first vehicle of this kind was built 
by Mr. W. H. Beeston, of Tib Street, for Mr. William White, 
of Spear Street, who began plying with it from the 
Piccadilly stand in 1839. Mr. White is probably the 
oldest coach and cab proprietor in Manchester, and fifty 
years ago lived in Rook Street The vehicles known as 
hackney coaches, which have been supplanted by cabs, 
were larger and much heavier, and were drawn by two 
horses, though in the later period of their history smaller 
ones were constructed, which were drawn by one horse 
only. It appears that there was an attempt to establish 
hackney coaches here as early as 1750, but the extremities 
of the town being comparatively so near together, and 
within easy walking distance, the inhabitants did not 
encourage the attempt, still preferring the fevourite 
sedan chair when they wished to ride. In 1750 we find 
there were two hackney coaches which stood in St. Ann's 



246 MANCHESTEk FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Square. In 1810 hackney coaches were finally established 
in Manchester, and in 181 5 as many as twenty coaches, 
but not more, were allowed to ply for hire in Manchester 
and Salford, or within four miles. The coaches were to 
stand in the centre of St. Ann's Square, and at the top 
of Market Street, between Marsden Square, and High 
Street; the fare being eighteenpence a mile if charged 
by distance. It was at the discretion of the driver to 
charge either by time or distance. If by time, the fare 
was eighteenpence for any time not exceeding half an 
hour. Fifty years ago the number of coaches allowed had 
increased to fifty, which were distributed as follows : 
Fourteen in a line along the middle of St. Ann's Square, 
ten in a line along the middle of the higher end of 
Market Street, from the end of Palace Street towards 
High Street, and the remainder in a line along the south 
side of Piccadilly. The year after the railway to Liverpool 
was opened the committee added six coaches to those 
previously allowed, which were to ply opposite the railway 
office in Liverpool Road, and at the junction of Oxford 
Street and Lower Mosley Street. Very stringent regulations 
existed as to the provision of check-strings, and as to the 
omission of the driver to hold the same when driving. 
The fares were the same as those just quoted as existing 
in 1815, with the exception that provision was made for 
coaches drawn by one horse, the fares for which were a 
shilling a mile. 



FIRST INFIRMARY. 247 



CHAPTER XXII. 

MEDICAL AND OTHER CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

T T is to the efforts of Mr. Charles White, assisted by a 
few other gentlemen, that the establishment of the 
first Manchester infirmary is due. In 1752 a house in 
Garden Street, Shudehill, was taken for the purpose, 
Mr. Joseph Massey undertaking to pay all the expenses of 
the first year, and Mr. Charles White volunteering his 
services as a medical man. Mr. White, it is weD known, 
was an eminent surgeon, who resided in a large and hand- 
some house which stood on the site of the old Town Hall, 
having formerly been a pupil of the celebrated John 
Hunter. The house was opened as an infirmary on the 
24th of June, and, by the end of the year, seventy-five 
in-patients had been received and 249 out-patients had 
been treated ; the first year's expense, which was defrayed 
by Mr. Massey, being ;^4o5. The success of the under- 
taking was so marked that a public meeting was called, at 
which a resolution was passed to erect a building capable 
of holding eighty patients. 

At this time there were but few houses between Market 
Street Lane and the village of Ardwick. Somewhere about 
where the Infirmary esplanade now is was a large and long 



248 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

pit, known as " Daubholes," behind which was " Daubholes 
Field." Most people are sufficiently acquainted with the 
traditions of Manchester as to know that it was in this pit 
that " scolds " were formerly dipped by means of the duck- 
ing stool. The field and pond were the property of the 
lord of the manor, Sir Oswald Mosley, who liberally gave a 
lease of the land for a term of 990 years for the purpose of 
erecting an infirmary on it, when the pond became the once 
well-known " Infirmary pond," but is now a thing of the 
past. The first stone of the new Infirmary was laid on the 
20th of May, 1754, by Mr. Miles Bower, according to one 
account; but, according to Dr. Renaud, by Mr. Massey, 
who became its first president The total cost of the 
building and its furniture was about ^^4,000. The money 
was freely contributed by the inhabitants, and amongst 
other contributions were the proceeds of the first night's 
performance at the new theatre in Marsden Street In 1760 
a musical entertainment was given in the grounds of the 
Infirmary, the proceeds of which were given to its fimds. 
The Infirmary was finished and opened in 1755. To Man- 
chester belongs the honour of founding the second lunatic 
asylum in the English provinces, which was built as a wing 
to the Infirmary, having a lower elevation, between that 
building and Portland Street, at a cost (including furnish- 
ing) of ;^ 1, 5 00, and was finished in 1766. In 1787 and 
1 790 considerable additions were made at the back of the 
Infirmary, so tiiat out-patients could be admitted daily 
instead of on Monday only as heretofore. In 1792 still 
further additions were made, and it became necessary to 
appeal to the public for fimds. This was done through the 



HOSPITAL SUNDAY. 



249 



medium of a Hospital Sunday in all the churches and 
chapels in Manchester, when ;^4,ooo was thus collected, 
the largest amount being taken at the Independent Chapel 
in Mosley Street, the pulpit then being filled by the 
Rev. T. Kennedy, and the collection amounting to ;^22o. 
In 1783 an "air balloon" ascended from the Infirmary 
grounds, which alighted at Cromford, in Derbyshire. The 
admittance to the grounds was one shilling, the proceeds 
going to the Infirmary funds. 

The erection thus described was standing exactly in the 
same state fifty years ago. It was a plain brick building, 
which, with the lunatic hospital, extended in the direction 
of Portland Street, having the large pond in front extending 
the whole length, railed off from the street with plain iron 
palisading. The baths, which were built about 1781, were 
on the right of the entrance gates, and fifty years ago were 
under the superintendence of Mr. William Galon* At that 
time the president of the Infirmary was the Earl of Stamford 
and Warrington, and the treasurer Mr. Thomas Entwistle, 
whilst of deputy-treasurers there were no less than twenty- 
seven. The physicians to the institution were, Drs. John 
Mitchell, Edmund Lyon, Edward Garbutt, J. L. Bardsley, 
Davenport Hulme, and W. C. Henry. The surgeons 
were, W. Simmons, John Thorpe, J. A. Ransome, James 
Ainsworth, Robert Thorpe, and W. J. Wilson. The visiting 
apothecaries were John Cook and Daniel Lynch, both of 
them druggists, but, having been in business before the 
Apothecaries Act of 1815, still retained the privilege of 



An account of them has been given on page 9. 



250 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

visiting patients. Mr. H. T. Worthington was the house 
apothecary, and Mr. W. E. Guest house surgeon. The 
collector was Mr. James Molineux, who was a friend of my 
master, and had been overtaken by some of the disasters of 
1826. The matron was Mrs. Sarah Loflus, and the secre> 
tary, Mr. H. Neild, who afterwards became the manager 
of the Savings BanL The treasurer of the adjoining 
institution was Mr. Thomas Hoyle, and the other officers were 
those of the Infirmary. Connected with the Infirmary was 
also the Board of Health, or House of Recovery (for sick 
and fever patients), in Aytoun Street, which was opened in 
1797. Its president in 1829 was the first Sir Robert Peel, 
its vice-president Mr. R. J. Norreys, and the medical 
officers were those of the Infirmary. In 181 8 an amateur 
performance took place at the Theatre Royal, for the benefit 
of the asylum, when the proceeds amounted to ;;^3oo. 

What is now known as St. Mary's Hospital was then 
called the Lying-in Hospital, and was situated on the bank 
of the Irwell opposite the front of New Bailey Prison in 
Stanley Street, Salford. It was first established in 1790, and 
was removed to Stanley Street in 1796, where it stood fifty 
years ago, but was some time afterwards removed to North 
Parade, St Mary's. Its president was the Earl of Grosvenor, 
and its vice-presidents Sir Robert Peel, Sir Oswald Mosley, 
the Rev. Dr. Calvert, warden of the Collegiate Church, and 
Mr. Joseph Yates, iron merchant, of Portland Street The 
treasurer was Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley, with twelve deputy- 
treasurers, amongst whom were Mr. Benjamin Joule 
and Mr. J. Ollivant Dr. Hull was the physician, and 
Messrs. John and Robert Thorpe and Dr. Agnew the 



EYE INSTITUTION. 2 5 1 

"surgeons-extraordinary." The surgeons for the out- 
districts were Messrs. James Lowe, Thomas Fawdington, 
and John Roberton. Connected with the institution was 
a large medical committee, and a still larger ladies' 
committee, the former consisting of the medical officers 
already named, and in addition Dr. Freckleton, Messrs. 
Hudson, Radford, Kinder Wood, Oilier, Ainsworth, 
Ransome, Brigham, Barton, Jordan, Dudley, Bamber, and 
Turner. Of these medical men all have passed away 
except Dr. Radford, who at an advanced age, is still an 
active member of the medical staff of the same hospital, 
under an altered name and under altered circumstances.. 
The ladies' committee consisted of Mesdames Agnew, 
Boutflower, Bower, Barton, T. Brooks, Samuel Brooks, 
Elsdale, Hoyle, Hall, Henson, Lomas, Marris, Marsden, 
Nunn, King, Place, Roylance, T. Rothwell, Tate, 
T. Townsend, Tweddell, Wadkin, and Misses Ainsworth 
and Hadfield. 

There are few cjjaritable institutions of which Manchester 
may be prouder than of its Eye Institution, now located 
in such capital and convenient premises in St John's Street, 
It may be fairly said to be at the head of all similar 
provincial institutions. Fifty years ago its domicile was 
of a more humble character. It was first established in 
1815, and occupied premises at No. 35, Faulkner Street 
In 1829 Mr. Nicholas Thomason was the secretary and col- 
lector, and became the governor of the institution, which had 
been removed to Princess Street. Its president for many 
years was Sir Thomas Stanley, Bart, (his son becoming 
Lord Stanley of Alderley), and amongst its vice-presidents 



252 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



were William Grant and John Leaf. Its committee con- 
sisted of Thomas Norris, J. Chippendale, Adam Dugdale, 
Daniel Grant, W. J. Wilson, Daniel Lynch, J. Brackenbury, 
George Gnmdy, John OUivant, William Hutchinson, and 
the Revs. Moses Randall and R. Basnett. Dr. Hull was 
the consulting physician. Messrs. Samuel Barton and 
John Windsor were the surgeons, and Messrs. R. T. Hunt 
and J. £. Gordon assistant surgeons. 

The Lock Hospital was opened in 1819. Fifty years 
ago it was located in Bond Street; its president was 
Mr. David Holt, and its medical officers were Dr. Hull, 
and Messrs. Jordan and Brigham. The house surgeon was 
Mr. Lewis Henry Nathan. 

In addition to these medical charities there were also 
Dispensaries for Salford and Pendleton at 23, Broken 
Bank; for Chorlton Row (now Chorlton-upon-Medlock) 
at 236, Oxford Road; and for Ardwick and Ancoats at 
181, Great Ancoats Street. The president of the Salford 
Dispensary was Mr. William Gamejj; of Lark Hill 
(situated in what is now Peel Park), who so often 
unsuccessftiUy opposed Joseph Brotherton as a candidate 
for parliamentary honours. The medical staff included 
Messrs. Thomas Brownbill, George Gardom, John Bout- 
flower, and Dr. Harland ; Mr. Boutflower being still 
engaged in practice, and Dr. Harland also siuidving. 
The president of the Ancoats Dispensary was Mr. George 
Murray, the cotton spinner, of Ancoats Hall ; and amongst 
its medical officers were included Dr. James Phillips Kay, 
whose house was then in King Street; Messrs. Thomas 
Turner, Joseph A. Ransome, and Ashton M. Heath. 



BIBLE SOCIETY. 



253 



The Female Penitentiary was then situated in 
Rusholme Road, next to Buck's livery stables, Mr. Edward 
Lloyd, the barrister, of King Street, being its treasurer. 
The same plan existed then as now of having two 
secretaries, one a minister of the Established Church and the 
other a minister of a nonconforming church, the secretaries 
fifty years ago being the Rev. William Marsden and the 
Rev. John Birt The matron was Mrs. Elizabeth Price, 
who was shortly succeeded by Mrs. Lydia Colebeck. 

The Manchester Auxiliary of the British and 

Foreign Bible Society was established in 18 10, its 

depository fifty years ago being in King Street, in a house 

next to the Town Hall, at the lower end, which also 

contained the offices of Higson, Bagshaw, and Higson, and 

of Edward Bent, solicitors. Its patron was the Bishop of 

Chester, and its president Sir Oswald Mosiey. Amongst 

the vice-presidents were the Rev. John Clowes, of the 

Collegiate Church ; the Rev. John Clowes, of St John's 

Church ; the Rev. Melville Home, Messrs. William 

Townend and James Wood. The treasurer was Mr. William 

Fox. The life governors were John Burton, Peter 

Marsland, Jonathan Peel, Joseph Smith, and Samuel 

Stocks ; and the governors Samuel Fletcher and E. Norris. 

Amongst the committee were the Revs. Wm. Huntingdon, 

William Nunn, Hugh Stowell, J. A Coombs, R. S. M'All ; 

Messrs. Benjamin Braidley, George Hadfield, and Thomas 

Harbottle. The honorary secretaries were the Revs. John 

HoUist and William Roby. At that time the society did 

not employ any paid secretary or agent The annual 

meeting of the society in 1829 was held in the Manor 



254 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Court Room, Brown Street, Sir Oswald Mosley, the lord 
of the manor and , president of the society, being in the 
chair. The Rev. Andrew Biandram, one of the general 
secretaries, attended as a deputation from the parent 
society, the other speakers being the Revs. William Lord 
(Wesleyan), John Birt, W. Thistlethwaite, G. S. Bull of 
Bierley, A. Hepworth (St Luke's, Chorlton Row), 
J. A. Coombs, and R. S. M*A11; Messrs. J. S. Bramall, 
Samuel Fletcher, and John Burton, calico-printer (of 
Daniel Burton and Sons). The report stated that the 
parent institution, during its twenty-foiir years* existence, 
had expended more than a million and a half of money, 
had distributed upwards of five millions and a half copies 
of the Bible and Testament in not less than a hundred and 
five different languages and dialects, in fifty-eight of which 
the Bible had never been before printed, and that thirty- 
eight new translations were then in progress. The number 
of donors and subscribers in 1828 was 193, whose bene- 
factions and subscriptions amounted to £z^^- Amongst 
the subscribers are found the names of Miss Byrom, of 
Quay Street ; Messrs. Benjamin Braidley ; Samuel Brooks, 
the banker. Market Street; Isaac Crewdson; J. and T. 
Fildes, Shudehill; Samuel Fletcher; G. R. Chappell; 
George Hadfield, solicitor; J. H. Heron; Dr. Hull; 
Benjamin Joule, the brewer; Dr. Lignum (so-called, 
proprietor of the "Antiscorbutic Drops"); J. M'Clure and 
J. M'Clure jua; Mottershead and Brown, druggists; 
W. Newall, grocer, owner of Newall's Buildings; John 
OUivant, silversmith. Exchange Street; Michael Peacock, 
Deansgate ; Thomas and Richard Potter (father and unde 



CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY. 



255 



of the late Sir John Potter and Mr. T. B. Potter, M.P.); 
Charles Rider, CoUyhurst Hall; Samuel Prince, grocer, 
Market Street ; R. Scarr, St Ann's Square ; E. Thompson, 
bookseller, Market Street; J, Wadkin, Pendleton; Wood 
and Westhead, High Street; the Revs. W. Nunn; J. A. 
Coombs; J. Clowes, fellow of the Collegiate Church; 
J. Clowes, St. John's ; William Roby, Hugh Stowell, and 
Melville Home. The latter gentleman, who, as I have 
said, was one of the vice-presidents of the Bible Society, 
was a popular preacher and was the immediate predecessor 
of the Rev. Hugh Stowell at St Stephen's, Salford. He 
was the author of some controversial tracts as to the 
circulation of the Douay version of the Bible by the Bible 
Society. He died at Ashbourne, in Derbyshire, in 1841, 
in the eightieth year of his age. 

The Manchester Branch of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge was instituted in 1814, and fifty 
years ago had its quarters at the depository of the Bible 
Society in King Street It was not without its friends. Its 
patrons were the (present) Earl of Wilton, the Bishop of 
Chester, and Lord Kenyon. Its president was the 
Rev. Dr. Calvert, warden of the Collegiate Church; its 
treasurer was Mr. Thomas Hardman; and its secretaries 
were the Rev. Henry Fielding, chaplain to the House of 
Correction, and afterwards clerk in orders at the Old 
Church; the Rev. Peter Hordem, librarian of the Chetham 
College; and Mr. Charles Smith, of Cheetwood. The 
Religious Tract Socieey was established here in 181 2, 
and the Wesleyan Tract Society in 1822. 






256 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS A GO. 



The Humane Society was originally established in 
1 791, under the patronage of and mainly through the 
public-spirited exertions of Mr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley, 
once chairman of the quarter sessions. In the same year 
the Strangers* Friend Society was established under the 
auspices and by the aid of the Rev. Dr. Adam Clarke, who 
was at that time stationed in Manchester. Although it was 
principally supported by Wesleyan Methodists, it was 
eminently catholic in its operations, inasmuch as its benefits 
were extended to persons of every other denomination, or 
of no denomination, who were relieved according to no 
other standard than the measure of their distress and 
the capability of its funds. The Samaritan Society, 
established in 1824, was an institution of a similar nature, 
whose meetings were held weekly, on the Friday evening, in 
the vestry of Gravel Lane Chapel. The Philanthropic 
Society, established in 181 t, was another benevolent 
institution, which fifty years ago used to hold its meetings 
at Hayward's Hotel, in Bridge Street, having for its 
secretary Mr. Robert Walmsley, of Red Bank. It shortly 
after changed its quarters to the Dog and Fatridge, Ducie 
Place, when Mr. Daniel Grant became its president, and 
Mr. Edward Loyd, the banker, its treasurer. The Society 
FOR the Encouragement of Faithful Female Ser- 
vants was founded in 18 16, as a free registry office. Its 
object was to reward those servants of subscribers who had 
lived for a certain time in their service with annual 
premiums. Its office fifty years ago was in Chapel Walks, 
having been removed there from King Street, and its 
conductress was Mrs. Mary Owen. 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



257 



The Commercial Clerks' Society was established 
in 1802, and was a provident institution, established for 
the benefit of tradesmen and clerks, who by the payment 
of an entrance fee of from three to five guineas, according 
to age, and an annual payment of one guinea, with the aid 
of honorary contributions, made provision for sickness and 
old age, as well as for their wives and children. 

In enumerating the charitable institutions of Manchester 
which existed fifty years ago, the free public schools 
ought not to be omitted. At the head of these was the 
Free Grammar School in Long Millgate. Of this the 
Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., was high master; the 
Rev. Nicholas Germon, high master's assistant; the 
Rev. Robinson Elsdale, second master; the Rev. John 
Johnson, second master's assistant; and the Rev. John 
Dallas, master of the lower school. Of the Blue Coat 
School, Mr. George Crossley was governor ; the Rev. Peter 
Hordem, curate of St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill, librarian; 
Mr. William MuUis, assistant librarian ; and the Rev. 
W. Bootle Guest, master of the school. The Ladies' Jubilee 
School in New Bridge Street, Strangeways, had its origin 
in 1806, in the benevolence of several , ladies. In 1809 a 
house was procured in Broughton Lane, which contained 
ten girls ; and in 18 10 a building was erected on a plot of 
land given by Lord Ducie in New Bridge Street, by public 
subscription, in commemoration of the fiftieth year of 
George the Third's reign. The new building was capable 
of accommodating thirty-two girls, which was the number 
in the house fifty years ago. In 1832 a splendid legacy of 
nearly ;^i 1,000 from the late Mrs. Frances Hall enabled 

K 



258 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

the committee to enlarge the building so as to accommo- 
date forty girls. At the time I speak of the matron of the 
school was Mrs. Ann Alcock. At a suitable age the girls 
are put out as domestic servants, the applications for them 
far exceeding the supply. The Collegiate Church 
Charity School was also for girls only, and was situated 
in Fennel Street. It contained sixty girls, the mistress 
being Miss Mary Beard. The Manchester School for 
THE Deaf and Dumb was opened in February, 1825, 
and fifty years ago was situated in Stanley Street, Salford, 
near the L)dng-in Hospital Its superintendent was 
Mr. William Vaughan, and its honorary Secretary 
Mr. William Bateman; Dr. Davenport Hulme, and 
Mr. Thomas Turner, being its medical officers. It then 
contained fourteen inmates. 

The National Schools on Dr. Bell's system were two, 
one in Salford, founded in 181 2, and one in Granby Row, 
opened in 1813. The Granby Row School contained 
440 scholars, Mr. William Johnson being master, and his 
wife mistress. I remember Mr. Johnson very well He 
was a good-looking man, gentlemanly in his manners, 
and was a member of the Oddfellows' Society. The 
Lancasterian School was in Marshall Street, Oldham 
Road, and had 1,000 scholars, with Mr. John Perkins, 
superintendent, and Mrs. Hannah Brown, mistress. There 
were three Infants' Schools — one in Buxton Street, London 
Road, with John Halliwell, master; one in King Street, 
Salford, Thomas Merry being master ; and one in Saville 
Street, Chorlton Row, with James Bartley, master. 

There were also the New Jerusalem Free Day School in 



FREE SCHOOLS. 259 



Irwell Street, Joseph Moss, master; St Mark's Charity, 
Cheetham Hill, with forty scholars, and John Lee, master; 
St Mary's Charity, 64, Water Street, for girls, having fifty 
scholars, Elizabeth Tudor, mistress; St John's Charity, 
Gartside Street, for girls, Mary Harrison, mistress; St Paul's 
Charity, Turner Street; Friends* Female Sewing School, 
for girls, Hannah Campion, mistress ; Catholic Free School, 
13, Lloyd Street, Patrick J. Murphy, master, and Susannah 
Fox, mistress ; and, lastly, the Unitarian Free School, Back 
Mosley Street, the Rev. Edward Hawks, master. The 
Workhouse School, in Strangeways, contained about fifty 
scholars. In all these schools a gratuitous education was 
given fifty years ago, and show the efforts made in that day 
to educate the poor. 



260 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

LITERARY. SCIENTIFIC, AND OTHER SOCIETIES. 

XJO provincial society of the same nature has acquired 
a fame so extensive and well-deserved as the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical, or which 
has reflected so much credit on the place of its birth. It 
was originated in 1781, and has always been famous on 
account of its interesting memoirs, which have been trans- 
lated into the French and German languages. Amongst 
the deceased contributors to these have been Dr. Watson, 
Bishop of Llandaff; Dr. Thomas Percival; Mr. Charles 
White, the eminent physician and surgeon of Manchester ; 
the Rev. Dr. Barnes; Mr. Thomas Henry, F.R.S. ; 
Dr. John Ferrier; the Rev. Gilbert- Wakefield ; Dr. James 
Currie; Mr. John Gough; and Dr. Dalton, F.RS. 

Previous to the winter of 1781 the Society had for some 
time existed as an occasional assemblage at private houses ; 
but in the winter of that year it became organized as a 
public body. Its first promoters were Dr. Thomas Percival, 
Mr. Thomas Henry, and Mr. Charles White. Dr. Percival 
became its first joint-president in conjunction with 
Mr. James Massey, who, it will be remembered, was so 
instrumental in establishing the Infirmary. On the death 



LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 26 1 



of Mr. Massey, Dr. Percival became sole president He 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society before he was 
twenty years of age, being, it is said, the youngest member 
ever introduced into that learned corporation. He assisted 
in establishing " The Manchester Academy for the Educa- 
tion of Protestant Dissenting Ministers," afterwards known 
as the Manchester College. The building erected for 
the Academy was at the lower end of Mosley Street, 
that part being then called Dawson Street, standing back 
from the street and leaving a flagged space fenced with 
iron palisadings, and was in existence fifty years ago. 
Mr. Charles White, the eminent surgeon, was one of the 
first vice-presidents of the Society, and remained such 
several years. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1761, and, as before stated, it was to his 
exertions, associated with those of Mr. Massey, that the 
establishment of the Infirmary is due. He was bom in 
Manchester, and continued to practice till he was eighty- 
four years of age. He died in 181 3, shortly after he had 
ceased to practice. Mr. Thomas Henry, who also assisted 
in founding the Society, becoming one of its first joint- 
secretaries, was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and became 
a very eminent chemist. He was apprenticed to a surgeon- 
apothecary at Wrexham. After filling the situation of 
assistant to Mr. Malbon, a visiting apothecary at Oxford, 
he settled at Knutsford, at which place he remained 
five years, and then removed to Manchester, where he 
succeeded to the business of a respectable apothecary in 
King Street He died in 1816, aged eighty-two, and as 
late as 181 5 his name appears in the directory as an 



262 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

apothecary at 40, King Street. He was the originator 
of that popular medicine known as Henry's Calcined 
Magnesia. In 1771 he communicated to the Royal 
College of Physicians of London an improved method 
of preparing magnesia, which was published in their 
Transactions. When he presented this communication 
nothing could have been further from his thoughts than 
engaging in the preparation of the article. When the 
measure was urged upon him by friends, he did not 
relinquish his scruples until he had been assured by sugh 
men as Sir John Pringle, Sir Clifton Wintringham, and 
Dr. Warren that as to the college they saw no objection, 
and that for the public advantage and his own it was 
highly desirable. The article was then manufactured in 
East Street, Bale Street, and is so stilL 

Fifty years ago the president of the Society was John 
Dalton, F.R.S. (not then doctor), and the vice-presidents 
were Dr. Edward Holme, F.R.S.; Dr. William Henry, F.R.S., 
son of Thomas Henry; Peter Ewart, cotton spinner, of 
East Street; and George William Wood, afterwards M.P. 
The treasurer was Benjamin Heywood, the banker; the 
secretaries, Peter Clare and the Rev. John James Tayler, 
minister of Mosley Street Unitarian Chapel; and the 
librarian John Davies. Dalton became a member of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society in 1794. The first 
paper which he read before the Society after joining it 
related to that disease of the eyes from which he suffered, 
known as colour-blindness. The paper was entitled 
'* Extraordinary Facts relating to the Vision of Colours, 
with observations, by Mr. John Dalton," and was read on 



DOCTOR DALTON. 263 



the 31st of October, 1794. Dalton originally was a teacher 
of mathematics at Kendal, and was induced to remove to 
Manchester to accept the office of Professor of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy at the New College, Mosley Street. 
He resided within the college for about six years, till it was 
removed to York. On withdrawing from it he began to 
teach mathematics and natural philosophy privately at his 
residence in Faulkner Street, but shortly after removed to 
the house of John Cockbain, a member of the Society of 
Friends, having the use of the lower rooms in the building 
of the Society in George Street for the purpose of study and 
instruction. After living some time with Cockbain, Dalton 
went to live with the Rev. William Johns, immediately 
opposite his rooms. Johns had a good boys* school, and it 
was here that Dalton was living fifty years ago. A few 
years afterwards the whole line of private houses of which 
Johns' was one was sold for warehouse purposes, when 
Dalton, being ejected, took a house in Faulkner Street for 
his undivided occupancy. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1822, and received the Oxford degree of 
Doctor of Civil Law in 1833. He died on the 27th 
of July, 1844, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. Who 
will say that his longevity was not due, at least in some 
degree, to the very wise practice, which he religiously 
observed, of on one afternoon in every week, laying aside 
all mental toil and indulging in physical recreation? A 
choice party of friends met every Thursday afternoon at 
TattersalFs bowling green on the way to Stretford, amongst 
whom none enjoyed a game at bowls better than the 
worthy Doctor. 



264 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



Amongst the deceased contributors of papers to the 
Literary and Philosophical Society was Mr. John Gough. 
He resided at Kendal, and was a most intimate friend of 
Dalton's. After his death, the Doctor said of him that 
"he might justly be deemed a prodigy in scientific attain- 
ments. Deprived of sight in infancy by smallpox, he lived 
to an advanced age under one of the greatest misfortunes 
which can fall to the lot of man. By the liberality of his 
father he received a good classical and mathematical 
education. He excelled in astronomy, optics, pneumatics, 
chemistry, natural history in general, and botany in par- 
ticular. Mr. Gough was as much gratified with imparting 
his stores of knowledge as I was in receiving them. My 
use to him was chiefly in reading, writing, and making 
calculations and diagrams, and in participating with him 
in the pleasure resulting from successful investigations. 
But as Mr. Gough was above receiving any pecuniary 
recompense, the balance of advantage was greatly in my 
favour." Dr. Dalton's most intimate friend, in the latter 
period of his life, was Peter Clare, the senior secretary of 
the Society, of whom mention has been made in a previous 
chapter. 

Dr. Edward Holme, the senior vice-president, was an 
eminent physician residing at the higher end of King Street; 
he, Mr. Thomas Radford, Mr. Thomas Turner, and 
Mr. James Ainsworth, surgeons, living not far from each 
other, in that street fifty years ago. Dr. Holme was 
elected a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society 
on the same evening on which Dalton was, viz., on the. 
25th of April, 1794. 



DR. WILLIAM HENRY. 265 

Dr. William Henry, who fifty years ago was another vice- 
president of the Society, as before stated, was the son of 
Thomas Henry, already mentioned. He lived to become 
eminent as a chemist, and when a comparatively young 
man delivered several courses of lectures on Chemistry in 
Manchester. These lectures were illustrated by very 
expensive apparatus, and contained experiments of a highly- 
interesting character. When coal gas was applied to the 
purpose of illumination, he was one of the first to deter- 
mine its constitution, to point out the best mode of analysis, 
and to suggest the most effective methods of obviating the 
inconveniences to which, in its early application, it was 
liable. In 1835 Lord Brougham came down from London 
to give an address at the old Mechanics' Institution in 
Cooper Street, to which only members of the institution 
were admitted. I well remember paying five shillings as 
a quarter's subscription, so that I might hear him. On that 
occasion, speaking of Dr. Henry, his lordship said : " I met 
an old and worthy friend of mine, a man of great ability and 
learning, your townsman. Dr. Henry. We were fellow- 
collegians, and learned chemisty together — ^though, God 
wot, he learned a great deal more than I did." 

Mr. John Davies, who was the librarian of the institution 
fifty years ago, I well remember as a plain, unassuming, 
though intelligent-looking man, well versed in the scientific 
discoveries of the age. He delivered a lecture at the 
Mechanics' Institution, which was afterwards published in 
pamphlet form, and which contained a review of the 
principal scientific discoveries of that day. 



266 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

The Natural History Society fifty years ago had its 
rooms at the top of King Street, near to Mr. Thomas 
Turner's and Mr. James Ainsworth's, the surgeons, the 
rooms being kept by Mrs. Susan Steemson. It was 
established in 1821, and in 1829 possessed a museum of 
considerable value and variety. Its patrons then were the 
Earl of Wilton and Sir Oswald Mosley ; the president was 
Dr. Holme, before mentioned; and its vice-presidents 
Dr. Henry, Mr. John Moore, and Messrs. Ransome and 
Ainsworth, surgeons ; the secretaries were Messrs. Thomas 
Turner and Peter Barrow, surgeons; the treasurers, 
Edward Lloyd and Thomas Fleming; and the curators, 
Robert Hindley, John Beever, John Owen, and the 
Rev. R. H. Whitelock. The museum was removed to 
Peter Street in 1835. 

The Botanical and Horticultural Society was 
established in 1827, and the gardens were opened in 1831. 
Previously, its exhibitions were held at the Town Hall, and 
its secretaries were John Milner Marris, of Marris, Son, 
and Jacksons, Cannon Street; and James Benson, cloth 
merchant. Brown Street When the gardens were opened, 
the first officers of the Society were as follows : — Patrons, 
the Earl of Stamford and Warrington, the Earl of Wilton, 
Lord Suffield, and T. J. Trafford; president. Sir Oswald 
Mosley; treasurer, Richard Potter, afterwards M.P. ; 
honorary secretary, the Rev. P. Hordem, librarian of the 
Blue Coat School; acting secretary, Mr. John Holt 
Stanway, accountant, of Marsden Street; and curator, 
William Mowbray. The council-room of the Society was 
then at 9, Marsden Street. 



UNICORN INN. 267 



A Floral and Horticultural Society had been 
recently established, and was in a flourishing condition fifty 
years ago. There was also an Agricultural Society, 
which was one of the earliest institutions of the kind 
established in England, having been founded in 1767. It 
comprehended an area of thirty miles round Manchester, 
and at that time held its meetings at the Royal Hotel 

The Society for the Prosecution of Felons and 
Receivers of Stolen Goods was also in active operation 
fifty years ago, its trustees being Oswald Milne, the 
solicitor; James Hall, dyer, of Ordsall; and Thomas 
Hoyle, calico printer. Its president was William WooUey, 
and its vice-president George Whyatt, dyer, of Openshaw. 
The committee met on the first Monday in the months of 
March, June, September, and December, from seven to 
nine p.m., and consisted of the president and vice-president, 
James Hall, jun., Sunnyside; John Worrall, Ordsall; 
William Harrison, Old Quay ; John Barge, calico printer, 
Broughton ; and Charles Bradbury, calenderer, St. Mary's. 
The committee met at the Unicom Inn, which was then 
kept by Joseph Challender. This was the building which 
by its projection caused the entrance to Smithy Door from 
the Market Place to be so narrow and dangerous. It was 
here, too, that the once celebrated John Shaw's Club was 
held, which has been referred to previously. Shaw 
occupied the house, it is said, upwards of fifty-eight years, 
and died in 1796 at the age of eighty-three. He was an 
eccentric man, and used to turn out all his customers at 
eight o'clock every evening, occasionally using the whip, it 
is said, if any were obstinate, though the hint was generally 



268 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

sufficient There used to be a portrait of him in oil at the 
Thatched House Tavern, which I have seen many years 
ago, and which is now, I understand, at the Mitre Hotel, 
Cathedral Yard. 

The Pine Street School of Medicine and Surgery 
was in a flourishing condition fifty years ago. It was 
founded by the late Mr. Thomas Turner. Mr. Jordan had 
begun a course of lectures on Anatomy in 1814, and in 
1822 Mr. Turner began to lecture on the same subject in 
the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society. In 
1824 Mr. Turner attempted to combine the exertions of 
individual teachers in one complete system of medical 
instruction, and in the following year the Pine Street 
School was fully organized, when he delivered there a 
course of lectures on Anatomy. The other lecturers were 
Dr. James L. Bardsley, on the Principles and Practice of 
Physic and Materia Medica ; Mr. Ransome, on Surgery ; 
Dr. Dalton, on Chemistry; Mr. Kinder Wood, on Mid- 
wifery; and Mr. Thomson, on Botany. Fifty years ago 
Mr. Turner had retired from his position as lecturer on 
Anatomy, which was jointly filled by Mr. Guest and 
Mr. Ransome. About the same time a second School of 
Medicine was started in Mount Street by Mr. Jordan, who 
obtained the co-operation of several of his professional 
friends, he continuing his lectures on Anatomy, whilst 
Dr. Freckleton lectured on the Practice of Medicine and 
Materia Medica; Mr. John Davies, the librarian of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, on Chemistry ; 
Mr. Radford (still living and active), on Midwifery; 
Mr. Fawdington and Mr. Boutflower (the latter also still in 



ROYAL INSTITUTION. 269 

practice), on Surgery; and Mr. Blundstone giving Ana- 
tomical Demonstrations. 

It is just about fifty years since the Royal Manchester 
Institution was opened. Its first secretary was Mr. Geo. 
F. Bury, a solicitor, son of Mr. John Bury, timber merchant, 
of Salford, who was one of the mainsprings of its original 
organisation. The Institution was deprived of his services 
by a shocking and fatal coach accident, a few years 
afterwards. The original aim of the promoters was a very 
modest one, their first intention being to purchase premises 
in King Street and re-model them. The premises fixed 
upon were those occupied by Mr. William Howe, a well- 
known auctioneer and wine merchant, near Four Yards, 
and which nearly fifty years ago were occupied by Mr. John 
Morris, the auctioneer. It was intended to form a jimction 
between this institution and the Natural History Society, 
and a public meeting was held in the Exchange Dining- 
room, at which a resolution was passed expressing '' a hope 
that arrangements in every respect satisfactory may be 
made for the accommodation of its valuable collections in 
the apartments of the house purchased for the Institution, 
and that the two societies may ever be distinguished by a 
cordial and zealous co-operation for the furtherance of their 
common object" A numerous and influential committee 
was appointed by the meeting, amongst whom were 
Sir Oswald Mosley, Dr. J. D. Hulme, Dr. Edward Holme, 
Dr. William Henry, Messrs. E. J. Lloyd, the barrister, 
Robert Hindley, George W. Wood, William Gamett, 
David Holt, H. H. Birley, R. H. Greg, J. A. Ransome, 
W. Townend, Jonathan Dawson, Francis Phillips, James 



270 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



Beardoe, and Robert Christie. Such was the success of 
the meeting that the sober views of the projectors were 
overturned. There was some diflference of opinion at first, 
but the tide of popular feeling set in so strongly that it was 
resolved to build a hall in Mosley Street, which was 
commenced in 1825. Four architectural plans were 
produced, from which the Council selected the model of an 
erection by Mr. Barry, of London, which was to cost from 
;^ 1 8,000 to ;^2o,ooo. At the close of 1831 the total cost 
of land and buildings amounted to ;^2 6,070. About 
;^3 2,000 had been received, which left a balance of nearly 
;^6,ooo for the purchase of works of art. 

Fifty years ago the Mechanics' Institution, which was 
erected in 1824, stood at the lower end of Cooper Street, 
and cost ;£^7,ooo. The building is still standing, and it is 
said was the first erected for the purpose in England. In 
1829 the Secretary was Mr. Thomas Hopkins, who was 
succeeded by Mr. S. E. Cottam, and the librarian 
Mr. Abraham Bennett, who was succeeded by Mr. William 
Turner. I well remember Mr. Day, a succeeding secretary, 
under whose able and energetic management the institution 
greatly prospered. The very interesting and popular 
exhibitions which used to be held for many weeks at 
Christmas, every year, are worthy of being remembered. 
Lord Brougham's visit to the institution, for which purpose 
he made a special journey from London, has been 
mentioned previously. 

Owing to some dissatisfaction which arose as to the 
management of the first institution, in 1829 a rival, styled 
the New Mechanics' Institution, was started in Brazenose 



THE CONCERT ROOM, 



271 

• 



Street, and was afterwards removed to Pool Street, Lloyd 
Street. Its president was Mr, Detrosier, its treasurer 
Mr. Thomas Potter, its secretaries Messrs. Keighley and 
Bond, and its librarian Mr. John Taylor Christie. It was 
at first in contemplation to erect a large hall for the pur- 
pose, but although the plan was advocated by Mr. Joseph 
Hume, M.P., who presided at a public dinner for its pro- 
motion, it was not sufficiently supported to succeed, and 
was abandoned. The AxHENiEUM was not built till 1835. 

The present Concert Hall at that time was in course 
of erection, the first concert given in it being in 1831. The 
old Concert Room as before intimated, was in Fountain 
Street, a little lower than York Street The first stone was 
laid by Mr. Edward Greaves, of Culcheth, on the 24th of 
August, 1775. A so-called musical festival was held in the 
room on the 21st of September, 1785. In a description of 
Manchester written one hundred years ago it is stated that 
" the Concert Room is esteemed to be one of the best in 
England, for the convenient disposition of the seats, the 
elegance of its lustres, and organ. The retiring room and 
backstairs for the performers, the judicious elevation of the 
orchestra to produce the happiest effect which music so 
powerfully commands, and the genteel company at the 
concerts on public nights, are undeniable proofs that this 
species of entertainment was planned with judgment, and 
is conducted with the utmost decency, prudence, and 
integrity." 

The Assembly Rooms were in a plain brick building at 
the comer of Charlotte Street and Mosley Street, opposite 
to Dr. M'All's chapel, and were opened in 1792. To 



.272 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



their use at the last Manchester festival reference will be 
made in a future chapter. 

The Exchange of fifty years ago was a very different 
kind of building from the large and handsome erection 
which now adorns the lower end of Market Street. It had 
been enlarged three or four times, and at the time we speak 
of was comparatively very small. It had its well-known 
semi-circular front, the enlargement having always been 
effected at the back, in the direction of St. Ann's Square. 
It was then as built originally, and had never been enlarged. 
Its first stone was laid in 1806 by Mr. George Phillips, a 
member of the firm of Thomas Phillips and Co., merchants, 
of Bridge Street, whose house was at Sedgley. It was 
erected with a capital of ;£^3 2,000, derived from four 
hundred shares of ;^8o each. Previously the Exchange 
used to stand at the other side of the Market Place, and 
was built in 1729 at the expense of Sir Oswald Mosley. 
Its front was ornamented by four columns surmounted by 
a pinnacle, a representation of which is given in Casson 
and Berry's well-known map of Manchester. The lower 
part of the first Exchange was intended for the merchants 
and chapmen to transact their business in, but it is said 
they generally preferred the Market Place in front of it for 
that purpose, and that butchers' stalls were occasionally set 
up in the Exchange on market days. The upper storey was 
intended for a sessions room and manor court, and was 
sometimes used for concerts and public exhibitions. 

The Chamber of Commerce fifty years ago was in 
Exchange Buildings, in Crow Alley, behind the Exchange, 
at which time Mr. George William Wood was its president. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 273 

and Mr. George Evans Aubrey, secretary. It was first 
established in 1820. 

Of Public Libraries in Manchester in 1829 there were 
seven. The next in importance to the one connected with 
Chetham College was ' the Portico. This building was 
begun in 1802 and opened in 1806, and cost ;£^7,ooo, 
which was taken up in four hundred shares. The chairman 
of the committee was then Dr. Edward Holme; the 
treasurer, Mr. Frederick Maude; the secretary and librarian, 
the Rev. William Whitelegg, minister of the Unitarian 
Chapel, Piatt; and the assistant librarian, Mr. Simon 
Williamson. The oldest library after the College one, is 
the Manchester Circulating Library, having for its librarian 
at the time of which we speak a lady, in the person of 
Mrs. Blinkhom. It was opened in 1765 in Exchange 
Buildings, and was afterwards removed into a room in the 
Exchange, for which the committee fifty years ago only paid 
a rental of ;£^3o. The next in importance was the New 
Circulating Library, which was opened in 1792, and at one 
time was located in Pool Fold, but in 1829 was in Fotmtain 
Street, when John Tonge was its librarian. Another library 
was afterwards opened which was known fifty years ago as 
the New Library, then situated in St. Ann's Street, and had 
for its librarian William Barrow. Besides these there were 
the library of the Mechanics' Institution and the Law 
Library, situated in Marsden Street, the secretary of which 
was Mr. James Chapman, the first coroner of Manchester. 

Markets. — Fifty years ago there was no Cross Lane 
Cattle Market, but that market was then held on Wednesday, 
in Smithfield, Shudehill, which on other days was occupied 



274 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

by traders in a variety of commodities. Of course the area 
thus occupied was nothing like so large as now. From 
5,000 to 10,000 head of cattle were weekly sold there. 
The principal places for the sale of garden produce besides 
Smithfield were the markets in Smithy Door and the Market 
Place. There were several butchers' shambles in the town, 
the principal one being at the comer of Bridge Street and 
Deansgate, adjoining which was a small market for fruits 
and flowers. Another was under the Manor Court Room, 
on the present site of the Post Office in Brown Street A 
third was in London Road, which was opened in i824. 
The Butter Market, which had been held in Smithy Door, 
was removed to the Brown Street market. The Fish 
Market, which has been lately pulled down to make way 
for a more convenient structure, was erected fifty years ago, 
having been built on the site of some butchers' shambles. 
The Hay Market was then held in Great Bridgewater 
Street, and had been removed from Market Street in 1804, 
and the Potato Market was held at Smithfield. The 
present Com Exchange in Hanging Ditch was not then 
erected, but the Com Market was held in a coiut yard 
connected with the Spread Eagle Inn, which is opposite the 
present Com Exchange. This hostelry is one of the oldest 
in the town, and in 1745 was used by the Duke of. Perth 
and many of the officers of the prince's army. When the inn 
was partly rebuilt in 1838, a signet ring and other old 
valuables were found. Bamford in his " Life of a Radical,'* 
narrates that at the time of the Peterloo riot, Hunt stayed 
there, and was grossly insulted by some commercial 
travellers who were in the house. 



THE LORD OF THE MANOR. 275 

The market tolls were at that time the property of 
Sir Oswald Mosley, the lord of the manor. The manor of 
Manchester had remained in the Mosley family more than 
230 years, having been originally purchased from John Lacye 
mercer, of London, in 1596, for ;^3,5oo, by Sir Nicholas 
Mosley. After being Sheriff and Lord Mayor of London, 
he came to reside in this neighbourhood, building the old 
hall known as Hough End (generally pronoimced Ouse 
end), near Chorlton-cum-Hardy, still in a fine state of 
preservation, and occupied by Mr. Lomax as a farmhouse. 
In 1808 a negotiation was set on foot by a town's meeting 
for the purchase of the manor. For this property and its 
privileges Sir Oswald asked ;£^90,ooo, and the deputation 
appointed to treat with him offered him ;^ 70,000. The 
difference was adjusted, but unfortunately another town's 
meeting undid all that had been done, and the negotiation 
came to nothing. In 1845 the Town Council were glad to 
become the purchasers for ^200,000. 



276 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



NEWSPAPERS. 



TN few things is there a greater contrast between the 
Manchester of fifty years ago and that of to-day than 
in relation to the Press. Then, no daily paper was pushed 
under the door before we were downstairs in a morning, 
containing not only an account of what has occurred in 
Manchester, but the news of the world of the preceding 
day, spread out before us with amazing exactness. The 
London morning papers contained an account of the 
debates in Parliament of the previous evening as now, but 
did not arrive here till the following morning. So that, for 
instance, the debates of Monday night were not read in 
Manchester till Wednesday. An attempt was made by 
Mn Charles Murdo Young, the spirited proprietor of the 
Evening Sun, to improve upon this, but it was to so slight 
an extent that it seems to us now to be hardly worth the 
trouble he took. He gave in nis evening edition an 
account of what took place in Parliament down to half-past 
five o'clock, by having relays of boys on horseback who, 
every quarter of an hour or less, carried a report of the 
debates from the House to the Sun office; and in this way 
they were printed and despatched by the mails going north 



MANCHESTER NEWSPAPERS. 



277 



at six o'clock. But in those days, though the hour of the 
meeting of Parliament has not been changed, the debates 
began earlier, inasmuch as so much valuable time was not 
taken up at the commencement by long, numerous, and 
complicated questions being put to the Ministers, as is now 
the case. As to foreign news, what the newspapers 
contained was generally weeks, if not months, old. There 
was then neither telegraph, railway, nor ocean steamship. 

The Manchester newspapers, of which there were eight, 
were all weekly, six being published on Saturday — viz., the 
Chronicle^ the Courier^ the Gazette^ the Guardian^ the 
Advertiser^ and the Times, whilst the Herald was published 
on Thursday by the proprietor of the Courier, and the 
Mercury on Tuesday by the proprietors of the Guardian. 
Those were the days, as before observed, in which the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer used all his ingenuity in 
discovering, not how many taxes he could remit, but in 
how many ways he could put his hand into the pocket of 
the British taxpayer. Hence the newspaper was taxed all 
roimd — the paper on which it was printed, the advertise- 
ments it contained, and finally the newspaper itself. Every 
newspaper had a large red stamp imprinted on it, bearing 
the words "duty fourpence;" and as the price of the 
newspaper was threepence, the full charge for each Man- 
chester one was sevenpence. In 1836 the duty was 
reduced to a penny, and the price of the newspaper to 
fourpence. 

The oldest of the eight newspapers which I have 
mentioned was the Manchester Mercury, which was first 
published in 1752, by Joseph Harrop, at the sign of the 



2 78 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Printing Press, in the Market Place, opposite the clock 
side of the old Exchange. The day of publication was 
Tuesday, which does not seem to have been altered, 
although the title was slightly altered after the eighth 
issue, when it became Harrofs Manchester Mercury and 
General Advertiser. It ceased to be published on the 28th 
of December, 1830, after an existence of seventy-nine 
years. In 1764, to encourage the sale of his newspaper, 
Mr. Harrop gave in weekly numbers "a new History of 
England,'' which he tells his readers at the close cost him a 
hundred guineas. He died in 1804, having when a youth 
served his apprenticeship as a letterpress printer with 
Mr. Henry Whitworth, who published the first Manchester 
newspaper in 1730, entitled Whitworth* s Manchester Gazette^ 
which was afterwards changed to the Manchester Magazine^ 
the price of it being three-halfpence. Its number dated 
December 24, 1745, gives a circumstantial account of the 
movements of the rebel army under Prince Charles. How 
long the paper survived the rebellion is not known, but it 
had ceased to exist when Mr. Harrop began the Mercury. 
The first number of the Manchester JoumcU^ printed by 
Schofield and Tumbull, made its appearance either in 1752 
or 1 754, but was discontinued in two or three years. One or 
two other equally futile attempts to establish a newspaper 
followed. 

The first Manchester Chronicle or Andertofis Universal 
Advertiser was published by Thomas Anderton, at the 
Shakespeare's Head, near the Market Cross, but was short- 
lived. Another newspaper entitled Prescotfs Manchester 
JourmU was printed and published every Saturday by 



EARLY LIBERALS. 



279 



John Prescott in Old Millgate, the price Of which was 
twopence, and the first number of which appeared in 1771; 
but it, alas ! shared the fate of its predecessor. Hence in 
1 78 1 Harrops Mercury had entire possession of the field, 
when Mr. Charles Wheeler recommenced the publica- 
tion of the Manchester Chronicle; so that of the eight news- 
papers published here fifty years ago, excepting the Mercury^ 
which ceased to exist in December, 1830, the Chronicle was 
the oldest. It continued until the end of 1842, when it 
expired, as was said, " after a lingering illness." The truth 
was, it was pushed off the stage by its more spirited and 
more liberal contemporaries, notwithstanding that it had at 
one time the lion's share of advertisements. 

Before coming to the establishment of the chief Man- 
chester journals, it may be as well to notify a few other 
efforts to establish newspapers here. In 1792 political 
feeling ran very high in Manchester, when the formation of 
a " Church and King Club " led to the establishment of the 
"Manchester Constitutional Society" by the leading 
Liberals of the day, amongst whom were Thomas, father of 
the late C. J. S. Walker, mentioned in a previous chapter, 
George Lloyd, James Darbyshire, Thomas Cooper, a 
barrister, George Phillips (afterwards Sir George, mentioned 
previously as having laid the first stone of the late 
Exchange), and Thomas Kershg,w. Some of the members 
of the new Liberal Society induced Matthew Faulkner, one 
of its members, to start a newspaper to advocate their 
principles, under the name of the Manchester Herald^ which 
had not been published many months before a "Church 
and King" mob gathered in the Market Place opposite 



28o MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Faulkner's premises, and attacked the front of the house 
and shop with stones and brickbats till the windows were 
all smashed in, and the premises otherwise injured. From 
thence the mob proceeded to attack the house of 
Mr. Thomas Walker in South Parade, mention of which 
has already been made. Dining the continuance of the 
riot, the deputy-constable, whose name was Unite, was 
present, and actually applauded the mob, saying '4t will do 
them good to be frightened a bit," at the same time 
clapping some of the most active of the rioters on the back, 
and saying " Good lads; good lads.'* It is no wonder that 
the Herald did not live many months. 

During the first twenty-one years of the present century, 
nearly twenty attempts to establish newspapers were made 
which proved abortive. In 1803 four such attempts were 
made. First, the Tel^aph by James Edmonds and Co. ; 
which was succeeded by the Mercantile Gazette and Liverpool 
and Manchester Daily Advertiser, This was the first 
attempt to establish a daily paper out of London, and was 
originated by Dr. Solomon, a well-known quack doctor, and 
the proprietor of a very popular patent medicine known 
as the Balm of Gilead. The Balm succeeded but the 
paper did not. Next followed the Argus, published by 
Joseph Aston ; and a theatrical paper named the Townsman, 
the editor of which was . James Watson, a well-known 
character, generally designated Jemmy Watson, and some- 
times "the Doctor.*' In 1804 the British Volunteer made 
its appearance fi:om the press of Mr. Harrop of the 
Mercury office. It was followed by the Mail, published on 
a Tuesday by Joseph Aston. In 1809 the same publisher 



EARLY NEWSPAPERS. 28 1 



brought out the Exchange Herald^ the day of its publication 
being at first Saturday, which alfter a time was changed to 
Tuesday and then to Thursday. In 18 14 the Manchester 
Magazine was published monthly, and continued for three 
years ; and in 181 7 a predecessor of the present Manchester 
Courier was published by Messrs. Cowdroy and Rathbone, 
but of opposite politics to the present one. In 18 18, 
the Observer was published by Thomas Rogerson, which 
changed hands several times, at one time belonging to 
James Wroe, the well-known Radical bookseller, and was 
discontinued in June, 1821. The Spectator^ printed by 
Mr. Thomas Wilkinson, the father of the present Mr. 
J. F. Wilkinson, of the Guttenberg Works, appeared first 
on Saturday, the 7th of November, 18 18, and was succeeded 
by the Recorder^ the first number of which appeared on 
Thursday, the 6th of May, and was printed by John Leigh 
in the Market Place, and edited by Joseph Macardy, 
who afterwards took so prominent a part in the establishment 
of some of the joint-stock banks here. The Patriot^ another 
of Joseph Aston's papers, was issued first in August, 1819. 
In 1820 the Observer was printed by Mr. Chapman, who 
was fined ;^25ofor printing a libel on Mr. Thomas Fleming. 
In November, 182 1, the Catholic was issued, which was 
changed to the Catholic Phoenix in 1822, and was printed 
by Joseph Pratt, of Bridge Street In the same year a 
second attempt was made to establish a daily newspaper 
here — ^the Northern Express and Lancashire Daily Post, 
which, though printed in Stockport, was published in 
Manchester for Henry Burgess, the first number appearing 
on the ist of December. In 1822, the Manchester Iris, 



282 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

was started, being printed and published by Henry Smith, 
and was discontinued in 1823. To complete the list of 
these short-lived newspapers, the Manchester Advertiser^ 
which was circulated gratuitously, was printed by Joseph 
Pratt, for Stephen Whalley, the first number appearing in 
July, 1825 ; and the Voice of the People, printed by 
John Hampson, was begim on the ist of January, 1831, a 
few days after the Mercury had ceased to exist. 

The Manchester and Salford Advertiser was supported by 
the licensed victuallers, and was begun in 1828. It was 
jointly owned by Mrs. Leresche and Mr. George Condy, the 
barrister, who was its editor and was one of the commis- 
sioners in bankruptcy. Its office was near to the present 
shop of Messrs. Darbyshire in Market Street, and was then 
removed higher up the street, and afterwards formed a 
conspicuous object at the comer of that street and Spring 
Gardens. Of the Chronicle mention has already been made 
as having enjoyed at one time the chief advertising business. 
Its founder was Mr. Charles Wheeler, who died in 1827, at 
the age of 76, Mr. John Wheeler, his son, having been 
taken into partnership with his father as proprietors of the 
Chronicle. I well remember John, whose face was much 
affected by the wind, on which account he used to ride 
through the streets on horseback with a veil covering his 
face, and won the soubriquet of the " Veiled Prophet" He 
was the father of the present Mr. Serjeant Wheeler, the 
only remaining link of a pretty numerous progeny of 
Manchester literary men connected with the press. 

In 1829 the leading newspaper here was the Manchester 
Guardian^ which was printed and published by Messrs. 



^'MANCHESTER GUARDIANS 283 

Taylor and Gamett, the office being in Market Street, 
not far from the spot afterwards occupied by the Bank of 
Manchester, and now occupied by Sharp and Scott, grocers. 
The editor was Mr. John Edward Taylor, the senior 
proprietor, son of the Rev. John Taylor, a Unitarian 
minister, who was bom at Ilminster, in Somersetshire, in 
1 791. He was originally intended for the medical 
profession, but for some reason this design was frustrated, 
and he was placed with a manufacturer in Manchester as 
an apprentice. It is said that his services were so highly 
valued that his indentures were given to him before his 
apprenticeship had terminated. In 18 15 his name appears 
in the directory as a fustian manufacturer, and in that for 
1820 as a cotton merchant. His father, about the year 
1800, having joined the Society of Friends, became the 
manager of their school, in Jackson's Row. He resided 
in Islington Street, Salford, his son during the time he was 
in business residing next door to him, afterwards removing 
to the Crescent, Salford, where he lived in 1829. He early 
manifested a capacity for public business, and when about 
nineteen years of age, became secretary to the Lancasterian 
School In following years he took an active part in those 
political discussions which then greatly agitated the public 
mind, and which paved the way for the beneficial changes 
which have taken place during the last fifty years. 
Cowdro/s Manchester Gazette was at that time the only 
organ of the Liberal party, and to it Mr. John Edward 
Taylor contributed freely, furnishing accounts of and com- 
ments on the various political transactions then passing. 
It is said to be " an ill wind which blows nobody good ;" 



284 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

and but for one of these proverbial ill winds, we might 
have been at this day without our daily Guardian. The 
fact was that Mr. Taylor became involved in a law suit and 
was prosecuted for libel, and it was this circumstance which 
principally led to the establishment of the Guardian, 
Political feeling, as we have seen, ran high in Manchester 
and Salford, when in 18 18 a meeting of Police Commis- 
sioners was held in Salford, at which Mr. Taylor's name 
was proposed as a commissioner. This was opposed by 
Mr. John Greenwood, a counterpane manufacturer, who 
used some very strong language, although good Joseph 
Brotherton, who was present, counselled moderation. 
Mr. Taylor felt that he had been publicly insulted, and 
addressed a stinging letter, to Mr. Greenwood, which formed 
the ground of action. The grand jury at the Salford 
Quarter Sessions found a true bill against him. The trial 
was removed to the King's Bench, and took place at 
Lancaster, on the 29th of March, 1819. Mr. Taylor imder- 
took his defence in person, conducting it with great ability, 
and was allowed to call witnesses in justification of his 
statements, it being, it is said, the only instance on record 
up to that time of a defendant being allowed to do so. 
Baron Wood was the judge, and Scarlett (afterwards 
Lord Abinger) the prosecuting coimsel ; both treated him 
most contemptuously. Joseph Brotherton was his first 
witness, and his quietly given evidence seemed to tell on 
the jury. The next was Mr. Charles Rickards, &ther of 
the late chairman of the Board of Guardians, and who lived 
in Regent Road. Scarlett evidently expected the jury would 
return a verdict in accordance with his desires, and this 



MR. JOHN ED WARD TA YLOR. 285 

might have been so had it not been that the foreman was a 
man made of sterling metal, honest John Rylands, of War- 
rington, who was observed, when the jury retired, to take his 
top coat up and throw it over his arm with the air of a man 
determined not to give way to fear or favour, but to see the 
right done. The jury were locked up, and after waiting a 
considerable time the court broke up, and by-and-by the 
judge went to bed. Hour after hour passed, as Taylor's 
friends paced the strtets near the castle ; then a noise was 
heard, and the jury were marshalled to the judge's lodgings, 
and were conducted to his bedroom, where he sat bolt 
upright in bed, and was astonished to receive their verdict 
of " Not Guilty." 

In the conduct of his defence, Mr. Taylor's friends, who 
had accompanied him to Lancaster, were much impressed 
with his ability and boldness. In returning, one of them 
said to him, " Why don't you begin a newspaper ? if you 
will, we will help you." It was felt how great a need 
there was of a good Liberal paper. Twelve hundred 
pounds were subscribed by twelve gentlemen, and in two 
years more the Manchester Guardian was established 
Accordingly in due course the following announcement was 
made: "On Saturday the sth of May, 1821, will be 
published, price sevenpence. No. i of a new weekly paper 
to be entitled the Manchester Guardian^ printed and 
published by J. Gamett, No. 28A, Market Street, Man- 
chester, where orders, advertisements, and communications 
will be thankfully received after the 30th of April, and in 
the meantime by Mr. Sowler, bookseller, St Ann's Square ; 
Messrs. Robinson and £llis^ St Ann's Place; and by 



286 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

Mr. John Ford, Market Street." In reference to this 
announcement it must be borne in mind that Mr. Sowler 
had not then started the Courier. The first office of the 
Guardian was near the end of New Cannon Street. It is 
said that Mr. Taylor was the first newspaper proprietor in 
Manchester who was capable of acting as editor. He died 
in 1844 at the age of fifty-two. It has been truly said of 
him that ''he was at all times an active and untiring 
advocate of the public improvements of the town, many of 
which owe their origin entirely to him.'* 

Mr. Jeremiah Gamett originally came to Manchester 
from the neighbourhood of Otley with Mr. Thomas Forrest, 
who afterwards became a bookseller. They were both 
letterpress printers, and Gamett obtained employment in 
Mr. Wheeler's printing office, and was frequently employed 
in reporting. He reported the Peterloo meeting for the 
Chronicle^ and was a witness on the trial of Birley and 
others in connection with that affair. On the establishment 
of the Guardian, Mr. Taylor engaged him to assist in 
reporting ; and, owing to the valuable aid he was able to 
afford in the general management of the paper, and its 
improved character, which made it superior to all com- 
petitors, he became a partner, and eventually editor. At 
first the other Manchester journalists looked on the 
innovator with contempt, foretelling its speedy extinction. 
Leaders they regarded as a foolish innovation, and thought 
correct reports an unnecessary expense. As to advertise- 
ments, Mr. Wheeler, who had the main share, refused to 
receive any after one o'clock on the Frida/; having the 
large impression of 3,000 to work off, he must needs go to 



THE ''MANCHESTER GUARDIAN:' 287 

press at three o'clock ; whereas Mr. Garnett received them 
with thanks as late on the Friday evening as any one chose 
to bring them. The printed matter of a Guardian of fifty 
years ago filled a sheet about half the size of the present 
Guardian, that is to say four pages, on each of which the 
printed matter measured 23 inches by 18. The size of the 
page was afterwards enlarged to 26 inches by 20. The 
type was much smaller than at present, and the printing 
was neater. The leaders varied much in length, and each 
had its title printed at its head in small roman capitals. 
The number of advertisements form a striking contrast 
with those in to-day's Guardian, especially when it is 
remembered that it came out only once a week. In one of 
the numbers for the early part of 1829, selected quite at 
haphazard, there were just iii advertisements, 85 of which 
were on the front page. Of the total, 13 were "legal 
notices," eight '^ sales by private contract," 37 "sales by 
auction," 24 "to be let," and 29 others. Two of them are 
illustrated, one being a tailor's advertisement, exhibiting a 
gentleman in a splendidly-fitting suit 

The limits of these papers prevent me firom doing more 
than name one who joined the staff of the Guardian at a 
later period of its history, and to whose admirable report- 
ing, and to his other labours in connection with it, its 
success in a great measure is due. I allude to Mr. John 
Harland, F.S.A., who was born at Hull in 1806 and died 
here in 1868. 

The Manchester Times in 1829 was published by 
Archibald Prentice, in the Angel Yard, Market Place, which 
has since been completely metamorphosed, and is now 



288 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



known as the Hopwood Avenue. Mr. Prentice was a 
hard-headed Scotchman, the son of a Lanarkshire farmer, 
and when a young man came to Manchester as the agent of 
a Glasgow firm of muslin manufacturers. In 1819 he was 
living in Islington Street, Salford, next door to Mr. John 
Edward Taylor, and in 1824 he was still in business, residing 
in Faulkner Street. He formed one of the earnest, active 
band of reformers, who were beginning to make their 
influence felt. Shortly afler the date last mentioned he 
purchased Cawdrofs Gazette^ which then had a circulation 
of from 1,000 to 1,500 a week, paying Cowdro/s widow 
jQBoo down, and engaging to pay her ;;^ioo a year more 
for eight years. Towards the end of 1827 Mr. Prentice 
was in difficulties, and in January, 1828, he issued a manly 
address in which he explained his losses and position. This 
brought around him many kind and sympathizing friends, 
who formed a joint-stock company and incorporated the 
Gazette with a new journal, which was entitled the Man- 
chester Times and Gazette. Towards the close of 1828 the 
title of Gazette was dropped, and, as I have said, the 
Manchester Times was published at Angel Yard by 
Mr. Prentice. In a year or two the office was removed to 
the left-hand side of Market Street going up, and eventually 
to Ducie Place, now covered by the Exchange. Mr. Prentice 
was joined after a short time by Mr. William Cathrall, who 
was for many years reporting agent for the Times, living in 
Lower Byrom Street He was a Wesleyan with whom I 
was well acquainted, and attended Irwell Street ChapeL 
Having myself a place of business in Ducie Place at the 
time when the office of the Manchester Times was there, I 



THE ''MANCHESTER TIMES:' 289 

used to be fond of going in on the Friday evening, and 
seeing the papers worked off on a roller machine, turned 
by a solitary man. What a contrast with what is to be seen 
to-day in the printing office of one of the present Man- 
chester newspapers ! 

About 1845 Mr. Prentice sold the Manchester Times to 
three gentlemen, two of whom had taken a very active part 
in the Anti-Com-Law agitation, Henry Rawson, Henry 
Barry Peacock, and Abraham Walter Paulton, when 
Mr. Paulton became its editor. Mr. Paulton had been a 
medical man at Bolton, and being present during the 
delivery of an Anti-Com-Law lecture one evening, he was 
greatly exasperated at the stupid way in which the lecturer 
answered the questions of some disputant after the lecture. 
He jumped on the platform and undertook the task of 
answering the man himself He was thus led into the 
vortex of agitation, and became one of the most prominent 
and successful of Anti-Com-Law lecturers. I remember him 
well, and have frequently listened to him. He died a few 
years ago at his house in Surrey. 

Shortly after the Times had changed hands another 
newspaper was started which advocated the same principles 
as the Manchester Times, and looked for support to the 
same class of readers. It took the name of the Examiner, 
It was felt by the friends of' reform that there was con- 
siderable waste of power in supporting two newspapers of 
precisely similar views, and about 1848 a union was effected 
and the Manchester Examiner and Times, published by 
Alexander Ireland & Co., was the result. Mr. Thomas 
Ballantyne had been editor of the Examiner, and after a 

L 



290 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

while he retired, when Mr. Paulton became editor of the 
Examiner and Times. On his retirement, about 1854, the 
proprietors were singularly fortunate in securing the services 
of the present editor, who was previously a Baptist minister 
in Salford. The attention of the proprietors of the paper 
was directed to him from the fact that the Anti-Com-Law 
League had offered a large sum of money as a prize for 
the best essay on the Com Laws, for which Mr. Henry 
Dunckley was the successful competitor. Mr. H. B. Peacock 
had a select tailoring business in King Street, and after- 
wards in St. Ann's Square, but became well known in local 
literary, dramatic, and musical circles. His natural bias 
towards literature and criticism led him in middle life to 
surrender his business engagements and to devote himself 
to more congenial pursuits. He had formerly been art, 
literary, and dramatic critic on the Courier^ and after the 
establishment of the Examiner and Times y he joined its 
staff in the same capacity. Archibald Prentice died in 
1857, aged 65 ; and H. B. Peacock in 1876. 

The Manchester Courier fifty years ago was published by 
Mr. Thomas Sowler, a bookseller and stationer in St. Ann's 
Square. His father was a letterpress printer, and in 1794 
was carrying on business as such imder the firm of Sowler 
and Russell, at 13, Hunt's Bank. They afterwards removed 
to the river side of Deansgate, near the Old Church end, 
where Mr. Russell, after Mr. Sowler's death, continued the 
business in partnership with Mr. Allen, and where 
Mrs. Russell still continued it fifty years since. Mr. Russell, 
it has been mentioned before, was a Wesleyan, and was 
the means of introducing Methodism into the village of 



THE ''MANCHESTER COURIER."* 



291 



Cheetham Hill. Thomas Sowler, the son, when quite a young 
man, opened a bookseller and stationer's shop in St Ann's 
Square, on the Deansgate side near the Exchange end.- 
It will be remembered that when the prospectus of the 
Guardian was published in 1821, Mr. Bowler's name was 
given as one of its agents. On the ist of January, 1825, 
the first number of the Courier was published by Mr. Sowler, 
his original intention being to publish it on a Thursday. 
The intention, however, was changed, and it continued to 
be published on a Saturday till it became a daily paper. It 
was announced in the first number that a portion of its 
columns was to be devoted to Science, the Fine Arts, and 
Belles Lettres. Its first editor was Alaric A. Watts. 
Mr. Thomas Sowler will be remembered as a good-looking, 
rather portly, well-dressed, and gentlemanly-looking man, 
who, being short-sighted, generally wore his spectacles 
in the street. 

The contrast between the Manchester newspapers of 
to-day, and those of fifty years ago, is remarkable. A paper 
now rarely, if ever, contains any reference to the contents 
of one of its contemporaries. Each seems to ignore the 
existence of the rest In former days such references were 
very common. 

When each paper was stamped there was no difficulty in 
ascertaining the average weekly number of copies of each 
printed. In a return made rather less than fifty years since 
I find the number as follows: — Guardian^ 5,144; 
Advertiser^ lfi2*i \ 7»««, 3,269 ; CaurieTy 2fi^^ ] Chronicley 
1,038. 



292 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



BUILDING CLUBS. 



nPHERE were several building societies in operation 
fifty years ago, and all of them were held at public- 
houses. The first of which I have any personal knowledge, 
and of which I became a member whilst quite a young 
man, was held at the Red Lion in Church Street I was 
introduced to it by Mr. Jonathan Rawson, of Cromford 
Court, and remember a Mr. Mellor and Mr. William 
Froggatt, house painter, as members of it I have not 
been able to ascertain when such societies were originated, 
or by whom. The first that I can hear of was held at a 
public-house in Ancoats in 1817. The following were in 
existence fifty years ago: One at the house of Joshua 
Beatson, the Black Mare, Canal Street, Ancoats ; one at 
the Lamb Inn, Oldham Road, kept by William Hanley; 
one at the Black Horse, Greek Street, Rusholme Road; 
and one at the Salutation Tavern, Boundary Lane, Oxford 
Road, which was established by the workpeople of 
Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley some time between 1825 and 
1830. It appears that shortly after this an effort was made 
to establish a building society on temperance principles, 
which held its meetings at the Old Meal House in Nicholas 



BUILDING SOCIETIES. 



293 



Croft, and was afterwards removed to the Lever Street 
Chapel, when its name was changed from the Temperance 
to the Manchester and Salford Building Society. 

The societies at that time existing were not on the 
permanent system as now, but were terminating. They 
seem to have been in a great measure public-house clubs, 
but were conducted with order and decorum, as the 
stringency of the rules indicates. For a long time after 
their first establishment it never seemed to enter the heads 
of the managers that one of these clubs could be held 
anywhere else than in a public-house, or that the business 
could be got through without something to drink. The 
landlord seems to have been quite as important a person in 
connection with them as the secretary. I have before me 
the printed rules of one which was established in 182 1 at 
the house of Thomas Nelson, the Union Inn, Horrocks, 
Red Bank. As the rules present a striking contrast with 
the rules of building societies as at present constituted, a 
brief description of them may be interesting. No doubt 
the rules of this society were a type of others. 

The spirit of the times is reflected in the legal jargon 
and verbosity of some of the rules, which are in the form of 
sixteen articles of agreement " indented, made, concluded, 
and fully agreed upon between Thomas Nelson, innkeeper ; 
Thomas Constantine, joiner ; William Taylor, shopkeeper ; 
Samuel Ashworth, shopkeeper; William Reid, fustian 
cutter ; Alexander Parkinson, silk manufacturer, six of the 
subscribers and also trustees, who mutually, reciprocally, 
jointly, separately, and distinctly covenanted, declared, and 
agreed, etc" The last article declares that "the parties 



294 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

all agree amongst themselves that they shall and will in all 
things well and truly observe, perform, fulfil, accomplish, 
pay, and keep all and singular the covenants, articles, 
clauses, payments, conditions, and agreements, etc." 

The first article provides that there shall be three 
trustees, to be in office six months, when the three seniors 
were to retire and three others were appointed, and so on, 
three to be changed every six months. Anyone refusing to 
serve was to pay a fine of five shillings, but if re-elected 
within thirteen months he should not be obliged to serve. 
The monthly meeting was to begin at seven and close at 
nine p.m., and if there was any dispute as to the exact 
time, the matter was to be settled by the majority. The 
monthly subscription was ten shillings per share, and the 
privilege of receiving an advance was sold to the highest 
bidder out of three times bidding. Every member receiving 
his money was to pay eight shillings and fourpence per 
share per month. The fines for non-pa5rment of the 
subscription were threepence per share for the first month, 
sixpence for the second, a shilling for the third, two 
shillings for the fourth, four shillings for the fifth, and for 
each following month four shillings. If not paid up at the 
end of twelve months, the defaulter was to be excluded and 
forfeit all money he had paid, as well as all the benefit 
belonging to him in the club. Any member entitled to 
receive his purchase money was to give two days' notice to 
the treasurer, and was to pay six shillings to the trustees for 
their expenses ; and in case they had to go more than two 
miles from the Market Place, he should pay reasonable 
expenses. The names and residences of the trustees for 



RULES OF A BUILDING CLUB. 



295 



the time were to be entered in a book to be kept by the 
landlord, to whom application was to be made, and if he 
failed to give notice to the trustees, he was to be fined ten 
shillings and sixpence. Not less than four were to act, and 
if any trustee should refuse to go, he was to be fined two 
shillings. Great care was to be exercised as to the ad- 
mission of new members, and any member relating (sic) any 
unfavourable remark made on any person wishing to enter 
was to be fined five shillings. The landlord was to give 
security for the safe keeping of the box and books of the 
society, and there were to be five locks and keys to the box 
— three keys for the three senior trustees, and one each 
for the treasurer and landlord. When the trustees were 
summoned to attend to transact certain business at a time 
fixed by the senior trustee, if any of them did not attend 
within half-an-hour, he was fined a shilling ; if not within an 
hour, two shillings ; and if not within an hour and a half, 
three shillings. If grievances arose, the complainant was 
to apply to the trustees, who were to appoint a committee 
of investigation. If the complaint were unfoimded, the 
person making it was to pay the expenses of the committee, 
and vice-versa. If any member refused to serve on the bye-law 
committee, he was fined two shillings ; if fifteen minutes 
late at any of its meetings, he was fined sixpence; if 
half-an-hour late, a shilling; and an hour, eighteenpence, 
unless hindered by business or indisposition. The fines 
were to go to the gener^ fund. If any of the trustees or 
secretary were not in the clubroom on the night of meeting 
by half-past seven o'clock, he was fined sixpence ; if not by 
eight, a shilling; or half-past eight, five shillings. The 



;^ 



296 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

senior trustee was to keep good order in the club-room. If 
any officer embezzled any money, he was to repay it and be 
fined two guineas, or be excluded. 

If any member of the club should manifest signs of being 
under the influence of drink, he should be ordered to with- 
draw; if he refused he was fined sixpence, and again 
ordered to withdraw ; if he still refused, another fine of 
sixpence was imposed, and the order to withdraw repeated, 
and so on till he yielded. Any member using offensive or 
indecent language, was to be called to order, and if he 
should not desist, was fined a shilling. But if any member 
should fight with or strike another he was fined five shillings. 
There were two drink stewards appointed whose office 
lasted for three months. They were to serve in rotation, 
as their names stood on the book, or be fined two shillings. 
If a drink steward was not in the clubroom by half-past 
seven he was fined threepence, if not by eight, sixpence, 
and if not by half-past eight two shillings and sixpence. 
The secretary was to have a salary of one guinea for the 
first six months, after that it was to be fixed as the members 
should agree. 

There is no mention in the rules of borrowing money or 
entrusting it on deposit to the society. There was no 
danger of a run on the trustees, and but little temptation 
was held out to the, property speculator. The societies were 
economically managed, and every member took an interest 
in the welfare of the society and knew how matters were 
getting on. Not only so, but the members became 
acquainted with each other, and where the club was well 
conducted many a pleasant evening was often spent 



MUSIC. 297 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



MUSIC, PAGANINI, AND MALIBRAK. 



TT is just about fifty years since what may be called a 
revival in the musical world of Manchester seems to 
have taken place, the evidences of which were the establish- 
ment of the Glee Club, the building of the present Concert 
Hall, the institution of the Manchester Choral Society, and 
the production and public performance of an oratorio by a 
Manchester musician. 

The Glee Club was originated in 1830, and its meetings 
were held in the large room behind Ha3nvard*s Hotel, in 
Bridge Street. Its first president was Mr. William Shore. 
My master, Horatio Miller, became a member of it, and 
took me with him on one occasion. I remember Mr. John 
Isherwood as one of its members ; he was a stout, thick-set 
man, having a capital bass voice. He was a member of the 
choir, I believe, at St. Peter's Church. He died shortly 
after this, and left a son, James, alsaa musical man, but 
who, unlike his father, was thin and spare. 

The Concert Hall was opened in 1831, the Concert 
Rooms — ^as they were called — Shaving been previously in 
Fountain Street The original income firom the present 
hall was 3,000 guineas, derived from 600 subscribers of five 



298 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

guineas eax:h, each of whom had two tickets to every 
concert, one for himself and another for a lady member of 
his family, for any male under age, or for any person not 
resident within a prescribed distance. 

The Manchester Choral Society was founded in 1833, 
and held its first meeting in the Exchange Dining Room. 
Amongst the professors of music then resident here was 
Mr. Richard Cudmore, living in George Street He com- 
posed an oratorio called " The Martyr of Antioch," which 
was performed at the Theatre Royal in 1832, and from 
which it was thought worthy to give a selection on the 
occasion of the last Musical Festival here. 

Amongst the musical characters of Manchester in those 
days I may mention the following, whom I remember : 
David Ward Banks; Gregory, violinist; Hughes, oboe 
player ; Henry Arnold, teacher of music ; Thomas Buck, 
engraver and member of Old Church choir; the two 
Malones, who used to sing at the Catholic Chapel ; 
J. Sheldrick, Prestwich ; and Miss Barlow, singers. 

Although it is not quite fifty years since Paganini visited 
Manchester, and since the last Musical Festival here, I 
may be allowed to include them in these reminiscences. 
Paganini visited Manchester some little time after I came 
here, and well do I recollect the occasion. His per- 
formance took place in the old Theatre Royal in Fountain 
Street, into the pit of which I obtained admission after a 
desperate struggle. The steps leading to it out of Fountain 
Street took a sharp turn to the left, presenting an ugly 
elbow, against which, so great was the crush, I got jammed, 
and had considerable difficulty in extricating myself The 



PAGANINL 299 



house was crowded some time before the beginning of the 
performance, and when at last the time arrived, a tall, 
gaunt figure stepped to the front of the stage with fiddle in 
one hand and bow in the other, with his long hair turned 
back showing a fine forehead and an intellectual face. 
Nothing could exceed his awkward appearance as he stood 
bowing to the audience, in response to their plaudits. He 
seemed like a fish out of water imtil the uproar ceased, 
when a sudden change came over him as he placed his 
violin in position. He then seemed all at once to forget 
where he was, and losing the painfiil expression of 
countenance he had previously manifested, his features 
assumed an earnest expression of delight and his whole 
soul seemed absorbed in his instrument. I make no 
pretensions to musical criticism, and having listened to 
Norman-Neruda and Joachim in later days, I have often 
wondered as I have been charmed by then: performance 
whether Paganini excelled them. One marvellous feat 
which he accomplished that night I remember was the 
imitation on his violin of the several noises heard in a 
farm-yard, such as the cackling of geese, the braying of an 
ass, and the grunting of a pig. In after years a blind man 
known as Tom Inglescent, who kept the Paganini Tavern in 
Great Ancoats Street, became a very clever imitator of the 
great violinist 

It so happened that having finished my apprenticeship, 
and concluded a term of service as an assistant with 
Mr. Horatio Miller, I left his employ on the Saturday 
before the last Manchester Musical Festival, and resolved 
to enjoy the Festival week, which began on Monday the 



300 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



1 2th of Sqytember, 1836. There have been only two 
musical festivals in Manchester, one in 1828 and one in 
1836, On the first occasion the receipts were about 
;^i 5,000, leaving a profit of ^5,000, which was divided 
amongst the charitable institutions of the town. In this 
sum, however, was included a donation of ^500 from the 
first Sir Robert Peel, and another munificent contribution 
from his son and successor. On the last occasion there 
was no donation higher than ^20, and the receipts were 
;^ 1 7, 500, which left a profit of ^4,230, out of which 
;^x,5oo were paid to the Infirmary. 

The Festival included a dress ball on the Monday 
evening at the Assembly Rooms, four morning performances 
of sacred music in the Old Church, three miscellaneous 
concerts at the old Theatre Royal in Foimtain Street, on 
Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday evenings, and on 
Friday evening a fancy dress ball. The Tuesday morning's 
performance at the Old Church included more than fifty 
recitatives, airs, and choruses, and began with Attwood's 
Coronation Anthem, which was followed by the whole of 
Haydn's " Creation," in three parts. This was succeeded by 
a selection from Mozart's '^ Requiem," and Bishop's cantata, 
" The Seventh Day,*' concluded the programme. Besides 
principals there were 102 instrumentalists, and 224 chorus 
singers, gathered from York, London, Manchester, Liverpool, 
and other parts of Lancashire. The principal vocalists 
were Mesdames Malibran, Caradori Allan, Assandri, Bishop, 
Knyvett, A. Shaw, and Clara Novello (then not more than 
eighteen) ; and of gentlemen, Lablache, Braham, Bennett, 
Phillips, IvanofT, and Machin. The principal instrumental 



THE LAST MUSICAL FESTIVAL. 30 1 

performers were — ^Violin, De Beriot (Malibran's husband) ; 
violoncello, Lindley; contra-basso, Dragonetti; comet, 
Harper; flute, Nicholson; oboe, Cooke; clarionet, 
Willman; bassoon, Baumann; and horn, Piatt. The 
conductor was Sir George Smart ; and the leader of the 
band at the evening concerts was Mori, and of the 
oratorios at the church F. Cramer, whilst the organist was 
W. Wilkinson, of Manchester. 

It was my good fortune to be present at the concerts on 
Tuesday and Wednesday evenings, on which latter occasion 
I heard Malibran sing the very last note she ever sang on 
earth. I was also present to hear the "Messiah" on 
Thursday morning, and finished up the week with the fancy 
dress ball on Friday night. On the Monday there were 
two full rehearsals, one at the church, at which all the 
principal and other performers were present except 
Malibran, and which began at nine a.m., and did not 
terminate till nearly five p.m. In the evening there was a 
second rehearsal at the theatre, which was not over till 
eleven p.m. At the ball on Monday evening there was a 
good deal of excitement caused by a report, which rapidly 
spread through the room, that several gentlemen had been 
eased of their purses. Deputy-constable Thomas was sent 
for and scrutinized the company, but the birds had taken 
wing. However, next morning, just before the oratorio of 
the "Creation" was begun, when the audience were 
crowding into the church, a carriage drove up, and four 
well-dressed gentlemen, with two dashingly-attired ladies, 
alighted and marched up the covered way to present their 
tickets. Thomas saw them and proceeded to put some 



302 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



rather awkward questions to them, on which the ladies left 
in disgust. The gentlemen were eventually locked up, and, 
on being brought before the magistrates next morning, it 
was proved that they were members of the swell-mob of 
Londoa 

At the Tuesday evening concert, after an Italian song 
most exquisitely given by Lablache and Malibran, I 
remember being most pleased with Phillips' rendering of 
"The Light of other Days," accompanied by Harper on the 
comet, which was one of the finest performances I ever 
heard The duet by Malibran and Lablache was a comic 
song, which convulsed the whole audience, he trying to 
imitate Malibran in a falsetto voice, whilst she retorted 
upon him in a kind of bass. It was on Wednesday evening 
that Malibran sang as perhaps she had never done before, 
and died in the attempt Caradori Allan and she were 
appointed to sing in a duet from " Andronico," when they 
seemed to rival each other in their efforts. The scene is 
very vividly impressed on my memory. There was a rather 
high note, in singing which one of the two indulged in a 
brilliant trill, which was followed by a similar effort on the 
part of the other. The effort quite electrified the audience, 
and when the song was finished the applause was almost 
overwhelming, and an encore demanded. Unfortunately 
Malibran responded to it, and again the two went through 
their parts with (if possible) increased ardour, and retired 
amidst tremendous applause. In a very short time 
Dr. Bardsley (uncle of the late Sir James) was called 
from his seat in the pit, with Mr. Worthington the 
surgeon, to see Malibran. Soon after> one of the stewards 



MALIBRAN'S DBA Tff. 303 

was obliged to announce that she had become so ill 
that Dr. Bardsley had deemed it necessary to bleed her 
in the arm ( ! ), and considered it would not be safe for 
her to take any further part in the performance that night 
Neither was she able to take her part in the *' Messiah " 
at the church the next morning, although, contrary to the 
wish of the Committee, and, in the first instance, of her 
medical advisers, she insisted on going to the church. She 
had not been long in the ante-room, however, when she 
was seized with hysterics, and was brought back to her 
hotel, from which she never removed till her death, which 
took place on the Friday week, September 23rd. She was 
interred in the Collegiate Church, on Saturday, Oct. ist, 
the Roman Catholic service for the dead having been pre- 
viously performed at the hotel by the Rev. James Crook, 
of St Augustine's, Granby Row. A series of contentions 
regarding the removal of Malibran's remains to Brussels 
began on the Wednesday following. Representations were 
made by a relative of M. de Beriot to the Festival 
Committee, who in reply maintained that the funeral had 
been carried out in strict accordance with the instructions 
given by M. de Beriot to Mr. Thomas Beale, Alderman 
Willert, and Mr. Joseph Ewart. Many negotiations took 
place, and eventually a suit was instituted in the Consistory 
Court At length towards the end of December a simple 
and touching letter was addressed by the singer's mother to 
Mr. Sharp, the senior churchwarden, which cleared away 
the opposition. Feeling had run very high, and in order 
to avoid anything like popular tumult, at five o'clock on a 
dark December morning, the almost weird-like scene of the 



304 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

exhumation of Malibran*s body took place, between twelve 
and thirteen weeks after its interment, and long before 
people were aktir the remains of the ill-fated cantatrice were 
many miles removed from Manchester. 

After the effort referred to of the two queens of the 
festival, Braham sang " Mad Tom," accompanied on the 
piano by Sir George Smart, with splendid effect, and shortly 
after Lablache gave " Non piu andrai," from " Figaro." I 
remember the ease with which he sang it, standing at the 
front of the stage with the fingers of his right hand between 
the buttons of his waistcoat, and producing such full, rich, 
mellow notes, as my next neighbour remarked to me, as 
though he had a musical instrument in his inside. The 
song was encored, and though I have never heard the air 
since I have remembered it to this day. He was, I believe, 
musical preceptor to the Queen when she was Princess 
Victoria. I also call to mind the beautiful playing of a 
concerto on the violoncello by William Lindley, accom- 
panied by Dragonetti on the contra-basso. 

Hearing the " Messiah " on Thursday morning for the 
first time in my life under such exceptionally happy circum- 
stances, it is no wonder that its performance afforded me 
the most unbounded delight. My old master, Horatio 
Miller, who was a man of refined and cultivated taste, and 
had lived in London nearly all his life, told me afterwards 
that the performance had exceeded anything he had ever 
heard, and that the exquisite character of some of the 
singing had produced such an effect upon his nerves that 
he was good for nothing the rest of the day. The opening 
recitative and air by Braham were fine indeed. The parts 



FANCY DRESS BALL. 305 

assigned to Malibran were principally taken by Caradori 
Allan, la the Hallelujah Chorus, Harper's trumpet added 
much to its effect; it was said that he was the best 
performer on that instrument ever heard in England. 

As to the Fancy Dress Ball, I suppose no sight like it 
has ever been witnessed in Manchester, either before or 
since, and perhaps never will be again, inasmuch as now 
the old Theatre Royal and the Assembly Rooms are gone, 
it would be difficult to find the necessary space. There 
was no single building in Manchester which would contain 
a fourth part of the persons expected to attend the ball, 
and hence it was determined to throw into one suite of 
rooms the Portico, the Assembly Rooms (which were 
exactly opposite, in Mosley Street), and the Theatre Royal, 
^ which was behind the Assembly Rooms, in Fountain Street. 
Accordingly, wide covered communications were built over 
Mosley Street and Back Mosley Street, connecting these 
buildings, together, in addition to which a spacious building 
was erected over Charlotte Street, to be used as a 
refreshment-room. Although so much space was provided 
— for it was said that the suite of apartments referred to, 
with the passages, formed a promenade of little less than 
a quarter of a mile in length — ^yet the rooms were crowded 
to suffocation. Dancing was very difficult in the Theatre, 
the stage and auditorium of which were made into one 
great ballroom ; but in the two ballrooms in the Assembly 
Room, and especially in the Portico Newsroom, there was 
a good deal of dancing. The principal entrance was in 
Mosley Street, not Cooper Street, and the company were 
at once ushered into the tea-room; but as the evening 



306 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 

advanced, locomotion was difficult, and the passages over 
Back Mosley Street into the Theatre were choked with 
people, and it took an hour to get into the supper-room, 
built over Charlotte Street Many never succeeded in 
reaching that room at alL The lounge or drawing-room 
over Mosley Street was extremely elegant, fitted up with 
splendour and with an appearance of great comfort, with 
abundance of ottomans and mirrors. I believe there were 
nearly five thousand persons present, and one thing which 
greatly surprised me was the large number of fancy dresses 
which arrived in Manchester to be hired out, which were . 
sent by firms in London, and no doubt fi*om the Continent 
also. As the time of the ball approached, the prices, which 
at first were high, were greatly moderated, so that the day 
before I was able to hire a dress, representing a Turkish t 
sailor, for fifteen shillings. No doubt many of the wealthy 
had dresses made to order, but an enormous number were 
hired, and there seemed to be no limit to the supply. It 
was the only time in my life at which I have been present 
at a ball, and it was an occasion not to be forgotten. 



PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS. 



307 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS. 



A DESCRIPTION of what Manchester was fifty years 
ago would be incomplete without some notice of the 
public amusements of the day, which were not so niunerous 
as now, even in proportion to the population. Neither 
Belle Vue nor Pomona Gardens then flourished; but 
instead Vauxhall or Tinker's Gardens, in the neighbour- 
hood of CoUyhurst, was the favourite resort of the class of 
people who patronised that sort of thing. Instead of 
visitors brought by cheap trips on the rails from Lincoln- 
shire, Warwickshire, Yorkshire, Wales, and many parts of 
the north of England, Tinker's Gardens were supported 
chiefly by Manchester people and those who lived not far 
distant I cannot describe them, as I never saw them till 
they were in ruins, when I saw the sand they contained 
being carted away, but they were nothing like the others 
mentioned either in extent or attractiveness. They were 
originated some time at the close of the last century by 
Robert Tinker, who died in 1836, at the age of seventy. 
An attempt was once made to establish Zoological Gardens, 
which were opened in a lane turning out of the Higher 
Broughton Road, on the right-hand side going up. They 



308 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

■ 

were well stocked and tastefully laid out, but not being 
supported as they deserved to be, were after a time closed. 
The animals and their cages, the plants, and fixtures were 
sold by auction by Mr. Fletcher, many of the animals being 
piurchased by Mr. Jennison, the proprietor of Belle Vue 
Gardens, and formed the nucleus of his present collection. 
Neither were there such places of amusement as the casinos 
and music halls of the Lower Mosley Street and Peter 
Street types to attract the populace. I have mentioned 
before that the hours of business were much longer than at 
present, some of the warehouses not closing till very late. 
As for the Saturday afternoon holiday, it was not even 
dreamt of. Hence people had fewer opportunities of 
indulging their inclinations in this direction. There was 
no such thing as a weekly concert of any kind; for 
those which preceded Hallo's, conducted by the late 
David W. Banks, did not begin till many years after. 
The opportunities afforded to people outside the Concert 
Hall of hearing good music were few and far between. 

Kersal Moor, or as it was generally pronounced by the 
lower orders " Klarsey Moor," races were held during the 
Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday of Whit week, and were 
then as popular as the races of to-day. The managers 
of Sunday Schools had not the same opportunities of 
presenting coimter attractions by means of cheap railway 
trips to distant places (some of them outrageously distant) 
as now. Still they managed to amuse and interest the 
young people quite as effectually. As to the railways, there 
is the greatest possible contrast between the Whit week in 
Manchester of 1830 and that of 1880, and no stronger 



KERSAL MOOR RACES. 309 

illustration can be furnished of how the supply of a good 
thing creates the demand for it. 

Kersal Moor races were first established a century 
previously to the time I speak of, and were opposed by 
Dr. Byrom, who wrote a pamphlet strongly condemning 
them. They were kept up for fifteen years and were then 
discontinued, but in another fifteen years were re-established. 
On the second attempt, though a very long and severe 
paper war was carried on against their renewal, they 
retained their hold of the public, and in 1777 the grand 
stand was built. It has been previously mentioned that 
one of the principal supporters of the races fifty years ago 
was Mr. Thomas Houldsworth, M.P., a cotton spinner, 
who lived at No. 2, Portland Place, the site of the present 
Queen's Hotel. He was a great favourite with the racing 
public, who were much elated by the victory of any one of 
his horses, which were always known by his jockeys wearing 
jackets of green and gold. Unlike the present racecourse, 
as I am told, the moor was as firee as the air you breathe 
there. Under the stands were drinking-bars, which were 
let off to various publicans, amongst which one of the most 
popular was old Joseph Blears, the landlord of the Jolly 
Carters at Winton, near Eccles, who was a customer of ours 
for soda-water. It was at his house, it will be remembered, 
that a servant girl was foully murdered in 1826 by two 
brothers named M'Keand, with the view of plundering the 
house. They stabbed Mrs. Blears in several parts of the 
body, but she survived nearly twenty years. The event 
caused a great sensation throughout the country. I 
remember going to the house and inspecting the scene of 



3IO 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



the murder. The murderers were afterwards apprehended 
and executed at Lancaster. Just behind the grand stand 
was a hillock on which, in 1790, a man was hanged for a 
burglary committed at the house of a Mr. Cheetham, on 
the Chester Road. In addition to Kersal Moor races, the 
Earl of Wilton opened Heaton Park for races for one or 
two days in the autumn of every year, and they were nearly 
as well patronized as the former. In 1839 the Earl 
discontinued them. 

The barbarous sport of bull-baiting was, fifty years ago, 
not quite extinct, for although not practised in Manchester, 
it was at Eccles on the occasion of the wakes, which were 
attended by a? large number of Manchester people who 
could find delight in such cruelty. Akin to this was the 
practice of cock-fighting, which flomrished here fifty years 
ago. The cockpit, which, as the name implies, had been 
originally in Cockpit Hill, behind Market Street, was then 
in Salford, near Greengate. Every Whit week the sport 
began on the Monday and usually lasted all the week. 
The Earl of Derby (great grandfather of the present earl) 
was a chief supporter of cock-fighting, and used to stay at 
the Albion Hotel during Whit week. Living in Market 
Street, I well remember him driving down to the cockpit 
in a carriage and four every day about twelve o'clock in 
that week. 

It is said that the first place employed as a theatre was a 
temporary structure of timber at the bottom of King Street 
After this a theatre was opened in Marsden Street, in 1753, 
and was closed in 1 775. In this year application was made 
to Parliament for a bill to erect what was called, fifty years 



THEATRES. 



311 



ago, the " Minor Theatre," at the comer of Spring Gardens 
and York Street, but which was originally called the 
Theatre Royal. As illustrating the spirit of that age, it is 
worth mentioning that the bill was opposed by the Bishop 
of London, on the ground that Manchester was a manu- 
facturing town, and nothing could be more destructive to 
the political welfare of the place ; whilst it was supported 
by the Earl of Carlisle, because Manchester, he 'said, had 
become the seat of Methodism, and he thought there was 
no way so effectual to eradicate " that dark, odious, and 
ridiculous enthusiasm as by giving the people cheerful 
amusements, which might counteract their methodistical 
melancholy!" This building was burnt down in 1789, 
and the following year the theatre was erected which was 
standing on the same spot fifty years ago, and which (then 
called the " Minor"), with the Royal, in Fountain Street, 
were the only theatres in Manchester. I remember three 
of the performers at the Minor whom I knew by sight off 
the stage, one of whom was Henry (generally called Harry) 
Beverley, the lessee and manager, a man above the average 
size, who had a comical expression of the face. Another was 
a rather slim, spare man, a comedian, named Sloane ; and 
the third was a short, stiff-built man, named Preston, who 
was the principal tragedian, and, I believe, a great favourite 
with the gallery people. He afterwards kept a public-house, 
and we supplied him with soda-water, so that I got to know 
him, and found him a very decent fellow. On one occasion 
Sloane ascended with some noted aeronaut in a balloon, 
when it was announced that after his descent he would 
make his way to the theatre and give the audience an 



312 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



account of his aerial voyage. An attempt was made at 
another time, I remember, to increase the attraction of the 
theatre by providing a huge mirror, or rather set of mirrors 
in one immense sheet, to divide the stage from the rest of 
the house. 

I remember going there on one occasion to hear a 
lecture on taxation by William Cobbett. He was a 
fair-complexioned, roundish-built man, above the average 
height, wore knee-breeches, and presented the appearance 
of a respectable, well-to-do farmer. Unlike Richard Cobden 
in appearance, he resembled him in the treatment of his 
subject, in his free use of Saxon words, and his clear, 
common-sense way of putting his case. In connection with 
his name I may say here that I remember Henry Hunt, 
too, of Peterloo notoriety, proceeding up Market Street, 
and standing up in an open carriage drawn by four grey 
horses at a walking pace, accompanied by a crowd of 
working people. He was a hardy-looking, big, square-built 
man, and presented a sun-browned face. I also once 
caught a sight of Sir Francis Burdett, as he was turning out 
' of Market Street into Pool Fold, walking with one or two 
other gentlemen, and followed by a small crowd. If my 
memory does not deceive me, he wore knee-breeches and 
top-boots* In after-days I saw and heard Feargus O'Connor 
several times. 

The Theatre Royal in Fountain Street was opened in 
1807, under the management of Mr. Macready (I think 
the late Mr. Macready's father), at a rental of ;^2,ooo a 
year, and fifty years ago was under the management of 
Mr. Robert Clarke, who, as before stated, was a friend of 



BAKER, THE COMEDIAN. 313 

my master. I have previously explained that my father, 
being a Wesleyan minister, bound me an apprentice to a 
gentleman of the same religious denomination, who, during 
my apprenticeship, sold the business to Mr. Horatio Miller, 
of London, who, amongst other literary and artistic tastes, 
was dramatically inclined. As I remained with Mr. Miller^ 
it was in this way I gained a knowledge of various actors, 
both eminent and ordinary, and have already mentioned 
several great performers, such as Charles Kemble, Dowton, 
Macready, and others, who, when in Manchester, used to 
visit my master, and with some of whom I have dined at 
the ordinary table. Amongst the regular company of the 
Theatre Royal was a comedian named Baker, who used to 
call, and who was very popular with theatrical audiences, 
and rather witty. I remember hearing of his once entering 
the bar of the White Bear, where were a number of 
gentlemen whom he knew. One of them, who had a silver 
snuff-box, after taking a pinch of snuff from it, laid it on 
the table, when Baker, taking it up and likewise taking a 
pinch, put the box into his pocket and was walking off with 
it On being called back and requested to leave the box 
behind him, he replied that it seemed " a hard case that a 
poor actor was not allowed to take a box for his own bene- 
fit" The White Bear was then kept by the well-known 
Ben Oldfield, of whom it was written after his death : " This 
gentleman might not be inaptly styled the Peter Pindar of 
Lancashire ; his wit was keen and brilliant, and his humour 
rough, but full of living nature." I remember him as a 
well-built, pleasant-looking, and well-dressed man. 
Some years after, and before the Free Trade Hall was 



3H 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



built, in the days of the Anti-Com-Law agitation, a large 
bazaar was held in the old Theatre Royal, in which I took 
yan active part. A committee of nearly two hundred ladies 
}aras formed, including many who had distinguished them- 
selves in vor^s of charity and philanthropy in various parts 
^of the country. It was originally intended that it should 
be held in the Town Hall, but it soon became apparent 
that the building would not be large enough. The Theatre 
Royal was at length fixed upon, and its whole interior 
changed under the superintendence of an architect The 
pit was boarded over, and its sombre appearance was con- 
verted into one of great beauty and brilliance. There has 
been no bazaar like it either before or since. It was 
continued for ten working days, viz., from the Monday of 
one week to the Thursday of the following week, during 
which the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. The receipts 
were ;^8,333, which was made up to ;£io,ooo by the 
proceeds of a sale of the remains by auction and by various 
donations of money. There were thirty-eight stalls, at one 
of which a sister of Richard Cobden presided. Living 
, authors contributed many of their works, amongst whom 
were Campbell, Moore, Rogers, Ebenezer Elliott, the 
Rev. John Foster, Dr. Pye Smith, Airy (the Astronomer 
Royal), Dr. Elliotson, Miss Martineau, and Mrs. Marcet. 
A ^^ry large and very valuable collection of autographs, 
inpjtiding those of the Queen, Prince Albert, and the 
Royal dukes, was disposed of by lottery. There was a 
large refreshment stall presided over by Mrs. Thomas 
Woolley, and as I supplied the soda water and lemonade, I 
undertook the management of that department for her. 



DESTRUCTION OF THEATRE ROYAL. 



315 



I had the free run of the building, and never enjoyed a 
week and a half more. I remember getting up into the 
higher regions of the theatre and discovering how thunder 
was produced and whence the hail came. 

The old building was burnt down on the 7th of May, 
1844, having been in use thirty-seven years. In it the 
most renowned men and women in the dramatic profession 
appeared from time to time during its existence. 



3 16 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



DRESS AND CONCLUSION. 



TN concluding these reminiscences it must naturally be 
the case that several subjects illustrating the condition 
of Manchester fifty years ago will remain unnoticed. There 
are one or two matters, however, which may here be 
mentioned promiscuously. And first a word on gentlemen's 
dress, which differed in many respects from that of to-day. 
To begin at the highest point The hat worn by gentlemen 
was always what is commonly called a "top hat," which 
was covered with beaver, a gentleman's beaver hat being 
an article now quite out of fashion. There were such 
things as silk hats, but the silk was not so skilfully prepared 
as now, and the hats then covered with silk were shabbier 
and cheaper than beaver hats. The soft flexible felt hats 
so much worn (especially by clergymen) at this day, a 
gentleman would have been ashamed to be seen in. It is 
difficult to say why so many clergymen, who should of all 
men look clean and gentlemanly, delight in wearing such 
shabby old felt hats. A clergyman fifty years ago looked 
the gentleman. Next, under the hat you always saw the 
lip and chin clean-shaved. A man who let his beard grow 
would have been taken for a foreigner. So that in these 



GENTLEMEN'S DRESSi 



317 



two respects many of the male portion of society, with 
some of the clergy at their head, have imdoubtedly 
retrograded. Wearing a queue, which was so common at 
the close of the last century, had just gone out of fashion, 
the last person in Manchester who wore one, as I have 
stated previously, being Mr. Yates, of the Star Hotel, in 
whose family the hotel yet remains. 

Loose shirt collars had not come into use, and the collar, 
if worn at all, was generally part of the shirt, and but com- 
paratively few persons wore thenu Instead of the light, 
narrow neckties now worn, large bulky neckerchiefs and 
stiff deep stocks were the fashion. Elderly gentlemen wore 
their shirts at the breast finished off by a large plaited rufHe. 
The coat was generally swallow-tailed and made of good 
broadcloth, and rarely of the cheap shoddy material now 
so much used. Frock coats were beginning to come into 
use, but the other were more general, and often made of 
coloured cloth, as blue or brown, in which case they were 
adorned with bright, metallic buttons, either gold or 
silver-plated. Many persons will remember the late 
Mr. C. J. S. Walker, the magistrate, whose blue coat, 
buttoned up to the chin and adorned with bright buttons, 
was about the last of the kind seen in Manchester. The 
coat collar was very much deeper and the sleeve narrower, 
especially at the wrists, following the shape of the arm, so 
that the coat could not be easily slipped on and off as now, 
but required a good deal of uncomfortable tugging for the 
purpose. The lower garment was passing through a 
transition state. Knee-breeches were going out and 
trousers were coming in, yoimg and middle-aged men 



3 1 8 MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

generally wearing the latter, whilst most elderly men 
adhered to the old fashion, with which gaiters made of the 
same material as the breeches were generally worn. 
Trousers were made much narrower than at present, so 
much so that they were generally strapped down under the 
boot This last article of appard was a very different 
thing from the convenient boot now adopted. The manu- 
facture of india-rubber goods had not then been developed, 
and elastics were unknown. The boot for men then in 
fashion was the Wellington, the leg of which reached above 
the calf, and the average cost of which was twenty-seven 
shillings a pair. For an outside covering with elderly men, 
the jacket introduced by Lord Spencer and named after 
him was a favourite. Younger men often wore a plain 
cloak made of fine cloth, having a simple collar without 
any cape. I well remember my master having one such 
made of blue cloth with velvet collar and lined with red, 
unbuttoned in front 

I dare not venture to say anything as to the dress of the 
ladies, which of course has undergone endless changes since 
the days we speak of. I will only say that two of the most 
striking changes refer to the head and the feet For first 
the ladies wore bonnets — and bonnets then were bonnets, 
though they were not so large as when John Wesley 
denounced those of his followers who wore " elephantine 
bonnets." A hat was rarely seen on a lady's head. A 
favourite pattern was that of the " cottage bonnet," under 
which many a pretty face with neatly parted hair was often 
admired. Secondly, the most striking feature in a lady's 
walking attire at that time was that boots were not worn. 



OBJECTIONABLE HABITS. 319 

instead of which it was customary to see ladies in the street 
clad in low sandal shoes, with white stockings and 
comparatively short dresses. 

I should like to mention another matter with respect to 
which a great change has taken place in Manchester during 
the last fifty years. I allude to the diminution of the 
practice of what is called swearing on the part of respectable 
men. When I came to Manchester as an apprentice in 
1829 it was quite common for respectable gentlemen, when 
they came into the shop to make a purchase, unconsciously 
and habitually to use some of those expressions which are 
classed under the head of swearing. The practice was 
very common in ordinary conversation, but now it is a rare 
thing to hear what you formerly did. Amongst the lower 
orders I fear no such improvement has taken place, either 
with regard to swearing or drunkenness ; for as to the latter 
also I think an improvement has taken place on the part of 
respectable people. 

I have mentioned before that fifty years ago there were 
only twenty-three tobacconists' shops in Manchester, whilst 
to-day there are nearly 500. It was a rare thing then to 
see a respectable person smoking a pipe as he went to 
business in a morning, especially a young man, to say 
nothing of mere youths. 

I can only allude to a class of subjects so vast and so 
interesting that a good volume might be written on them. 
I refer to the thousand and one scientific inventions of the 
past half century which have been applied in so many ways 
to the improvement and the manufacture of articles in use 
in every-day life, tending to lighten labour, make life more 



320 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



comfortable, and in various ways minister to our happiness. 
Take one very simple instance as an illustration — that of a 
trifling and insignificant article which, though in daily use, 
is thought but little of. Few people stop to bestow a mo- 
ment's thought on the great convenience promoted by its 
use as compared with the inconvenience which attended the 
striking of a light fifty years ago. People who only know 
the lucifer match have no idea of the trouble and inconve- 
nience of the tinder-box and flint and steel in use fifty 
years ago. The tinder box was a round tin box, with a 
loose lid fitting inside upon the tinder, which was domesti- 
cally prepared by the burning of rags, in the production 
of which a little skill was required, and which it was 
requisite to keep dry. The operator took in one hand the 
steel, which was shaped like a small letter n of the 
fifteenth century, and the flint in the other, and began 
striking them together over the exposed tinder till a spark 
fell and ignited it. Sometimes the spark expired, when the 
operation was recommenced and continued till the tinder 
was ignited, when the operator gently blew the spark with 
his mouth and applied a match which ignited. These 
matches were very roughly made and were about six or 
eight inches long, having had both their roughly pointed 
ends dipped* in melted brimstone. Everybody will see 
what a tedious and troublesome process this was as com- 
pared with the present mode of striking a light Is it 
wrong, in the interests of us non-smokers, to wish that it 
was still as diflicult to strike a light out of doors ? 

I well remember the first lucifer matches sold in boxes, 
about two or three years after I came here as an apprentice. 



SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS. 



321 



The maker's name was Jones, and they were a shilling a 
box, the box being about the same size as at present. The 
matches were neatly made and were broad and thin, about 
the thickness of a piece of cardboard. With each box was 
given a piece of sand-paper doubled, through which you 
drew the match sharply. I have on my library table a tin box 
for many years used for postage stamps, which more than 
forty-five years ago contained lucifer matches. It is about 
twice the size of an ordinary penny box of matches, painted 
inside and out, and so well made it seems but little the 
worse for wear, and which sold for half-a-crown when full 
of matches. 

I might also instance the marvellous development of the 
indiarubber trade in the manufacture of mackintosh garments, 
elastic cord and webbing, and numerous articles used in 
surgery, nursing, and for other purposes. 

There are many other changes in everyday matters which 
are the result not so much of scientific invention as of the 
application of common sense and experience; as, for 
instance, the improved method of removing furniture in 
covered vans. The old way of loading it on a lurry or in 
an ordinary cart, and transporting it from one part of the 
country to another in wet weather, was one of the most 
miserable undertakings one can conceive. One wonders 
why some such plan as the present was not adopted sooner. 

There is hardly a science that can be named which has 
not contributed its share to the happiness and well-being of 
mankind during the past half century. During that time 
the electric telegraph has been invented; the art of the 
photographer has arrived at a high state of perfection ; 

M 



322 



MANCHESTER FIFTY YEARS AGO, 



Steam ships have learnt to trust themselves beyond our 
rivers and coasts and have ventured on the wide ocean, 
and now find their way to all parts of the world; the 
spectroscope has almost rivalled the telescope in the 
marvellous character of its discoveries; and many industries 
have been almost revolutionized through the improvements 
which have been effected in them. 

True, these inventions are not confined to Manchester ; 
still they are intimately associated with these Reminiscences. 
One cannot but feel an interest in the future as well as the 
past, and wonder what sort of place Manchester will be 
in fifty years hence — how large it will be, and what the 
moral, educational, and social condition of its inhabitants 
will be. It may be the lot of some other observer of men 
and things in the year 1930 to try to interest his fellow- 
townsmen by Reminiscences of Manchester Fifty 
Years Ago. 



APPENDIX. 



The following additional information, in reference to one or 
two gentlemen mentioned in the preceding pages, has appeared 
in the columns of the Manchester City News : — 

Manchester Doctors, page 47.— Mancuniensis, F.S.A., says : 
*'Mr. Slugg has furnished us with a great amount of interesting and 
reliable information respecting Manchester druggists and medical men 
of a past and passing generation. Brazenose Street appears to have 
been at one time a sort of medico-classic groimd, but its fame in that 
respect has now almost, if not entirely, vanished. One worthy, I may 
mention, has been overlooked — ^an old bachelor surgeon of the name 
of Tomlinson, who was an especial favourite with the ladies, and a 
practitioner of general good repute. Dr. Carbutt died from an attack 
of paralysis, about 1833; he was clever, eccentric, and sarcastic. 
Speaking once of the increasing number of lecturers, he said he could 
not expectorate out of his window without spitting upon one of that 
fraternity. He was associated and on intimate terms with John Dalton, 
Peter Clare, John Davies, Andrew Buchan, and others of the 
philosophic school, but his companionship did not tend to his 
equaniinity of temper. On one occasion, being at the same dinner 
table with the late Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, then Dr. J. P. Kay, 
the latter being summoned to attend a distant patient. Dr. Carbutt, as 
soon as the door was closed, rose from his seat, and striking the table 
violently, exclaimed, ' Confoimd it, I quite forgot to tell my servant to 
send for me.* It is, I think, to be r^^etted that the five years' 
apprenticeship to a medical practitioner was abolished, for various and 
substantial reasons, which might easily be assigned. The pupil of 



324 



APPENDIX. 



Mr. Oilier was Mr. Charles Juckes. Mr. Richmond, an old pupil of 
Mr. Windsor, settled down to practice in Stretford Road, then a new 
neighbourhood, after waiting some time in Gartside Street, on 
the departure of Mr. Hunt to join Dr. Radford, in Ridgefield. 
Mr. Richmond's able and exhaustive report on the sanitary condition 
of Hulme, in 1849, with those of Mr. Hatton for Chorlton, and 
Mr. Kirkham for Ardwick, which followed, was the first to attract 
public attention to the hygienic condition of the masses, and led to, if 
indeed it was not the direct cause, of the formation of the present 
Sanitary Association. The report of the first-named gentleman, made 
after the fever and choleraic visitations of 1847 and 1849, and presented 
to the chairman of the Chorlton Board of Guardians, I have read, and 
do not find it much, if at all, improved upon by more recent sanitary 
investigations. It contains much valuable information as to the 
condition of the township, and with the statistical tables and chart 
accompanying, shows clearly where the fever nests lay, and the 
physical and social influences that so greatly affected the mortality in 
particular localities. The late Mr. Walker Golland at one time lived 
in Brazenose Street, and Mr. Roberts resided in Lever Street, nearly 
opposite Mr. Fawdington*s house." 

Dr. Radford reminds me that I have omitted the name of 
Mr. William Wood — a medical practitioner whose reputation was 
very high. The fact is he had retired from practice more than fifty 
years ago, and his name is not to be found in the Directory either of 
1829 or 1832. He was one of the surgeons of the Lying-in Hospital, 
and had been a pupil at the Infirmary, afterwards becoming house 
surgeon to that institution. On commencing practice, he was presented 
with a magnificent silver cup by the Trustees of the Infirmary, which 
he bequeathed to Dr. Radford. He used to live in King Street, and 
died at Didsbury, in 1852, in his 84th year, affording another instance, 
in addition to the many already mentioned, of the longevity of medical 
men who have spent the best part of their lives in the heart of 
Manchester. 

Horatio Miller, page 72. — Mrs. Isabella Banks communicates 
the following: "May I add a few words by way of addenda to 



APPENDIX. 



325 



Mr. Slug's very copious and valuable reminiscences? He remarks 
that Horatio Miller, of Market Street, * was no common inan,' and he is 
quite right in so saying. He was a man of scholarly attainments and 
fastidious refinement, a perfect gentleman in manner and bearing ; 
somewhat caustic and cynical, his sarcasm was withering. But he was 
far from unkindly, as I know, for he overlooked and advised upon my 
Ivy leaves before the volume went to press, though his own versification 
was wofully wanting in poetry ; one more proof that criticism is a dis- 
tinctive faculty. Mr. Slugg, perhaps, was not aware that Mr. H. Miller 
had gone out with either Captain Parry or Sir John Ross (or both) on 
one of their early Arctic expeditions. He had been, as a youth, offered 
an appointment as * page ' to George the Fourth, and rejected the offer 
as infra dig. At one time I think he wrote the dramatic critiques for 
the Advertiser, At all events, he was a frequenter of the theatres. He 
was in the stage box of the old Theatre Royal the night when, during 
the performance of The Tempest^ the wires by which Ariel (Miss Gardner) 
was suspended, gave way, and she fell from a considerable height face 
downwards on the stage ; Prospero (Mr. Butler) being too inebriated 
to stand steadily, much less rush to her assistance. Had he been sober 
he might have broken her fall, caught her, in fact, as I from the upper 
boxes saw first one wire snap, and then the second with the extra strain. 
As it was, Mr. Miller disappearing from the stage-box was one of the 
first to reach her, there being a door communicating with the stage 
close to the stage-box, and, having some medical knowledge, was of use. 
He told us the next morning she was more frightened than hurt. I and 
my friends thought she must be half killed. At the last Manchester 
Musical Festival (during which Malibran died) there was a magnificent 
fancy ball to wind up with, theatre, assembly rooms, portico, all being 
pressed into the service, and connected with temporary galleries, and a 
refreshment-room built over Charlotte Street. Mr. Miller for that 
occasion assumed the character of a jester (probably Touchstone), 
having had a model of his own head and face taken for his gilt bauble. 
His dress was rich and appropriate — ^two shades of amber trimmed with 
gold. He looked the cynical, not to say sardonic, jester to a T,and was 
fully capable of sustaining the character." 



326 



APPENDIX. 



Joseph Gale, page 98. — Felstox remarks : " I have always had 
great pleasure myself, and known others also who have looked forward 
to Mr. Slugg's interesting communications. Mr. Joseph Gale was 
apprenticed to Mr. Dominic Bolongaro, who was a printseller, frame 
maker, carver, and gilder, and had his place of business in Old Millgate, 
on the left-hand side from the Market Place, where he also sold mathe- 
matical instruments. At this place, while Mr. Gale was there, I bought 
an ivory sector, for which I paid 7s. 6d. Mr. Gale was in business as 
printseller and gilder, in Market Street, near Cromford Court, and I 
believe in the identical shop now occupied by Mr. Dominic Bolongaro, 
son of the one Gale served his apprenticeship with. After this Mr. 
Gale had a shop in King Street, where for some time he carried on the 
business of printseller, carver, gilder, and picture-frame maker. This 
shop was separated by an entry leading into Back King Street, from 
Miss Boardman's well-known confectionery establishment — rebuilt, and 
now a glass shop. Gale's old shop was taken by the late Mr. Findley, 
the bootmaker, and where that business is still carried on. I should 
not omit to mention that Gale had a stall in what was called the 
Bazaar in Police Street, in which building there was also a diorama ; 
but I suppose the place did not answer, and the whole of it was let to 
Messrs. Watts, before Kendal, Milne, and Faulkner took it, and so 
enormously enlarged it by adding to it the adjoining shops and ware- 
houses, nearly rebuilding it altogether. Gale was also at one time an 
auctioneer, and sold the stock of greyhounds which belonged to the 
late Philip Houghton. One of the dogs, called Priam, had just won the 
Waterloo Cup, and Gale sold it by auction for upwards of two hundred 
guineas. Gale was once a hatter in Ducie Place, never in King Street. 
This place commenced in Market Street, having on one side the 
Exchange, and ended in Bank Street, opposite to the present Ducie 
Buildings. Now it is part of the present Exchange. Here Gale intro- 
duced a new feature into the hatting trade. He had a barrel of beer 
with cheese for his visitors, whom he hoped to make customers if not 
so already. In the rage for share speculations Gale became a share- 
broker, and was a cheerful member of that community ; and if he did 
not die wealthy he was not alone, after the fearful panic of 1S47. As 



APPENDIX, 327 



a printseller, Gale had an excellent connection, and published several 
engravings, one of Hcaton Park Races, under the patronage of the 
Earl of Wilton. He also published a most excellent engraved portrait 
of John Wells (Wells, Cooke, and Potter). But he was better known 
for his sparkling wit, his humour, his drollery, which were inimitable. 
He was always welcome at the * feast of reason and the flow of soul.* 
He was once a good singer, but his voice failed him, and I remember 
he once said (on being asked) that he did not feel well, and perceived 
that his memory was failing him. He forgot to go home at nights. 
Gale had no fancy for dogs, and was never considered an intemperate 
man. He was acceptable to the learned Condy on account of his 
classical inclinations and general intelligence. ' I remember there was 
a Mr. Gale about that time who, as I am told, was in business as a 
maker-up, callenderer, or packer. He was fond of greyhounds and 
coursing ; but whether he, to use the expression, ' coursed away all his 
substance* I know not.** 
[The Mr. Gale here referred to was Mr. Robert Gale, of the firm of 

Gale and Mayor, who lived 50 years ago in Chapel Walks, and 

whose works were close by in Back Pool Fold.] 

Mr. D. W. Banks, page 103. — ^The following is from Mr. J. Hulme : 
"Mr. D. W. Banks was a great favourite of mine, and I believed at 
one time there was no one equal to him. as a musician and conductor of 
concerts, such as those I well remember him conducting at the popular 
Monday evening concerts in the Old Free Trade Hall, utfQer what I 
consider now to have been very grdat difficulties, for he had to be con- 
ductor and accompanist both in one — sometimes 011 the organ, and 
sometimes on the pianoforte, according to the nature of the piece to be 
performed. There was no band then, the prices of admission being so 
low that a band was out of the question. The best seats were only 
one shilling, the second seats or gallery sixpence, and all the rest three- 
pence — truly working-class prices. Programmes were printed every 
week with the whole of the words of the pieces, and were sold at a 
.pienny. I have a small number of them now in my possession, in- 
cluding four oratorios, the 'Messiah,' the 'Creation,* 'Elijah,' and 
' Israel in Egypt.' I can spend an hour very agreeably now and then 



328 



APPENDIX, 



looking over these old programmes, and calling to mind who sang such 
and such pieces, and the impression I had at the time about each of 
them. Mr. Banks encouraged and brought out as much as he possibly 
could at these concerts the local talent, which he was quick to discern, 
and, when found, he put to the fore. He did not entirely depend on 
local talent, however, but had help sometimes from the neighbouring 
county of Yorkshire, such as Mrs. Sunderland and others. I think it 
need not be recounted the number of Christmas days that Mr. D. W. 
Banks produced Handel's masterpiece, the ** Messiah," which practice 
is worthily continued by an able successor, Mr. De Jong. I fully 
believe that the late D. W. Banks, and the popular Monday evening 
concerts at the old Free Trade Hall, effectually prepared the way for 
Mr. Charles Hall^ and the now famous Thursday evening concerts at 
the new Free Trade Hall, and that it is a misfortune for the working 
classes of Manchester and Salford that the opportunity for hearing 
really good music at a working-class rate is lost to them through the 
want of a sufficiently large room at little cost and another talented and 
energetic conductor like Mr. David Ward Banks. An incident came 
under my observation when Mr. Banks was organist at St. Thomas's 
Church, Pendleton. When he first went to St. Thomas's, the church- 
wardens had only a small hired organ with six stops, which, as may be 
supposed, did not quite satisfy the rising ambitions of Mr. D. W. B., 
nor the churchwardens either, one of whom was the late Jeremiah Royle, 
a warm ^pporter of music in Manchester, and a friend of the late 
John Isherwood and Mr. Wilkinson, the organist, both connected with 
St. Peter's choir, Manchester, at the time. Efforts were accordingly 
made, and a new organ obtained, I think from Wren and Boston, and 
it was set up and announced by placard to be opened on a certain 
day, and that the then leading organist of the day would preside — 
Mr. Wilkinson. This did not suit Mr. Banks, who was now a rising 
young man, so he rebelled, and a new arrangement had to be made, 
fresh placards printed and posted, which said that the new organ 
would be opened on such a day, and that Mr. David Ward Banks 
would preside — and he did, Mr. Wilkinson coming a short time after- 
wards to test the instrument On the opening day several singers came 



APPENDIX. 



329 



from Manchester to assist the regular choir, which consisted of a family 
from Pendlebury — father, son, daughter, and nephew. Miss Cordwell, 
the daughter, was a beautiful singer, and Mr. B. was proud of her. In 
the evening more assistants came, and one or two of them pushed past 
Miss Cordwell (who was very diminutive) to the place of honour next 
to the organist. Mr. B. ordered them away, and Miss C. to come to 
her own place." 

John Law, page 201.— Mr. Robert Wood, of Cheetham Hill, 
says : "Allow me to supplement Mr. Slugg's interesting reminiscences 
by a few additional particulars respecting the Law family. David Law, 
the father of the celebrated John or Jack Law, kept the Bowling Green 
Hotel, in Strangeways. This hotel was perhaps a hundred yards be- 
yond the Ducie Arms, and together with the green ran back to the 
river. I believe it was kept most if not all its time by David Law and 
his widow and" their son David. After Mrs. Law was a widow she be- 
came very celebrated for making veal pies, and it was then usually 
known as the Veal Pie House, and is still well remembered by several 
old men who, when they were boys attending the Grammar School, 
would often go into the country, as they then called it, to fetch a veal 
pie for dinner. Through the kindness of a friend I have in my posses- 
sion at present a subscriber's ticket, well got up and in good preserva- 
tion, which reads as follows : — 

Strangeways New Bowling Green. Subscription from May the 5th to October 27, 
1788, Thursdays excepted, xos. 6d. Not transferable. No. 2. 

/ MicHL. Norton. 
James Meredith. 

Proprietors • Thomas Crallan. 

William Mayall. 
k David Law. 



This bowling green is now covered with streets and buildings ; but 
perhaps it would be interesting to state a few particulars relating to 
the gentlemen named above. Michl. Norton was the agent of Sir 
Oswald Mosley, and collected his rents. James Meredith was the uncle 
of Mr. Meredith, law stationer in King Street. Thomas Crallan was 
a brewer living at Ardwick, and was succeeded by his son, who 



330 APPENDIX. 



became a wealthy man and left the neighbourhood more than half 
a century ago. William Mayall was an ironmonger in Cateaton Street. 
David Law, as I have before named, was the landlord. William Mayall 
began business as an ironmonger in Cateaton Street in the year 1745, 
and it was continued by him till the year 1797. It was then trans- 
ferred to Hutchinson and Mallalieu till 1827, and was afterwards con- 
tinned by Mallalieu and Lees to 1837, then Lees and Lister, then Lees 
alone. Lees' executors, and is now Leech Brothers. So that the same 
business has been conducted on the same premises for the last hundred 
and thirty-four years. 

The Post Office, page 202. — Although the following refers to a 
date much anterior to that of the preceding Reminiscences — it will 
be found very interesting as giving an authentic account of the 
Manchester Post Office 160 years ago. It is an extract from the 
Fourth Annual Report of the Postmaster-General, published in 
1858, and was kindly communicated to me at the last moment by 
Mr. W. Clarke, the Postmaster of Worthing. The Mr. Eldershaw 
mentioned is the same gentleman named previously on page 204. 
The Extract is given verbatim. 

Extract from a Report by Mr. Gay. 

"As a contrast to the Manchester of the present time, with its 
three London mails every day, its almost hourly communication with 
Liverpool, and its two or more posts with all the surrounding towns, 
I beg to append this copy of a Manchester postal bill dated 1 721, 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Eldershaw of the Manchester 
Post Office. 

* At Manchester 



'According to the last r^julation, 1 72 1. 

The Post goes otU 

' To London, &c., or to any \ Monday \ 

of the towns in Or near > Wednesday V Morning 9 o'clock, 
the road to London j Saturday j 



APPENDIX. 



331 



* To Warrington 
Chester 
Worcester 
Bristol 
Ireland 
Liverpool 
Preston 
Lancaster 
Kendal 
Carlisle 
Dumfries; &c. 



Mondays \ 

Thursdays > Morning 7 o'clock. 

Saturdays ) 

>• Note, It will be best to bring the letters the night 
before the going out of the post, because the 
accounts and baggs are usually made up over 
night. 



'To Roachdale ] Sundays 
Yorkshire > Tuesdays 
Edinbro', &c ) Fridays 



Morning 6 or 7 o'clock. 



The Post comes in. 



'From London, &c. 



* From Warrington 



* From Roachdale, &c. 



/ Mondays 

< Thursdays 
V. Saturdays 

^ Tuesdays 

< Fridays 
C Sundays 

( Mondays 

< Wednesday 
( Saturday 



>Ni 



Night 9, Ip, II, 12, or, &c. 



Morning 6 or 7. 



s > Morning 8.* 



"It is amusing to observe tl^at the post is said to come in from 
London three days per week at night 9, 10, 1 1, 12, or, &c. The 
beautiful uncertainty as to the hour leads one to surmise that an 
Inspector-General of Mails did not exist in those days. 

** Then, again, the simplicity with which some clerk, having an eye 
to his own comfort, entreats the public to bring their letters the 
night before, because 'the accounts and baggs are usually made up 
over night,' is at sad variance with the existing regulations of the 
Department through which letters can be posted up to within five 



332 APPENDIX. 

minutes of the dispatch of a mail, and which provide for the receipt 
of letters for America up to within ten minutes of the sailing of the 
packet. 

** Whether the manufacturers of Manchester would listen to such 
a gentle entreaty in the present day, even if it were more correctly 
written, is extremely doubtfuL" 

Mr. William Garnett. — Mr. David Kelly thinks "it is 
scarcely accurate to say (page 252) that Mr. Garnett, of Lark Hill, 
' so often unsuccessfully opposed Joseph Brotherton as a candidate for 
parliamentary honours.' These gentlemen were only thrice pitted 
against each other, viz., in 1832, 1837, and 1841. On the second 
occasion the poll stood thus : — 

Brotherton 890 

Garnett 888 

Majority 2 

And as Mr. Brotherton voted for himself, and Mr. Garnett abstained 
from voting, there wa$ not much room for either boasting or wailing. 
On the first counting of the votes, the returning officer gave Mr. Garnett 
a majority of six, and that gentleman was addressing his supporters on 
his success, in the grounds at Lark Hill, when a messenger arrived 
with the news that there was an error in the first countings and that 
Mr. Garnett had lost the election by two votes." 



ERRA'TUM. 

Mr. Heap's Grand- daughter. — ^At page 70 it is said : " I under- 
stand that Mrs. Pochin, the wife of the M.P., is the grand-daughter" 
of the Mr. Heap there mentioned. The author regrets to say that he 
has been misinformed on the subject. 



OBITUARY. 



No less than the following eight persons, named in the 
preceding pages, have departed this life since these lines first 
appeared in print: — 

Mr. Thomas Slagg, mentioned on page 21, a younger brother of 
the late Mr. John Slagg. He had retired from business, and had 
resided at Lytham for many years. I knew him well, and before his 
leaving Manchester, was very intimate with him. He was a friendly 
and somewhat jovial man. 

Miss Geraldine £. Jewsbury, the novelist, named on page 65, 
died on the 23rd of September, 1880. 

The Lady referred to on page 82, as possessing a Bible and Prayer 
Book purchased at the shop of Mr. Charles Ambery. She died 
August 9th, 1880, aged 65 years. Whilst she lived, she took great 
interest in the production of these Reminiscences, and, had she been 
spared, would have been gratified in seeing their completion in their 
present shape. 

Mr. Thomas Roworth, bookseller, of St. Ann's Square, 
mentioned page 85, died January 13th, 1881, aged 65 years, having 
been bom on the day on which the battle of Waterloo was fought. 
He was greatly respected by all who knew him. 

Mr. Edward Goodall, carpet dealer. King Street. He originally 
came from Heckniondwike, more than fifty years ago, and established 
a very extensive business, in the shop which still retains his name. He 



336 



INDEX, 



Back Square, 13 

Bailey, Charles and J. E., 131 

„ T. B., 256 
Bake, James, 99, 112 
Baker, 313 

„ J. G., 165 
Bakers, Buxton, 100 
Ball (Dr. M' All's), 141, 143 
Balloon Ascent, 312 
Ballantyne, Thomas, 289 
Bally, William, 109 
Balm of Gilead, 280 
Bamford, 274 
Bancks & Co., 85 
Banks, Dr. , 47, 49 

„ D. W., 103, 298, 308, 327 

,, Isabella, 324 
Bann, 118 

Bannerman, 7, 10, 238 
Baptist Chapels, 187 
Bardsley, Dr. J. L., 47, 249, 268 

„ ,, S. A., 47, 3^2 

Barge, J. & Co., 32 

„ John, 267 

„ Robert, 137 
Barker, Robert, 185 
Barley Meal, 95 
Barlow, John, 236 * 

,, Miss, 298 

,, Richard, 148, 149 
Bamby, Faulkner, & Co., 224 
Barnes, Robt., 162, 163, 165 
Barnes', Robert, Mother, 165 

„ Thos., 163 

,, Rev. Dr., 171, 260 
Barratt, J. & S., 95 
Barrett, James, 197 
Barristers, 195 
Barrow, Peter, 266 

„ William, 273 
Barry, Ch., 126, 270 
Barton, John & Henry, 85 

Basnett, Rev. R., 119 
Bateman, W., 258 
Baths, Infirmary, 9 
Battle, Murder, 45 
Baumann, 301 



Baxter, Ed., 175 
Bayley, Rev. Cornelius, 121 
Bazaar, Anti-Com-Law, 314 
Bazley, Thomas, 236 
Beadles, Police, 237 
Beale, Thomas, 303 
Bealey, Mary, 42, 149, 161 

,, Richard, 42 

„ ,, & Co., 41 

Beard, Miss M., 258 

„ Rev. J. R., 176 
Beardoe, James, 270 
Beardsall, Rev. F., 139 
Beatson, Joseph^ 292 
Beaufort, J. St. L., 203 
Beaumont, G., 133 
Beauvoisin, Amand^ 103 
Beaver Hats, 316 
Becker, 5 

Bee Hive Restaurant, 83 
Beer Houses, 113 
Beef Steak Chape!, 194 
Beever, J., 266 
Behrens, 10 
Bellhouse, 44, 236 
Bennett, Abraham, 270 

„ 150,300 

» J., 148 

Benson, James, 266 
„ Rev. J., 151 

Bent, Ed., 196 
„ The Misses, 87 

Benf 5 Literary Advertiser i 87 

Bentham, 86 

Bentley, J., 238 

Berrie, Jno., 154 

Beswick, Chas., 165 

Beverley, H., 311 

Bianchi, 98 

Bible Society, 253 ' 

Bickham, 136 

Billington, Rev. J., 38, 189 

Binney, Rev. T., 140 

Binyon, Alfred, 184 
Ancestors, 93 
Benjamin, 83, 186 
T. and E., 93, 184, 236 
Sisters, 186 



>» 



»> 






INDEX. 



337 



Birch, Scholes, 173 
Birchin Lane Chapel, 149 
Birley, H. H., 236, 269 

,, Workpeople, 292 
Birt, Rev. J., 187, 254 
Bishop of Chester, 117, 255 

„ London, 311 
Bishop's ** Seventh Day," 300 
Black-a-Moor's Head, 14 
Blackberd, G., 64 
Blackbume, Rev. Dr., 117 
,, Isaac, 117, 196 

" Blackburn Academy, 131 
Black Horse, 292 

,, Mare^ 292 

,, jFriar's Bridge, 15, 106, 148 
Blackley Chapel, 179 
Blaine, Hy., 71 
Bland, Lady Ann, 118 
Bleachers, 41 
Blears, Joseph, 309 
Blinkhom, 273 
Blood-letting, 58, 303 
Bloor, 8, 49 
Blundstone, 51-269 
Boats, Passage, 223* 
Bob Logic's Budget, 113 
Boddington, T. and H., 137 
Bolongaro, D., 97 
Bolton Street Chapel, 194 
Bond, 271 

Bonded Warehouses, 113 
Bonnets, 318 
Booth, G. & H., 133 
Humphrey, 118 
Rev. £., 124 
» S., 119 
Boroughreeve (1829), 238 
Botanical Gardens, 113 
,, Society, 266 
Boulton & Watt, 242 

,, Wm., 184 
Boundary Street, 12 
Boutflower, 49, 268 
Bower, Alexander, 240 

,, Miles, 248 
Bowling Green, 263 
Bradburn, Rev. S., 151 






If 



Bradbuiy, Ch., 95, 267 
„ Robert, 102 
„ Rev. D., 129, 130 
Bradley, 73. 

„ Rev. S., 124, 130, 134 

„ S. M., 130 
Bradshaw, 184 

„ John, 137, 186, 236 
Braham, 300, 304 
Braid, James, 51 
Braidley, Benjamin, 20, 236, 254 
Braik, Alexander, 154 
Bramall, 254 

Bramwell, Rev. Wm., 159 
Brandram, Rev. A., 254 
Brandt, 195 

Breach of Promise, 200 
Bread Riot, 95 
Breary, Williami, 63 
Breeches, Knee, 317 
Brereton, J., 63 
Brewer, John, 25, 162 

,, Mary, 162 
Bridge Accident, 15 

,, Street Shambles, 274 
Bridges, I, 15 
Bridgewater Arms, 7 

„ Street Chapel, 162 
Brierley James, 150, 196 

,, Sam, 121 
Bright, John, 29 
British Volunteer, 280 
Brittain, Thomas, 45 
Broadhurst, Henson, & Co., 20 
Brockbank, 185 
Brogden, Alexander, 105 

„ John, 105, 154 
Bromley, Mary, 149 
Brooks, Frederick, 30 
John, 28, 236 
Sam., 10, 28, 105, 133, 
236, 254 
Broome, 93 

Broomhead, Rev. R., 189 
Brotherton, Joseph, 30, 192, 193, 

284,332 
Brougham, Lord, 222, 265 
Broughton Bridge, 15 






338 



INDEX. 



>> 



>f 



Brown, Capt, i8 

Dr. Henry, 143 
G. B., 70 

„ W. S., ^, 68 

„ Street, 258 
Brownbill, Thomas, 53 
Brundretts, The, 168 
Buck, Thomas, 298 
Buckland, Rev. G., 178 
Buckley, Edward, 237 

„ Jeremiah, 200 
Building Societies, 292 
Bull, Rev. G. S., 254 
Bullbaiting, 310 

Bullock, 63, 64 [164 

Bunting, Rev. Jabez, 151, 157, 160, 
Bunting, Rev. William, 136, 167 

T. P., 166, 199 
Burd, Aid., 133, 165 
Burdett, Sir Francis, 312 
Burdsall, Rev. J., 152 
Burgess, Henry, 281 
Burial Grounds, 161, 168 
Burton & Sons, 34, 125 

„ John, 34, 254 

„ Rev. Dr., 34, 35, 124 
•Bury, F., 269 

„ Jm 39 
Butter Market, 274 

Butterworth & Brooks, 17, 28 

Bye-Law Men, 241 

Byrom, Ed., 120 

John, 121, 147, 309 

House, 129 

„ Miss, 254 



»» 



>> 



Calico Printers, 27 
Callender, W. R., 17, 136, 137 
S. P., 137 
„ & Sons, 163 
Calvert, Chas., 73 

„ Rev. Dr., 10, 117, 255 
Campbell, 314 
Campion, H., 259 
Cannon Street, 19 

,, ,, Chapel, 128, 130 

Capes, 18, loi 
Caracci, A., 120 



Caradori Allan, 3CX3^ 302 

Carbutt, Dr., 323 

Card, Nat., 185 

Card well, Hy., 200 

Carlisle, Earl of, 311 

Carlton, Jas., 24, 145 

,, Walker, & Lewis, 24 

Carriages (First Rail), 234 

Carriers (Land and Water), 223, 225 

Carpenter, Rev. P. P., 180 

Carter, Wm., 166 

Carver, 174, 224 

Casartelli, 98 

Casinos, 3C)iS 

Cassell, Jno., 138 

Casson & Berry's Map, 272 « 

Castle Irwell, 16 

Cateaton Street, 14 

Catholic FhosniXf 281 

Cathrall, Wm., 280, 288 

Cave, Geo., 89 

Cemetery, Friends', 181 

Chain Bridge, 15 

Challender, Joseph, 14, 267 

Chalmers, Dr., 189 

Chamber of Commerce, 272 

Chancery Lane Chapel, 164 

Chantilly House, 6 

Chapel, Ancoats, 166 
Baptist, 187 
Beefsteak, 192 
Birchin Lane, 149 
Blackley, 179 
Bridgewater Street, 1 62 
Cannon Street, 128, 130 
Chancery Lane, 164 
Chapel Street, 144 
Cheetham Hill, 168 
Chorlton-cum-Hardy, 167 
Christ Church, 192, 193 
Cross Street, 170 
Dawson's Croft, 1 76 
Dobb Lane, 178 
Gadsby's, 187 
Gorton, 178 
Gravel Lane, 161 
Grosvenor Street (Wes- 
leyan), 164 



>> 



>> 
>> 



)) 



>> 

*> 
>> 
»> 
>» 
>> 
it 
>> 
t* 



INDEX. 



339 



Chape], Grosvenor Street (Inde- 
pendent), 131 
Chapels, Independent, 10, 128 
Chapel, Irwell Street, 157 

Jackson Street, Hulme, 144 
Lee Street, 146 
Monton, 179 

Mosley Street (Indepen- 
dent), 10, 135 
Mosley Street (Unitarian), 

10, 175 
Oldham Street, 121, 136, 

Oxford Road, 166 

Piatt, 176 

Presbyterian (Lloyd Street) 

188 
Quakers, 53, 181 
Chapels, Roman Catholic, 189 
Chapel, Rusholme Road, 143 
„ Stand, 180 
,, Swan Street, 163 
Chapels, Unitarian, 10, 170 
,, Various, 181 
,, Wesleyan, 147 
Chapel, Windsor Bridge,^ 145 
Chapman, James, 197, 273, 281 
Chappell, G. R., 18, 25, 165, 166 
Charitable Institutions, 247 
Charles, Prince, 5, 278 
"Charleys," 239 
Checkley, Rev. J., 178 
Cheek, Rev. N., 124 
Cheeryble Brothers, 36 
Cheetham, James, 5, 81 
„ Hill, 14 
,, ,, Chapel, 168 

Cheetham*s Murder, 310 
Chemistry, Lecture on, 265 
Cheshire Circuit, 150 
Chester Road, 12 

„ Coach, 219 
Chetham's Statue, 99 
Chew, 200 
Christie, Robert, 270 

„ J. T., 271 
Choral Society, 297, 298 
Chorlton, Rev. Wm., 171 
Row, 12 









)> 



Chorlton-cum-Hardy Chapel, 167 
Christ Church Chapels, 192 
Chronicle^ Manchester^ 80, 277 

279, 282, 286 
Church and King Mob, 1 10 
„ „ Club, 279 

Churches of England, 115 
Church, All Saints, 124 
St. Ann's, 118 
„ Andrew's, 127 
„ Clement's, 123 
Collegiate, 116 
St. George's, 124 
„ „ (Hulme), 127 
,, James, 121 
,, John's, 120, 142 
„ Luke's, 124 
„ Mark's, 123 
„ Mary's, 119 
,, Matthew's, 126 
,, Michael's, 122 
„ Paul's, 119 
„ Peter's, 122 
„ Philip's, 126 
„ „ Stephen's. 124 

„ Thomas' (Ardwick), 1 18 
„ „ (Pendleton), 121 
Trinity, 1 18 
Circuit, Cheshire, 150 

First Manchester, 150 
Grosvenor Street, 167 
Oldham Street, 153 
Oxford Road, 167 
Clare, Peter, 107, 143, 184, 262, 264 
Clark, 2 

Clarke, Dr. Adam, 151,153,169,256 
Rev. James, 193 
J. B., 136 
Robert, 75, 312. 
Class Meetings, 166 
Clayton, 121, 147 
Clegg, 129 

Clergymen's dress, 316 
Clock, Lit. and Phil. Society, 107 
Clowes, Rev. J. (St. John's), 120, 

192, 254. 
Clowes, Rev. J. (Collegiate Church), 

117, 118, 255. 
Clunie, Rev. Dr., 145 



>> 

»» 

I 






>9< 






340 



INDEX. 






»» 



Coach Accidents, 215, 269 
OfHces, 210 
Defiance, 212 
Doctor, 214 
Lord Nelson, 219 
Mail^ 2iiy 212 
Peveril of Peak, 212 
Red Rover, 213 
Tel^[raph, 212 
Coaches, Stage, 209 

Liverpool, 214 
on May Day, 220 
Opposition, 216 
Sundry, 219 
Coachman's Fees, 215 
Coats, 317 

Coates; Richard, 200 
Cobbett, William, 312 
Cobden, Richard, 29, 109 

„ Miss, 314 
Cockbain, J. H., 184, 263 
Cockfighting, 310 
Cock Gates, 51 

„ Pit Hill, 89, 310 
Cockshoot, 93 
Collars, Shirt, 317 
College of Physicians, 262 

,, Independent, 131, 132, 138 
Collinson, 185 

Colour Blindness (Dalton), 262 
Commercial Inn, 7 
Commissioners of Police, 236 
Concert Hall, 1 1, 113, 271, 297 
Concerts, Weekly, 308 
Condy, George, 74, 195, 282 
Coningham, Rev. J., 171 
Consistory Court, 303 
Constables, 237, 238 
Constantine, Thomas, 293 
Cook, John, 64 

„ Rev. J., 118 
Cooke, 301 
Cooke & Beever, 200 
Coombs, Rev. J. A., 144, 254, 255 
Cooper, Frederick, 102 
„ I., J., & G., 22 
,, Thomas, 279 
Corbett, Matthew & Ed., 185, 186 



Com Exchange and Market, 274 

„ Laws, 29, 139 
Coroner, 113, 197 
Corporation Street, 5 
Cottam, S. E., 270 
Courier^ Manchester^ vj*l^ 281, 290, 

291 
Court of Requests, 7 
Cowdroy & Rathbone, 281 
Cowdroy's Manchester Gazette^ 283, 

288 
Cowherd, Rev. William, 192 
Cramer F., 301 

Crewdson, Isaac, 184, 186, 254 
, , Jos. , Thos. , and W ilson, 
184 
Crighton, Thomas, 143 
Crompton, Joshua, 184 
Crook, Rev. James, 189, 303 
Cropper, Rev. Jno., 180 
Crossfield, Joseph, 185 
Crossley, loi 

„ James, 197 
„ George, 240, 257 
Cross Lane Market, 273 
Cross Street Chapel, 170 
Crow Alley, 272 
Crowther, Mrs., 160 

,, Joshua, 160, 198 
„ Robert, 54 
Cudmore, Richard, 103, 298 
Cumber, Charles, 185 
Cunliffe, R. E., 200 
Cunliffes, Brooks, & Co., 4 
Cupid's Alley, 12, 181 
Currie, Dr. , 260 
Cutting, Charles, 143 

Dale, 68 

,, Rev. Mr., 166 

„ John, 160 
Dallas, John, 257 

„ Rev. R., 120, 257 
Dalton, Dr., 106, 184, 260, 262, 

268 
Damages, Heavy, 200 
Danson, George, 68, 184 
Darbishire, James, 173, 174, 279 



INDEX. 



341 



Darbyshire & Co., 6 

Daubholes, 248 

Davies, Rev. R. M., 137, 139 

„ Aid., 159 

„ John, 262, 265, 268 
Dawson, 120, 261 

„ Jonathan, 269 
Dawson Street, 261 
Dawson's Croft Chapel, 176 
Day, 270 
Dean, Rev. A., 180 

„ R. W., 79, 89 

,, S., 67 
Deansgate, 12 
De Beriot, 301 
Debates, Parliamentary, 276 
Dentists, 59 

Dentith, Wm., 3, 30, 70, 154 
Derby, Earl of, 310 
** Descent from Cross " (picture), 120 
Detrosier, 271 
Dickenson Street, 10 
** Dictum Factum," iii 
Dinner Hour, 46 
Diorama, 182^ 
Dispensaries, 252 
Districts, Police, 235 
Dixon, Elijah, 88 
Dobb Lane Chapel, 178 
Dockray, D., 184 
Doctors, 47, 323 
^'Doctor, The," 280 
Dog and Partridge, 256 
Dolly Rexford, 112 
Doncaster Races, 112 
Downs, John, i6i 
Dowton, 75, 313 
Dowty, Rev. Thos., 157 
Dracup, 145 
Dragonetti, 304 
Dress, 316 
Druggists, 60 

Drummond, Peter, 24, 160 
Drunkenness, 319 
Drysalters, 42, 43 
Ducie Bridge, 14, 15 
Duck, Robt., 19, 241 
Duckers, Peter, 156 



Duckworth, Ellis, 99 
„ - & Co., 200 
William, 17s 
Duguxl, Rev. Geo., 127 
Dugdale, Jno., 30, 31, 50 
Duke of Wellington, 228 

„ James, 159 
Dunckley, Hy., 290 
Dunn, Rev. Sam., 152 
Duty on Prints, 27 

EarlofWaton, 255 

Easby, John, 113 

Eccles, Cririe, & Slater, 195 

„ Wakes, 310 
Edge, Joseph, 145 
Edwards, John and James, 137 
Edmondson, Thomas, 183 
Eland, 240 
Elastics, 318 
Eldershaw, 204 
Ely, Rev. John, 140, 141 
Ellerby, William, 84, 139 

„ W. P., 137 
Elliott, Ebenezer, 314 
EUiotson, Dr., 314 
Elsdale, Rev. Robert, 257 
** Emma^" Capsizing of, 137 
England, Joseph, 154 
Entwistle, William, 11 
Envelope, Post^e, 208 
Erskine, no 
Ethelstone, Rev. C. W., 117, 123, 

196 
Evangelical Friends, 186 
Evans, T. J., 87 
Eveleigh, S. & J., 184 
Evening Sun, 276 
Everett, Rev. James, 6, 77, 151 
Ewart, Peter, 175, 262 

„ Joseph, 303 
Examiner and Times, 289 
Exchange, 272 

„ Herald^ 281 

Eye Institution, 251 

Fairbairn, Sir William, 174 
Fancy Dress Ball, 5, 6, 13, 301 



342 



INDEX. 



Fares by Rail, 232 
Farmer, Mrs. T., 155 
Faulkner, 224, 279 
„ & Son, 59 

„ Street, 10 

Fawdington, 53, 268 
Felt Hats, 316 
Female Penitentiary, 253 
Fennel Street, 14 
Femley, George, 54 

„ John, II, 166, 184 
Ferrier, Dr. John, 260 
"Festus," Bayley's, 90 
Fielden, R., 196 
Fielding, Rev. H., 255 
Fildes, John, 32, 137 

„ Jas. & Thos., 96, 154, 254 

,, Thos., 96, 149 
Finance Committee, 236 
Finch, Rev. — , 177 
Fish Market, 274 
Fleming, Thos., 106, 236, 243, 266, 

281 
Fletcher, Burd, & Wood, 20, 433 
Mrs., 65 
J. & Co., 94 
Sam., 21, 236, 254 

„ Son, & Co., 133 
David, 133, 139 
Auctioneer, 308 
Flintoff, 185 
Floral and Horticultural Society, 

267 
Fly Sheets, 153 
Ford, John, 286 
Forrest, 80, 286 
Fort Bros., 29 
Forth, Hy., 137, 236 
Foster, Rev. Jno., 314 

„ J. F., 10, 195, 196, 240 
Foulkes, Ed., 8, 201 
Fountain Street, 21 
Fowden, 185 
Fowler, Rev. Joseph, 151 

„ H. H., M.P., 151 
Fox, Geo., 181 

„ Susannah, 259 
Freckleton, Dr., 268 



I) 



Free Trade Hall, 11 
Freestdn, Rev. J., 179 
Friar, Geo. Hy., 94 
Friends' Meeting House, 181 

,, Cemetery, 181 

„ Secession of, 186 
Froggatt, 292 
Fumiss, Micah, 100 
Furniture Removing, 321 

Gadsby, Rev. W., 187, 188 

Gadsby's Chapel, 187 

Gale, Joseph, 98, 326 

Galor, Wm., 9, 249 

Galloway and Bowman, 102 

Garbutt, Dr., 249 

Gardner, Lot, 74 

Gardom, 53 

Gamett, Jeremiah, 5, il, 80, 236, 

285, 286 
Gamett, William, 252, 269, 332 
Garside, 231 
Gas, 242, 244 
Gaskell, Rev. J., 193 

„ „ Wm., 172 

,, Mrs., 172 
Gasquoine, 145 
Gatdiffe, Rev. John, 117, 119 
Gaulter, J. W., 65, 71 

„ Rev. John, 65, 151 
Gazette^ Manchtster, 277 
Gearey and Home, 10 1 
George and Dragon, 66^ 82 

,, Street, 10 
Gentlemen's Glee Club, 297 
Germon, Rev. N., 122, 257 
Gibb, Wm., 93 
Gibson, Rev. N. W., 118 
Gillow, Rev. Henry, 38, 189, 190 
**Gimcrackiana," 43, 82, 83 
Gladstone, W. £., 22 
Glasgow, 236 
Gleave, Joseph, 2, 83 
Glee Club, 297 
Goadsby, Francis, (53 
Goodall, Ed., 91, 144, 333 
Goodier, 185 
Goodwin, S., 133 



INDEX. 



343 



Gore, Rev. W., 171 


Hadfield, John, 30 


Gorton Chapel, 178 


Hadley, Bob, 218 


Gough, John, 260, 264 


Haigh, Job, 112 


Government of Town, 235 


Hale & Roworth, 85 


Grafton, F. W., M.P., 136 


Hall, Rev. Sam, 122 


Granby Row Chapel, 190 


,, Mrs. Frances, 257 


Grant, Daniel, 10, 35, 39, 256 


,, James, 184, 267 
„ John, 173 


„ William and Bros., 35 


Gravel I^ne Chapel, 161 


„ Piatt, 177 


Gray, Luke, 165 


,, Strangeways, 134 


Greaves, Ed., 271 


Halle's Concerts, 308 


„ John, J96 


Halley, Rev. Dr., 129, 131 


„ George, 19 


Halliwell, John, 258 


Hugh, 19, 154 


Hamilton, Rev. Dr., 140 


Greenwood, John, 108 


„ Gavin, 54 


„ M 284 


Hampson, John, 282 


„ Turner, & Clough, 109 


R., 132 


Greg, R. H., 175, 269 


Hanging, 310 
Hanley, William, 292 


Gregory, 298 


„ Rev. B., 147 


Hannah, Rev. Dr., 167 


Gr^;son, J. S., 43, 82 


Harbottle, Thomas, 136, 137, 238 


Greswell, Ch., 51 


Hardman, Thomas, 255 


„ Rev.W. P., 51 


,, Street, 12 


Griffin, Rev. James, 143 


Hardy, Joseph, 165 


Griffiths, John, 133 


Hargreaves, R. H., 64, 67 
Harland, Dr., 50 


Grindrod, 54 


„ Rev. Edmund, 151 


John, 287 


Grosvenor Place, 12 


Harper, 301, 305 


Grosvenor-st. Chapel, (Indep.), 131 


Harris, Rev. Dr., 140 


„ (Weshi.), 164 


Harrison, Rev. Ralph, 171 
„ „ Wiliam,i79 


Grundy, C.S., 176 


„ George, 1 66 


,, Thomas, 94 


„ Rev. John, 172 


„ John, 154 
„ Mary, 259 


„ & Fox, 97 


Guard of Mail, 212 


}, ,» & Co., 100 


„ Telegraph, 212 


WUliam, 267 


,, Lord Nelson, 219 


Harrop, Joseph, 277 


Guard's Fees, 215 


„ James, 202 


Guardian^ Manchester, 377, 282, 


Hats, 316 


286, 291 


Hatton, William, 74 


Guardian Officcy 5 


Haughton, Rev. — , 17JI 
Hawks, Rev. Ed., 259 


Guest, W. E., 250, 268 


„ Rev. W. B., 257 


Hawkes, Rev. William, 175 


Guest's Mill, 238 


Hawkshaw, Sir John, 145 


Gwyther, Rev. James, 144 


Haworth, John, 9 
,, Richard, 162 




Hackney Coaches, 245 

Hadfield, George, 84, 137, 143, 


Haymarket, 274 


Haynes, William, 236 


198, 254 


Hayward's Hotel, 256, 297 



344 



INDEX. 



Heap, 70, 122, 332 


Hoole, Rev. — , 147 


Hearae, Rev. Daniel, 38, 189, 190 


Hordem, Rev. Peter, 123, 255,. 


Heaton Park Races, 310 


257, 266 


Hedley, Atkinson & Co., 35 


Home, Rev. Melville, 124, 255 


Heelis, Stephen, 195 


Horrocks, 293 


Helsby, 59 


Horte, Rev. C. D., 178 


Henry, Alexander, M.P., 173 


Hospital Sunday (1792), 249 


„ Dr., 6, 175, 249, 262, 265, 


„ St Mary's, 250 


266, 269 


„ Lying In, 250 


„ Thomas, 260* 261 


„ Lock, 252 


Henry's Magnesia, 262 


Hotel, Mitre, 268 


Henson, Robert, 158, 165 


„ Spread Eagle, 274 


Hepworth, Rev. A., 124, 254 


Hough End Hall, 275 


Herald, The, 277 


Houldsworth, Thomas, 8, 309 


Herford, Rev. Brooke, 176 


„ Henry, 175 


Heron, J. H., 136, 254 


Howarth, Rev. D., 194 


„ Sir Joseph, 136 


Howe, Wm., 269 


Herschel, Sir William, 152 


Hoyle, Lucy, 93 


Hesketh, 95 


„ Thos., 184, 267 


Heurtley, 54 


„ & Son, 31, 40 


Hewley, Lady, 84 


Hughes, 63 


Hey hurst, 166 


„ Moses, 103, 142, 298 


Heywood, Abel, 173 


„ Thos., 132 


„ Benjamin, M.P., 1 73, 262 


Hull, Dr., 48 


„ James, 173 


„ John, 154 


High Street, 17 


Hulme, 12 


Higson, Bagshaw, & Co., 200 


Hulme, Dr. D., 48, 249, 258, 26^ 


Hill, 7 


„ Otho & Sons, 35 


„ William & John, 92, 160 


„ Joseph, M.P., 271 
J. H., 14s 


Hime & Hargreaves, 92 


Hinde's Charity, 113 


Humphreys, Geo., 175 


Hindley, Robert, 76, 266, 269 


Hunt, R. T., 50 


Hindmarsh, Rev. — ,194 


„ Hy., 194, 274, 312 


History of England, 278 


Hunter, Thos., 137 


Holland, F. W., 177 


Hunter's T^ane, 128 


HoUingworth, Rev. R., 128 


Huntingdon, Rev.W., 120 


Holme, Dr., 48, 173, 262, 264, 266, 


Huskisson, 230 


269, 273 


Hyde,Jas., 103 


Holt, David, 7, 185, 269 




„ John, 133 


Ince, John, 132 


Holy Club, 147 


Independent Chapels, 10, 128 


Hopkins, Thomas, 236, 270 


India Rubber Goods, 318, 321 


Hopkinsons, The, 143 


Infirmary, 9, 247 


Hopper, Rev. C, 148 


Baths, 9, 249 


Hopps, Ann and John, 5, 86 


Ingham & Westmacott, 61 


Hopwood Avenue, 288 


Inglescent, Tom, 299 


Hook, Rev. Dr., 127 


Insecurity of Roads, 18 


Hookers-In, 43, 44 


Inspectors of White Meats, 240 



INDEX. 



345 



Institutions, Charitable, 247 
Institution, Mechanics', 265, 270 
„ „ New, 270 

,, Royal, 269 

Instramentalists, Musical Fest., 300 
Inventions, Scientific, 319 
Ireland, Alex. & Co., 289 
/rtj. The, 281 
Irwell, 14 

„ Street Chapel, 157 
Isherwood, 297 
Ivanoif, 300 

Jack, Rev. Dr., 188 
Jackson, Rev. E. Dudley, 126, 333 
„ „ Thomas, 151 

„ E. & J., 20 
„ Stanway, 143 
' „ Watson, & Greg, 37 
Jackson's Lane, 12 

„ „ Chapel, 144 

Jacobin Mob, 171 
ames. Rev. John, 215 
>> »» J» A,., 140 

Jarrold, Dr., 49, 136 
ay. Rev. William, 140 
Jennison, 308 
Jesse, John, 54 
Jewish Immigrants, 191 
„ Synagogue, 191 
Jewsbury & Whitlow, 6, 64, 65 
„ Miss G., 65, 333 
„ „ M. J., 65, 134 

[oachim, Herr, 298 
[ohn Dalton Street, 12 
[ohns. Rev. William, 107, 263 
[ohnson, Ann, 225 
„ Fynney, 160 
,, James, 198 
„ Rev. John, 257 
,, „ William, 124 

„ Richard, 198 
,, Sam, 88 

William, 258 
„ William, 186 
„ W. R., 155, 165 

Johnson & Rawson, 80 
oUie, Rev. Timothy, 171 
"Jolly Carters," 309 



>» 



>) 









Jones, Charles, 204 

Paul, 157 

Samuel, 174, 179 

W. H., 89 

Rev. William, 157 
Jordan, Joseph, 50, 268 

„ Mrs., 75 
Joule, Benjamin, and Family, 99, 

133, 254 
Jubilee (George III.), 257 

Kay, Alex., 173, 198 

Dr.J. P., 55, 136 

John Robinson, i 

Samuel, 173 

Thomas, i 

& Darbyshire, 2CX> 
Kean (Elder), 222 
Keeling, Rev. William, 121 
Keighley, 271 
Kelly, David, 88, 332 
Kemble, Charles, 75, 313 

„ John, 156 
Kennedy, John, 175 

„ Rev. — , 134 
Kenworthy & Co., 223 

„ Peter, 150 

Kenyon, Lord, 255 
Kersall Moor, 308 
Kershaw, James, M.P., 9, 17, 133, 

139 

„ Thomas, 279 

Kidd, Rev. W., 126, 333 
Kidson, Joseph, 7 
Kinchin, Ch., 147 
King, Aid., 183 

John, loi, 184 
Street, 13 
„ Lower, 12 
King's Birthday, 220 
Kirkpatrick, Rev. Cleland, 157 
Knowles, John, 4, 21 1 
„ Thomas, 203 
Knutsford, 261 
Knyvett, Mrs., 300 

Lablache, 300, 302, 304 
Labreys, The, 94, 185, 236 
Lacey, Hy. Ch.) 2, 210, 240, 241 



)> 



*> 



»t 



346 



INDEX. 






Lacye, Sir John, 275 
Ladies* Dress, 318 
Lamb, James, 137, 139 

„ W. H., 60 

,, Imi, 292 
Lamp Committee, 236 
Lancaster, 284, 285 
„ John, 96 
Land, Price of, 68 
Lane (Architect), 182 

„ Hunters, 128 
Lathom, John, 136 
Lavender, Stephen, 237, 240 
Law, John, 7, 200^ 329 
Lawyers, 195 

Lee, Daniel, & Co., 11, 19 
John, 259 
W. & R., 131 
Street Chapel, 146 
Leech, James, 243 
Lees, Jonathan, 132 
Leese, Joseph; 17 

„ Kershaw, & Callender, 17 
Legal Hundred, 159 
Legh, of Lyme, 34 
L*HirondeUe Coach, 218 
Leigh, Jolm, 81, 281 

„ Silas, 180 
Leresche, Mrs., 74, 282 
Lessey, John, 66 

„ Rev. Theoph., 68 
Letter Carriers, 204 
Letters, Double, 206 

, , Delivery of, 207 
Lewis, Edward, 133 
Liberals, Manchester, no, 279 
Libraries, Public, 273 
Library, Free, 113 
Liefchild, Rev. Dr., 140 
" Light of other Days," 302 
Light, Striking a, 320 
Lignum, Dr., 57, 254 
Lindley, William, 301, 304 
Lingaixi, Rev. Joshua, 127 
Literary and Philosophical Society, 

48, 173, 260 
Liverpool Coaches, 214 
Livingstone, 132 



Lloyd, Ed. Jeremiah, 195, 269 

„ George, 279 

„ Rev. E. B., 215 

„ Street Chapel, 188 
Lock Hospital, 252 
Loftus, Sarah, 250 
Logerian System of Music, 103 
Lomas, Rev. John, 152 

„ Jno. and Geo., 165 
Lomax, 275 
London, Bishop of, 311 
Longevity, 8, 120 
Lord, Rev. Wm,, 254 
Lovatt, 3 
Love and Barton, 85 

„ Benj., 85 
Loyd, Rev. Lewis, 178 . 

,, Ed., 256, 266 
Lubbock, Sir John, 123 
Lucifer Matches, 320 
Lunatic Asylum, 248 
Lyine;-in Hospital, 250 
Lynch, Daniel, 6, 60, 249 
Lyndhurst, Lord, 96 
Lyons, Dr., 49, 249 

M*A11, Rev. R. S., 10, ii, 134, 136. 1 

254 
„ „ Death of, 141 

„ „ and Long Sermons, 

141. 143 

M'Connell, Henry and John, 175 

Macardy, Joseph, 281 

Macfadyen, Rev. J. A., 131 

Machin, 300 

Mackie, Ivie, 173 

Mackintosh Garments, 321 

Maclure, 18, 145, 164, 254, 266 

Macready, 75, 312 

Mad Tom, 304 

Maddocks, Rev — ., 189 

Maden, Mrs., 56 

Magistrates, 196, 240 

Mail, The, 280 

Mail Coaches, 211, 212 

Mails, English and Foreign, 207 

Makinson, John, 198 

Malbon, 261 



INDEX. 



347 



Malibran, 300 

„ Death of, 303 
Mallory, Rev. J. H., 117 
Malones, Thej 298 
Manchester Negatively, 113 
Academy, 261 
First Election, 122 
Chronicle, 278 
CouHer, 277, 281, 290 
Examiner ^ Times, 289 
Guardian, 277,282,286, 

291 
Journal, 278 
Magazine, 278, 281 
Times, 287, 288, 289 

„ and Gazette, 288 
and Salford Advertiser, 
74, 282 
Manor Court Room, 7, 274 
„ of Manchester, 275 
Map of Manchester, 272 
Marcet, Mrs., 314 
^*Marienboum" (Tune), 155 
Markets, 273 
Market, Com, 274 

Cross Lane, 273 
Fish, 274 
Hay, 274 
Lookers, 240 
Manchester (1829), I 
Potato, 274 
Smithfield, 273 
Smithy Door, 274 
Street, 2 

„ Improvement, 5 
Tolls, 274 
Marris, Son, & Jackson, 20 
„ J. M., 266 
„ Francis, 164, 165 . 
Marsden Square, 19 
Tonn, 165 

Rev. Geo., 122, 151, 164 
„ „ Wm., 122 

Maursland John, 166 
„ Joseph, 74. 
„ Henry and Samuel, 173 
Martindale, Rev. Miles, 151 
Martinean, Miss, 314 



»> 

» 
»♦ 

» 






" Martyr of Antioch," 298 
Mason, John, 166 
Massey, James, 260 

„ Joseph, 247, 248 
Matches, 320 
Matley, S., & Son, 40 
Maude, Fr., 273 
May Day and Coaches, 220 
Meanley, Rev. — ,178 
Mechanics' Institution, 265, 270 
Medical Institutions, 247 
Meeting House, Friends', 181 
Melland, 143 
Mellor, 292 

Mendel, Emmanuel, 4, 191, 236 
Mercantile Gazette, 280 
Mercury, The, 277, 279 
Meredith, Charles, 93 
Merone, Joseph, 97 
Merrick/josiah, 185 
Merry, Thomas, 258 
"Messiah," Handel's, 301, 304 
Methodism, Origin of, 147 

„ and the Theatre, 311 

Methodist, First Preaching-room, 

148 
Methodist, First Society, 148 
Middleton, Robert, 64 
Midwood, Joseph, 137 
M'Kerrow, Dr., 188, 189 
M'Keand, 309 
Miller, Horatio, 30, 72, 73, 76, 92, 

297, 299, 304, 313, 323, 324 
„ Rev. Wm. Ed., 152 

Millward, 155 

Milnes, The, 196, 197 

Mise Layers, 240 

Mitchell, Dr., 47, 49, 249 

Mitre Hotel, 14, 268 

Mob, Church and King, no, 280 

Mof&tt, Rev. Robert, 132 

Molineaux, James, 250 

Monton Chapel, 179 

Moore, 314 

„ John, 266 

Mordacque, M., 102 

Mori, 301 

Morris, 5 



348 



INDEX. 









>> 



>> 



Morris, Alex., 185 
James, 154 
John, 159, 269 
„ Wm., 102 
Mosley Arms, 7 

Street, 9, 10 

Independent Chapel, 

10, 135 
Unitarian Chapel, 10, 

175 
John, 150 

Sir Oswald, 266, 269, 272, . 

275 

Sir N., 27s 

Moss Side, 12 

„ Fletcher, 95 

„ Joseph, 259 
Mottershead, John, 62 

„ Rev. Joseph, 62, 171 

„ & Brown, 62, 254 

Mountcastle, 6 
Mowbray, 266 
Mozart's ** Requiem," 300 
Mulberry Street, 38 
Mullis, Wm., 257 
Murdoch, 242 
Murphy, P. J., 259 
Murray, 150 
Music, 297, 308 

„ Halls, 308 
' „ Sacred, 190 
Musical Festival, 298, 300, 306 

Nadin, Joe, 86, 237 
„ T. & J., 196 
Napier, John, 164, 165, 168 
Nash, Ishmael, 184 
Natural History Society, 266, 269 
Neckties, 24,317 
Needham, J. C., 49, 104 

„ Robt., 104 
Neild, Aid., 184, 236 

„ Hy., 185 

„ Isaac, 185 
Nelson, Lord, The, 217 
Neruda, N., 298 
Newall. Wm., 3, 96, 136, 254 
Newall's Buildmgs, 3 



New Brown Street, 5, 21 

Newcome, Rev. Hy., 128, 170 

Newspapers, 276 

,, London, 204 

,, and Post Office, 204 

,, Tax on, 277 

Newton, Rev. John, 129 

„ „ Robert, 151, 155,160 

" Nicholas Nickleby," 36 

NichoUs Humphrey, 1 18 

Nicholson, 301 

Nield, Henry, 250 

Nodal, James, Aaron, & John, 185 

Norris, 133 

„ James, 195 

Northern Expressy 281 

Northumbrian Engine, 229 

Norwich Union Office, 7 

Nosworthy, Frederick, 183 

Notable Persons, 105 

Noton, T. S., 240 

Novello, Clara, 300 

Numbering of Streets, 2 

Nunn, Rev. William, 123, 254 

Nuttall, John, 225 

Observer^ The, 86, 281 

O'Connor, 312 

Odd Fellows' Society, 258 

Oddie, James, 150 

Officers, Municipal, 240, 241 

Officials, Curious, 235 

„ Police, 238 
Ogden, Robert, 9 
Old Bridge, 14 

„ Church, 116, 300 

„ Coachman, 216 

„ Meal House, 292 

,, Quay Company, 40 
Oldfield Lane Doctor, 55 
Oldfield Ben, 313 
Oldham, Adam, 149 

Street Chapel, 121, 136, 

150. 155 
Street Chapel Orchestra, 

155 
Olivant, 254 

Oliver, 150 



>> 



>> 



INDEX, 



349 



.u^ 



(T- 



Opposition Coaches, 216 
"Original, The," ill 
Otley, 286 

Overstone, Lord, 174, 179 
Owen, Rev. Henry, 122 

„ John, 200, 266 

„ Mrs., 256 
Owens, John, 141, 142, 174 
Oxford Road, 10, 1 1 

I, „ Chapel, 166 



Paganini, 298 

Tavern, 299 
Palace Inn, 4 
Palmer, John, 190 

„ Thomas, 102 
Paris, Prosper, 102 
Parish Clerk, 118 
Parker Stjreet, 10 
Parkinson, Alex., 293 

„ Rev. Dr., 1 27 

Parks, Public, 113 
Parliament Street, 12 
Parry, James, 39 

„ Jno., 143 

„ Thomas, 118 
Parsons, Rev. James, 140 
Passage Boats, 223 
Patrick, James, 89 
Patriot, The, 281 
Paulton, Abraham Walter, 289 
Paving Committee, 236 
Peacock, H. B., 72, 289, 290 
George, 159 
Michael, 254 
Richard, 178 
„ Coach Office, 4, 211 
Pearson, Benjamin, 184 
Pedley, Rev. James, 121 
Peduzzi, Antony and James, 97, 98 
Peel, Sir Robert, 32, 37 

„ Yates, & Co., 32 

„ Williams, & Peel, 102 

„ Park, 103 
Peel's Act, 126, ^27 

„ Warehouse, 33 
Penketh's 'Bus, 108 
Percival, Dr., 260 












Perkins, Geo., loi 
„ John, 258 
Perth, Duke of, 274 
Peter Street, 10, 1 1 
Peterloo Meeting, 286 
" Peveril of Peak," 213, 216 
Pharmacopoeia, 57 
Philanthropic Society, 256 
PhUips, J. and N. & Co., 22 

Mark, M.P., 22, 180, 236 
Robert, 180 
R. N., M.P., 173, 180 
Phillips, Aldcroft, 200 

George, 272,279, 3CX), 302 
Francis, 269 
„ and Lee, 242 
Photography, 321 
Physicians, 47 

„ to Infirmary, 249 
Piccadaiy, 8 
Piccope, Rev. J., 119 
Pickford's, 10, 223, 226 

„ Van Office, 19 
Pigot, James, 79, 236 
Pilkington, George, 99, lOO 
Pipe, Rev. John, 151 
Pitt, J. W., 102 
Places of Worship, 115 
Plate Glass Windows, 6 
Piatt, 301 

„ Chapel, 176 
Pochin, 332 

Police Commissioners, 236 
„ Court, 113 
„ Districts, 235 
Pollard, Wm., 154 
Pool Fold, 5 
Pope, Henry, 137 

„ Samuel, Q.C., 137 
Porter, S. T., 133 
Portico, 10, 177, 273, 305 
Portland Place, 8 

„ Street, 10 
Post Office, 202, 203, 204, 205, 330 
„ Old, 108 

„ and Newspapers, 204 

Postage, Penny, 208 
Posting, 221 



350 



INDEX. 



Potato Famine, 190 
,, Market, 274 

Pot Shrigley, 34 

Potter, C.& E., 35, 175 

Potter, Richard, 1 1, 20, 134, 173, 2^ 
„ Sir John, 20, 173 
„ Thos., 20, 173, 179, 271 
„ „ (Solicitor), 199 

„ „ & Richd., 20, 254 

„ T. B., 20, 173 

Potters & Norris, 20 

Pounder, 241 

Powers, John, 132 

Powell, Robt., 132 

Pownall, John, 4 

Pratt, Joseph, 89, 281 

Prentice, Archibald, 287, 288, 290 

Presbyterian Chapel, 188 

Prescott, John, 279 

Prescott's yburnal, 278 

Preston, Geo., 311 

Pretty, 212 

Price, Bulkeley, 231 
„ Murder of, 19 

Priddie, Rev. James, 145 

Priestley, 129 

Prince Charles, 5, 278 
,, Samuel, 2, 96, 255 

Princess Victoria, 304 

Pringle, Sir John, 262 

Prints, Duty on, 27 

Printed Velvets, 37 

Procter, Daniel, 137 

" Prophet, VeUed," 282 

Quaife, Rev. Barzillai, 137 
Quakers* Chapel, 53, 181 
Quarter Sessions, 284 
Queen's Visit, 103 
Queues, 13, 317 

Races, 308, 310 

Radford, Dr., 49, 251, 264, 268, 323 
Raffles, Rev. Dr., 140, 141 
Railway Carriages, 234 

„ Fumess, 105 

„ M. and L., Opening, 2^27 
Raleigh, 184 



Ramsbottom, 109 
Ramsden, Fredk., 24 
Ramsey, Charles, 37 
„ Joseph, 137 
Randall, Rev. M., 117 
Ransome, J. A,, 51, 184, .231, 249, 

266, 268, 269 
Ransome & Co., 65 
Rawson, Benjamin, 70 
„ Henry, 289 
„ Jonathan, 292 
Rea, Joshua, 165 
Recorder^ The, 281 
Redfem, James, 155 
Red Lion, 292 

„ Rover, 4, 71, 213 
Refreshment Stall, Anti-Com-Law 

Bazaar, 314 
Reform Bill, 222 
Regent Road Toll Bar, 1% 
Reid, William, 293 
Reiss, Leopold, 175 
Religious Tract Society, 84, 255 
Renn & Boston, 102 
Restaurant, Bee Hive, 83 
Rexford, Dolly, 112 
Reynolds, Charles, 204 
Richardson, Joe, iii 
„ Joseph, 102 

„ John, 87 

„ & Roebuck, 96 

Richmond, T. G., 323, 324 
Rickards, 284 
Ridehalgh, Mrs., 57 
Rider, C, 236, 255 
Rigg, Rev. Dr., 152 
„ „ John, 151 
Rimmington, Rev. Richard, 117 
Ring o' Bells, 14 
Riots, 34, 237 

„ Bread, 95 
Rippon, C. W,, 151 . 
Robberds, Rev. J. G., 172 
Roberton, John, 50, 136 
Roberts, Ben, 53 * 

John, 8, S3, 81, 154, 158 
Richard, 136 
Thomas, 62, 137 






INDEX, 



351 



Roberts, Dale & Co., 63, 68 
Robins, Mills, & Co., 223 
Robinson, George, 184 

„ John (Accountant), 185 
„ „ (Draper), 185 

„ Robert, 87 
„ Thomas, 173 
„ & Ellis, 285 
Roby, Rev. Wm., 130, 131, 255 

„ „ „ Death, 134 
Rogers, 314 
Rogerson, Thos., 281 
Roman Catholic Chapels, 189 
Ronchetti, Joshua, 98 
„ Miss, 333 
Rookes, The, 184 
Rose, Micah, 154 
Rothschild, 191 
Rothsay Castle, 225 
Rothwell, 185 
Rowarth, Thomas, 85, 333 
Rowbotham, J. F., 168 
Royal Hotel, 2, 267 

„ „ Coach Office, 211 

„ Institution, 10, 269 
Royle, John, 82 
Ruffles, 317 

Rules of Building Society, 293-296 
Rumney, Alderman, 133 
Rusholme Road Chapel, 143 
Russell, 84, 168, 290 
Rutter, J. S., 196 
Rylands, John, 22, 285 
„ and Sons, 23 
Rymer, 133 

Salisbury, Marquis of, 231 
Salutation Tavern, 292 
Samaritan Society, 256 
Sandal Shoes, 319 
Sandbach, Daniel, 162 

„ John, 166 

Sergeant, Rev. Osw., 127 

„ Milne & Co., 196 
Sargent, Rev. Geo., 215 
Satterfield & Co., 91 
Satterthwaite, S. & M., 184, 185 
Saturday. Half Holiday, 46, z 13, 308 



Saul, Edward, 74 

Savings Bank, 19 

Scarlett, 284 

Scarr, R., 255 

Scarr, Petty, and Swain, 10 1 

Scavingers, 241 

Schofield & Tumbull, 278 

„ Rev. James, 55, 193 
Scholes, Tetlow, & Co. , 20 
School, Blue Coat, 257 

Catholic, 259 

Collegiate Church Charity, 
258 

Deaf and Dumb, 258 

Friends' Female, 259 

Grammar, 257 

Granby Row, 258 

Ladies' Jubilee, 257 

Lancasterian, 258 

of Medicine, 268 

National, 258 

New Jerusalem, 258 

St. John's, 259 

St Mark's, 259 

Unitarian, 259 

Workhouse, 259 
Schuster, Leo, 10, 175 
Scientific Inventions, 319, 321 
Scott, Jerry, 214 

„ Joe, 44 
Searchers of Leather, 241 
Secession, Quakers', 186 
Seddon, iii 
Seddon, Rev. — ,171 
Sedgwick & Co., 155 
Sedgwick's Court, 77 
Sever, Charles, 89 
Severn Warehouse, 224 
Sewell, 162 

"Shakespeare's Head," 278 
Shambles, 7, 12, 274 
Sharp, 303 

„ Alderman, 137 
Sharpe, Roberts, & (5o., 93 
Shaw, Mrs., 300 

„ Rev. E. B., 126 
Shaw's, John, 14, 267 
Shaving, 316 






»» 

»> 

»> 



352 



INDEX. 



Sheldon, Stephen & Hugh, 133 
Sheldrick, 298 
Sherwood, Rev. Joseph, 189 
Shim well, Isaac, 133 

„ Thomas, 137 
Shirt Ruffles, 317 
Shude Hill Pits, 163 
Shuttleworth-Kay, Sir J., 136 

M U., 55 

Shuttleworth, John, 174 
Sidebotham, 133, 139 
Sigley, 64 

Silkstone, Wm., 166 
Simmons, W., 249 
Simms, Geo., 88 
Simon, Rev. Ed., 144 
Simpson, Geo., 185 

Slaggs, The, 21, 333 

Slater, 196 

Sloane, Jno., 311 

Slugg, Rev. Thos., 159, 164 

Smart, Sir Geo., 301 

Smith, Hill, & Co., 92 

,, Charles, 25 J 

„ Rev. Dr., 118, 122, 257 

„ „ Joseph, 132, 134 

,, „ John, 190 

„ J. B., M.P., 173 

„ Dr. Pye, 314 
Smithfield Market, 273 
Smithson, Rev. J. H., 194 
Smithy Door, 13, 274 
Smock Frocks, 225 
Smoking, 319 
Sncll, Bryce, & Co., 223 
Smyth, Rev. Edward, 123, 124 
Society, Agricultural, 267 

„ Bible, 253 
Botanical, 266 
Building, 292 

„ Christian Knowledge, 255 

„ Commercial Clerks, 257 
Female Servants, 256 
Floral & Horticultural, 267 
of Friends, 283 
Humane, 256 [260 

., Literary and Philosophical, 






>» 
»» 



»» 



n 



Society, Natural History, 265, 269 

„ Philanthropic, 256 

„ Prosecution of Felons, 267 

„ Samaritan, 256 

„ Stranger's Friend, 256 

„ Tract, 255 
Soda Water, 71 
Soldiers, Accident to, 15 
Solomon's Balm of Gilead, 280 
Solicitors, 195 
Somerset Street, 22 
Southam, Geo., 96 
Southport Coach, 220 
Sowler, Thomas, 84, 241, 285, 290, 

„ and Russell, 290 [291 

Spectator, The 281 
Spectroscope, 322 
Spread Eagle, 274 
Squance, Rev. T., 159 
St. Andrew's Lane, 130 
St. Ann's Street, 13 
St. Mary's Hospital, 250 
St. Mary's Church Spire, 119 
St. Peter's Field, 11 
Stage Coaches, 209 
Staines, Thomas, 62 

„ and Mottershead, 62 
Stamford and Warrington, E^rl of, 

266 
Stand Chapel, 180 
Stanway, J. H., 266 
Star Coach Office, 12 
„ Yard, 12 
Stations, Wayside, 233 
Stead, Rev. Abraham, 152 
Steamships, 322 
Steemson, Mrs. S., 266 
Stephens, Rev. John, 151, 164 

„ W. R., 151 
Stevenson, Isaac, 184 
Stevens, Rev. W., 187 
Stobv, William, loi 
Stocks, John, 69 

„ & Dentith, 64, 70 

„ Samuel, 155, 165 
Stockdale versus Hansard, 26 
Storey, John, 186 
Stowell, Rev. Hugh, 124, 255 



INDEX. 



353 



ft 



»* 



>f 



» » 



Strangeways, 14 
Stretford Road, 12, 15 
Strettles, Rev. T. B., 193 
Strines Printing Co., 38 
Strutt, W. & J., 174 
Stubbs, J. S., loi 
Sudlow, William, 103 
Suffield, 266 
Sumner, Dr. J. B., 117 
,, Rev. John, 167 
,, Thomas, 204 
Sun Fire Office, 19 
Sunday School, First, 96 

in Whit-week, 308 
Scholars in Peel 
Park, 103 
Surgeons, 47 
Swan Coach Office, 4, 210 

„ Street Chapel, 163 
Swain, Charles, 73, 87 

,, and Dewhurst, 87 
Swearing, 319 
Swedenborg, 192 
Swell Mob, 301 
Swindells, John, 89 

,, Thomas, 155 

Syddall, Thomas, 171 
Synagogue, 191 

Talbot Inn, 7 

Tattersall's Bowling Green, 263 
Taylor (Coachman), 217 
& Gamett, 5, 283 
Rev. George, 145 
John, 283 

John J., 10, 175, 262 
James, 178 
Edward, 55 
John, 186 
John Ed., 173, 186, 236, 283 

„ „ Lawsuit, 284 
Peter, 184 
„ Thos. H., 62 
„ William, 293 
Tax on Newspapers, 277 
Telegraph, 280, 321 
Temperance Building Society, 293 
Thatched House Tavern, 268 



» 



J? 












Theatre, First, 310 
Minor, 311 
Royal, II, 298,300, 305, 

Thistlewaite, John, 185 

„ Rev. Wm., 254 

Thistle wood, 236 
Thomas, J. S., 237, 301 
Thomason, Nicholas, 251 
Thompstone, — ,71 
Thompson, Aid. Joseph, 141, 142 
E., 255 
Geo., 183 
Jas. (spinner), 185 
Joseph, senr., 139, 144 
M'Kay & Co., 224 
Thompson's, Jas., Wedding, 144 

,, Boarding House, no 

Thomson, — , 268 

„ Eb. & Sons, 78 
„ Jas. & Jos., 79 
Thomley Brow, 128 
Thorpe, Jno. & Robt., 51, 249 
,, Ellen and Anne, 69 
,, Issachar, 69 
Tickets, Railway, 233 
Times, London. 288 

„ Manchester, 277, 287, 289 
Tinder Box, 320 
Tinker's Gardens, 307 
Tippoo Sahib's violin, 152 
Tobacco, Use of, 319 
Tobacconists, 3 
Toll Bars, 15 
„ Lane, 13 
Tonics, Use of, $8 
Touchet, J., 173 
Town Clerk, 113 

,, Government, 235 
Townend, Thomas, 165 
„ William, 269 
Townley, Rev. J., 159 
Townsend, James, 66 
Townsman, The 280 
Trafford, T. J., 266 
Trains, Liverpool, 232 
Trapps, Rev. M., 190 
Trousers, 317 



354 



INDEX. 



Trueman's Warehouse, io8 


Warren, Rev. Dr., 3, 70, 96 


Tudor, Elizabeth, 259 


*• Warrington" (Tune), 179 


Turner, R., Junr., & Co., 33 


Watch Committee, 236 


„ Thomas, 8, 48, 52, 258, 


Watchmen, 239 


264, 266, 268 


Water, 244 


Turner, Rev. W., 172 


Waterhouse, Henry, 143, 185 


„ Wm., 34. 276 


Waterworks, 7,244 


„ W. A., 173 


Watkins, Alderman, 43 


Turner's, Miss, Abduction, 34 


,, Abs., 20, 174 


Twiss' Mill, 238 


„ Sir Edward, 20 


• ^^ 


Watkinson, Henry, 64 


Unicom Inn, 14, 267 


Watmough, 216, 218 


Union Inn, 293 


Watson, Bishop, 260 


Unitarian Chapels, 10, 170 


„ Jemmy, 280 


Unite, Constable, 280 


„ Peter, 236 


Upcrs^ft, Rev. Thomas, 187 


„ Rev. R., 164, 167 




Watts, Alaric A., 291 


Various Chapels, 181 


„ S.&J., 21, 130 


Varley, 100 


Waybills, 214 


„ Edward, loi 


Weatherald, Webster, & Co., 4, 210 


Vaughan, George, 64 


Weatherley, 4, 80 


William, 258 


Webb & Simms, 88 


Velvets, Printed, 37 


Wesley, Chas., 148 


Vembergue, Eugene, 103 


„ John, 53, 147, 150, 182 


Victoria, Princess, 304 


„ „ on Bonnets, 318 


„ Street and Bridge, 13 


Wesleyan Tract Society, 255 


"Victory" Coach, 219 


„ Missionary Society, 136 


" Voice of the People^" The, 282 


„ Chapels, 147 




Westhead, Edward, 18, 165 


Wadkin, 185, 255 


„ Jno., 165 


Wagons, 225 


,, J. Procter, ii\ 


Wakefield, Rev. Gilbert, 260 


Westmacott, 61 


„ Edward Gibbon, 34 


Wetherell, Sir Charles, 97 


Walker, C. J. S., no, 317 


Whaite, Henry, 93 


„ John, 195 


Whalley, Stephen, 281 


„ Thomas, IIO, 279, 280 


Whatton, 231 


Warburton, 136 


Wheeler, Chas. k John, 282, 286 


Ward, Dr., 47, 49 


„ Serjeant, 282 


„ Joseph, 145 
„ Miss, 54 


Wheelton, 25, 26 

,, Brewer, & Buckland, 25 


„ and Andrews, 103 


White Bear, 313 


Wardle, Mark, 89 


White, Charles, 247, 260 


Warehouses, Manchester, 16 


„ Henry Kirke, 124 


Warhurst, Rev. C, 128, 129 


„ Ned, 217 


Warre, Thomas de la, 116 


„ Rev. Jas.,124 


Warren, Dr., 262 


„ Wm., 185, 231 


„ Richard, 237 


Whitehead, John & Sons, 39 


„ Samuel and Edward, 3, 70 


„ Messrs., 238 



J 



INDEX. 



355 



Whitehead, Rev. — , 178 
"Whitehead, The " (vessel), 40 
Whitelegge, Rev. Wm., 177, 178, 

273 
Whitelock,Rev.R. H., 123, 202, 226 

Whitworth, Doctors, $6 

„ Sir Joseph, 137 

Whitworth's Manchester Gazette^ 278 

Wholesale Firms, 17 

Whyatt, George, 267 

Wigan, Rev. J., 128 

WUkins, Charles, 73 



Wilkinson, James, 155 

i, 89, 



»i 



281 



Thomas, 
„ Wm., 301 

Willat, 202 . 
Willert, 303 
Williams, Lewis, 133 
Williamson Professor, 199 

S. 7.T\ 
WUlis, William, 88 
Willman, 301 
Willock, R. P., 203 
Wilson, Edward, 204 

George, 29, 109 

Sam., 132 

William, 70 

W. J., 49, 51, 249 
Wilton, Earl of, 230, 255, 266, 310 
Wimpory, Jonathan, loi 
Windmill Tavern, 99 
Windows, Plate Glass, 6 
Windsor, John, 49, 51, 184, 186 

„ Bridge Chapel, 145 
Winter, Gilbert, 236 

„ Dr., 145 
Wintringham, Sir Charles, 262 
Wood, Baron, 284 

Bateson, 151, 199 

Charles, 199 

James, ii, 18, 165, \(^ 

Rev. James, 151, 199 






>9 



)» 



Wood, John, 164 
Kinder, 268 
George William, 106, 175, 

243, 262, 269, 272 
Rev. Robert, 157, 199 
Rose, 200 
William, 323 
& Wales, 17 
& Westhead, 17, 255 
& Wright, 136 
Woodall, R., 69 
Woodhead, Godfrey, 185 
Woodward, William, 136 
WooUey, James, 67 

„ Mrs. Thomas, 314 
„ William, 267 
Wordsworth, Rev. W., 118 
Worrall, John, 267 
Worship, Places of, 115 
Worsley, 177 
Worthington, — , 302 

Rev. J., 17a 
H. T., 250 
John, 186 
„ Thomas, 10, 18 

Wotton, Philip, 119 
Wray, Rev. C. D., 117, 118 
Wright & Lee, 19 
„ Ralph, 196 
„ Thomas P. P., 1 33 
Wroe, James, 86, 281 
Wylde, 76 

Yates, Mrs., 13 

„ Thomas, 13, 240, 317 
Yoimg, Chas. Murdo, 222, 276 
Young Men's Mutual Improvement 

Society, 139 

Zanetti, Vincent, & Vittore, 97 

„ & Agnew, 97 
Zoological Gardens, 307, 308 






JAMBS P. WILKINSON, PRINTER, THE GUTTENBBRG WORKS, PENDLETON ; 
AND AT 34, OXFORD STREET, MANCHESTEK. 



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